Presentation on theme: "Ramsar Convention on Wetlands Wetlands and Water: supporting life sustaining wetlands Kampala, Uganda, 8-15 November Final Presentation Task Group: Sean."— Presentation transcript:
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands Wetlands and Water: supporting life sustaining wetlands Kampala, Uganda, 8-15 November Final Presentation Task Group: Sean Mandel, Aimee Barnes Megan Stouffer, and Emily Capello
Summary of the Presentation Definition of a Wetland and the Ecological Services Wetlands Provide Drivers of Wetland Degradation Wetlands Problems Introduction to Ramsar and the COP 9: Resolution IX.4 Annex Solutions Proposed by COP 9 Controversies of the Proposed Solutions Monitoring and Measurements of Success
Wetlands are difficult to define: –Range of hydrological conditions –Great variation in size, location, and human influence Distinguishing features of wetlands: –Presence of standing water –Unique wetland soil –Vegetation adapted to or tolerant of saturated soils What is a Wetland?
Why Protect Wetlands? Healthy wetlands provide important services: Ecological Recreational Scientific Cultural Economic Photos:
Drivers of Degradation & Destruction of Wetlands Public Perception Urban/Suburban Development Agriculture Aquaculture Photo: wetlands/wildrice.jpg Photo: US Fish and Wildlife Service: Photo: Oyster leases at Wallis Lake, NSW (photo by Dave Ryan)
Problem: Loss and Fragmentation of Wetlands Development, agriculture, and aquaculture lead to habitat fragmentation Barriers for water provision and irrigation redirect water –Fish cannot reach spawning grounds or food sources Habitat destruction and fragmentation is the number one cause of declining fish populations
Implications of Wetland Loss and Fragmentation Decreased ecological integrity and services: Loss of groundwater reserves Shoreline erosion Loss of spawning and feeding grounds for fish Decline in commercial/noncommercial populations Photo:
Implications of Wetland Loss and Fragmentation Loss of storm protection services: Storm surge protection through friction and absorption Wave height reduction by causing waves to touch bottom earlier and break Soil retention by lowering water velocities Photo: com/hurricane-katrina-2.jpghttp://www.katrinahelp Photo: com/a/images/Hurricane.Katrin a.Help.jpg com/a/images/Hurricane.Katrin a.Help.jpg Photo:http://www.rotary5470.org /IMupload/yaht%20club.jpeg
Implications of Loss of Storm Protection Services Decreased natural barrier against extreme weather events Increased flooding Increased destruction due to storms Destruction of fisheries and their infrastructure Photo:
Problem: Pollution Development, agriculture, and aquaculture lead to: – Discharge of excess nutrients (nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) from sewage, soaps and detergents, and agricultural runoff –Sediments from soil erosion –Toxins (heavy metals and organic compounds like mercury and PCBs) Improperly managed wetlands cannot effectively filter pollutants
Implications of Pollution Decreased water quality Bioaccumulation of toxins in wetland species Decline in native plant, fish, and waterfowl populations Eutrophication of wetlands Photo: cates.org/media/advoca cyupdates/2004/Advoca cy%20Update%20Augu st%202004/fishkillpictur e.jpg cates.org/media/advoca cyupdates/2004/Advoca cy%20Update%20Augu st%202004/fishkillpictur e.jpg
So What Happens?
Mission of Convention "the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local, regional and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world." (Cop7 1999, San Jose, Costa Rica)
Key Data Current sites: 1608 wetland sites Number of parties: 152 nations Surface area: 345 million acres Categories: Marine & Coastal, Inland, & Human-Made Encompasses 42 wetland types Photo: David Trilling (2006) Iraq
Legislation vs. Agreement Legislation is law –Mandates and enforces behavior –Passed by a governing body Agreements or treaties –Contractual agreement –Can be binding or prescriptive Photo:
Conference of Parties (COP) 9: Resolution IX.4-Annex: The Ramsar Convention and Conservation, Production and Sustainable Use of Fisheries Resources
Solutions of COP 9 Resolution IX.4 Annex 1.Sustainable management of wetland ecosystems for fisheries 2.Increased international cooperation 3.Improvements to information on the status of fisheries in Ramsar sites Photo:
1. Sustainable management of wetland ecosystems for fisheries Wise use and maintenance of ecological structure of wetlands Photos:
Implementation: Wise Use Framework The Ramsar Toolkit 14 handbooks on how to implement the Ramsar Convention Photos:
3. Improvements to information on the status of fisheries in Ramsar sites Salmon Indicators at Izembek National Wildlife Refuge1st U.S. RAMSAR site Important salmon spawning ground Require pure, well- oxygenated cold water Indicators: –abundance –genetic diversity –geographic distribution –stage of lifecycle Photo:
Controversies Related to Wetland Destruction/Ramsar COP 9 Policies 1.Mitigated wetlands 2.Cross-border cooperation on ecological goals Photo:
1. Mitigation of Wetlands Do constructed wetlands have the same quality as natural wetlands? Can compensate for wetland loss and restore formerly impacted wetlands Can require management for several decades Quality sacrificed for quantity Mitigated wetland might not reflect the characteristics of the natural wetland it is replacing
Past Losses and Mitigation Image:
2. Cross-Border Resource Management 5 of 22 US Ramsar sites span state or international borders Map: Microsoft Encarta
Measuring the Success of COP 9 Resolution IX.4 Indicator Criteria Simple and pragmatic Capable of distinguishing the difference made by the Ramsar Convention Reflective of multiple variables Related to readily available information Serviceable by wide popular audiences Photo:
Priority Indicators Overall conservation status of wetlands 2.Water-related indicator(s) 3.Overall population trends of wetland taxa Source:
Future Monitoring Finalization of current indicators Status and trends report: 2008 & 2011 Inclusion of more indicators –Wise use policy –Wetland services for humans –Additional water-related indicators Photo:
Conclusion Wetlands provide important ecological and socio-economic services Degradation limits their ability to provide these services COP 9 of Ramsar proposes several solutions to reduce wetland destruction and promote wetland conservation for sustainable fisheries Implementation of U.S. wetland conservation measures in conjunction with existing policy has improved management and monitoring of our nations wetlands
Acknowledgements The RAMSAR Group Aimee Barnes, Emily Capello, Matthew Ebright, Emily Gaskin, Lauren Kell, Megan Stouffer, Rebecca Smith, Sean Mandel, Whitney Blake, Helen Morris, Flora Lee …and congratulations to all our fellow classmates for making it through the summer term!
Thank You Professor Cook!
Drivers of Degradation & Destruction of Wetlands Public Perception Urban/Suburban Development Agriculture Aquaculture Photos: