Presentation on theme: "2.2 WASH Hygiene promotion Water supply Excreta disposal"— Presentation transcript:
1Using the Minimum Standards in Water Supply, Sanitation & Hygiene Promotion (WASH) 2.2WASHHygiene promotionWater supplyExcreta disposalVector controlSolid waste managementDrainage
2WASH standard 1: WASH programme design and implementation “WASH needs of the affected population are met and users are involved in the design, management and maintenance of the facilities where appropriate.”MSF water and sanitation team (MSF photo)( please see page 89 of the 2011 Edition)
3Hygiene promotion standard 1: Hygiene promotion implementation “Affected men, women and children of all ages are aware of key public health risks and are mobilised to adopt measures to prevent the deterioration in hygienic conditions and to use and maintain the facilities provided.”UNICEF( please see page 91 of the 2011 Edition)
4Hygiene promotion standard 2: Identification and use of hygiene items “The disaster-affected population has access to and is involved in identifying and promoting the use of hygiene items to ensure personal hygiene, health, dignity and well-being .”ICRC photo( please see page 94 of the 2011 Edition)
5Water supply standard 1: access and water quantity “All people have safe and equitable access to a sufficient quantity of water for drinking, cooking and personal and domestic hygiene. Public water points are sufficiently close to households to enable use of the minimum water requirement.”Doctors Without Borders photo( please see page 97)
6Water supply standard 2: water quality “Water is palatable, and of sufficient quantity to be drunk and used for cooking and personal and domestic hygiene without causing risk to health.”( please see page 100)OXFAM photoQ. How many ways can you think of to measure this?
7Water supply standard 3: water facilities “People have adequate facilities to collect, store and use sufficient quantities of water for drinking, cooking and personal hygiene and to ensure that drinking water remains safe until it is consumed”Overland Solutions.com photo( please see page 103)Q. How many ways can you think of to measure this?
8Excreta disposal standard 1: Environment free from human faeces “The living environment in general and specifically the habitat, food production areas, public centres and surroundings of drinking water sources are free from human faecal contamination.”( please see page 105)Am. Red Cross photo - Brian HatchellQ. How many ways can you think of to measure this?
9Excreta disposal standard 2: Appropriate and adequate toilet facilities “People have adequate, appropriate and acceptable toilet facilities, sufficiently close to their dwellings, to allow rapid, safe and secure access at all times, day and night.”( please see page 107)American Red Cross photo - Brian HatchellQ. How many ways can you think of to measure this?
10Vector control standard 1: individual and family protection “All disaster-affected people have the knowledge and the means to protect themselves from disease and nuisance vectors that are likely to cause a significant risk to health or well-being.”Togolese Red Cross volunteers demonstrate how to properly use an insecticide-treated bednet - Canadian Red Cross photo by Marko Kokic( please see page 111)
11Vector control standard 2: physical, environmental and chemical protection measures “The environment where the disaster-affected people are placed does not expose them to disease-causing and nuisance vectors, and those vectors are kept to a reduced level where possible.”( please see page 114)
12Vector control standard 3: chemical control safety “Chemical vector control measures are carried out in a manner that ensures that staff, the disaster-affected population and the local environment are adequately protected, and that avoids creating resistance to the substances used.”larviciding photo from( please see page 116)
13Solid waste management standard 1: collection and disposal “The affected population has an environment not littered by solid waste, including medical waste, and has the means to dispose of their domestic waste conveniently and effectively.”
14Drainage standard 1: drainage work “People have an environment in which health risks and other risks posed by water erosion and standing water, including storm water, flood water, domestic wastewater and wastewater from medical facilities, are minimised.”( please see page 121)Photo from
15Visualizing the indicators… Hygiene Promotion:Key risks are identifiedProgrammes include mechanisms for participationAll groups have safe and equitable accessWASH staff communicate clearly and can answer community questionsThere is a system in place for maintenance and management( please see page 89 of the 2011 Edition)Q. How many hygiene promoters/community mobilisers should be provided in a camp situation?( page 93)
16 page 95) Visualizing the indicators… Hygiene Items:Everyone has access to hygiene items…(soap, water containers)Women and girls of menstruating age are provided with appropriate menstrual hygiene items based on consultations about appropriate materialsEveryone has access to information and training(250g/month page 95)( please see page 94 of the 2011 Edition)Q. How much soap should be provided per person in a camp situation?( page 95)
17Visualizing the indicators… WATER SUPPLY:Water Supply – average of 15 liters of water per person per dayThe maximum distance from any household to nearest water point is 500 metersQueuing time no more than 30 minutes( please see page 97 of the 2011 Edition)
18R = 500mThe maximum distance from any shelter to nearest water point is 500 metersThere is at least 1 water point for 250 people*( please see page 99 of the 2011 Edition)
19Water Supply - “average use is at least 15 liters of water per person per day” So… 20,000 people would need 20,000 X 15 liters = 300,000 liters per day. This amounts to a storage container of 300 cubic meters. That is to say a cube of water 6m x 7m x7m.
20300 cu. m. =… 10 X 30,000 liter bladder tanks or What does this mean for planning and programming?300 cu. m. =… 10 X 30,000 liter bladder tanks or30 X 10 m ton water tankers
21? What issues or questions must you investigate about this situation if you want to evaluate the project using the Sphere Project Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response?Children from Dos Puertas, El Salvador drawing water from newly installed tapstands. (Tank behind is 10,000 liter capacity.) Part of earthquake emergency response. Photo: Rachel Stabb/ OXFAM
22Oxfam type tanks - typical sizes, volumes Assuming these tanks can each be filled once daily, how many people can each tank support in an emergency camp? Assume working volume to be 90% of nominal volume.6.4 m2.5 m3.0 m2.3 m1.5 m2.3 m10,500 liters45,000 liters70,000 liters95,000 litersnominal storage capacities
23Some Sphere water quality indicators: No fecal coliforms per 100ml at delivery pointresidual free 0.5 mg per literturbidity below 5 NTUNo outbreaks of water-related disease( please see page 100 of the 2011 Edition)Q. What does all of that mean?
24E. coli are bacteria, full name is Escherichia Coli
25What in the world are Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU’s)? They are the units we use when we measure Turbidity. The term Nephelometric refers to the way the instrument estimates how light is scattered by suspended particulate material in the water. This measurement generally provides a very good correlation with the concentration of particles in the water that affect clarity.lake access.org/russ/turbidity.htm
26Comparative examples of effect of varying NTUs from different causes access.org/russ/turbidity.htm
27Some water use facilities indicators: 2 containers for water collection of liters each per household (narrow neck and or cover)1 water storage vessel of 20 liters per household (narrow neck and or cover)separate bathing cubicles for men and women (where communal)1 clothes washing basin per 100 people where communal (provide separate private laundering areas for women only)
28What’s right, What’s wrong? Why? CDC photoUNICEF photo: S. NooraniLocally available, 20-liter plastic jerry cans, used in A large-scale implementation project funded by the CARE/CDC Health Initiative that is being incorporated into CARE’s Programme MAHAVITAAfghan children collect water from a hand pump provided by UNICEF in the Naser Bagh refugee settlement in Peshawar, Pakistan.
29Emergency tanker, bladder tank, and tapstand Emergency tanker, bladder tank, and tapstand. What Sphere indicators would apply in the design, layout, purchasing or installation of these components?
30Some Sphere excreta disposal indicators: Environment is free from human faecesMaximum 20 people per toiletUse by households or segregated by sexNo more than 50m from dwellingsLatrines and soakaways (in most soils) are at least 30 meters away from any groundwater source, and bottom of pits at least 1.5 meters above water table.waterdot.org
31Explain this picture - what does it tell you? New Shamshatoo Camp, Peshawar, Pakistan, August, InterWorks photoIf there are 35,000 people in this camp, how many latrines are needed? Where do you put them in the camp?
32 Some layout and accessibility and vector control indicators Latrine Trash BinPer each 10 householdsCommunal Garbage Dump/Pit100 m1 – 2 km from malarial breeding sites2011 Sphere Edition
33Some Sphere solid waste indicators: All households have access to a refuse container and are no more than 100 meters from a communal refuse pit.One 100 liter refuse container is available for every 10 families, where domestic waste is not buried on site.InterWorks photo
34Some Sphere site drainage indicators: Areas around dwellings and water points are kept free of standing wastewater, and stormwater drains are kept clearShelters, paths and water and sanitation facilities are not flooded or eroded by waterKabul, Afghanistan, 2003 – InterWorks photo
35What’s right, what’s wrong, and why? Camp Hope, Albania, after rains of 22 June, 1999Boys at water tap stand, Albania
36Conclusions…. WASH Hygiene promotion Water supply Excreta disposal These standards and their supporting activities and indicators illustrate an integrated system of analysis of needs, provision of water, and management of waste that should be well-coordinated if public health is to be preserved. Each part supports and is supported by the others.WASHHygiene promotionWater supplyExcreta disposalVector controlSolid waste managementDrainage