Presentation on theme: "Ramsar Convention on Wetlands"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands “Wetlands and Water: supporting life sustaining wetlands”Kampala, Uganda, 8-15 NovemberFinal PresentationTask Group: Sean Mandel, Aimee BarnesMegan Stouffer, and Emily CapelloRamsar is a convention on wetlands… so what are wetlands and why are they important?
2 Summary of the Presentation Definition of a Wetland and the Ecological Services Wetlands ProvideDrivers of Wetland DegradationWetlands ProblemsIntroduction to Ramsar and the COP 9: Resolution IX.4 AnnexSolutions Proposed by COP 9Controversies of the Proposed SolutionsMonitoring and Measurements of Success
3 What is a Wetland? Wetlands are difficult to define: Range of hydrological conditionsGreat variation in size, location, and human influenceDistinguishing features of wetlands:Presence of standing waterUnique wetland soilVegetation adapted to or tolerant of saturated soils
4 Why Protect Wetlands? Healthy wetlands provide important services: EcologicalRecreationalScientificCulturalEconomicWhen considering policy for wetlands, economic considerations often speak the loudestThe World Conservation Monitoring Centre has suggested an estimate of about 570 million hectares (5.7 million km2) – roughly 6% of the Earth’s land surface – of which 2% are lakes, 30% bogs, 26% fens, 20% swamps, and 15% floodplains.Photos:
5 Drivers of Degradation & Destruction of Wetlands AquaculturePublic PerceptionAgricultureUrban/Suburban DevelopmentPhoto: Oyster leases at Wallis Lake, NSW (photo by Dave Ryan)Photo:Photo: wetlands/wildrice.jpgPhoto: US Fish and Wildlife Service:
6 Problem: Loss and Fragmentation of Wetlands Development, agriculture, and aquaculture lead to habitat fragmentationBarriers for water provision and irrigation redirect waterFish cannot reach spawning grounds or food sourcesHabitat destruction and fragmentation is the number one cause of declining fish populationsBarries created can be for agriculture, water reservoirs ect.
7 Implications of Wetland Loss and Fragmentation Decreased ecological integrity and services:Loss of groundwater reservesShoreline erosionLoss of spawning and feeding grounds for fishDecline in commercial/noncommercial populationsRed arrow = sediment input into waterwayBlack arrow = nutrient input into waterwayYellow diamond = contaminantsDots = sedimentsCircle = healthy food webPhoto:
8 Implications of Wetland Loss and Fragmentation Loss of storm protection services:Storm surge protection through friction and absorptionWave height reduction by causing waves to touch bottom earlier and breakSoil retention by lowering water velocitiesDecrease storm surge through friction. Between 1 and 2.7 miles of wetlands, on average one foot of storm surge is absorbedStore stormwater and replenish groundwaterDecrease wave heights by causing waves to touch bottom earlier and break. Studies have concluded that more than half of normal wave energy is dissipated within the first 3 meters of encountering marsh vegetation such as cord-grassDecrease erosion by lowering water velocities and binding the soilPhoto:Photo:http://www.rotary5470.org/IMupload/yaht%20club.jpegPhoto: com/hurricane-katrina-2.jpg
9 Implications of Loss of Storm Protection Services Decreased natural barrieragainst extreme weather eventsIncreased floodingIncreased destruction due to stormsDestruction of fisheries and their infrastructurePhoto:
10 Problem: Pollution Development, agriculture, and aquaculture lead to: Discharge of excess nutrients (nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) from sewage, soaps and detergents, and agricultural runoffSediments from soil erosionToxins (heavy metals and organic compounds like mercury and PCBs)Improperly managed wetlands cannot effectively filter pollutants
11 Implications of Pollution Decreased water qualityBioaccumulation of toxins in wetland speciesDecline in native plant, fish, and waterfowl populationsEutrophication of wetlandsExcessive richness of nutrients in a lake or body of water, frequently due to a runoff in land, which causes a dense growth of plant life and the death of animal life from lack of oxygenPhoto:
13 Mission of Convention"the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local, regional and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world."Purpose(Cop7 1999, San Jose, Costa Rica)
14 Key Data Current sites: 1608 wetland sites Number of parties: 152 nationsSurface area: 345 million acresCategories: Marine & Coastal, Inland, & Human-MadeEncompasses 42 wetland typesSurface Area: Bigger than France, Germany and Switzerland combinedConsidered one of the first multilateral conservation agreementPhoto: David Trilling (2006) Iraq
15 Legislation vs. Agreement Legislation is lawMandates and enforces behaviorPassed by a governing bodyAgreements ortreatiesContractualagreementCan be bindingor prescriptiveAccording to Article 9.2 of the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971), "Any member of the United Nations or of one of the Specialized Agencies or of the International Atomic Energy Agency or Party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice may become a Party to this Convention". Unfortunately, supranational bodies, such as the European Commission, are thus not eligible to join the Convention, but may nevertheless develop bilateral working agreements with the Convention secretariat.Wetlands function as a natural sponge to absorb and slowly release water and reduce flood heightsRamsar is prescriptive not binding!Photo:
16 Conference of Parties (COP) 9: Resolution IX.4-Annex: The Ramsar Convention and Conservation, Production and Sustainable Use of Fisheries Resources
17 Solutions of COP 9 Resolution IX.4 Annex Sustainable management of wetland ecosystems for fisheriesIncreased international cooperationImprovements to information on the status of fisheries in Ramsar sitesThere are 11 different solutions identified in the annex but we have focused on theseHighlight the importance of inland, coastal, and near-shore marine wetlands to fisheriesIntegrate fishery management to wetlands managementIncrease understanding on the importance of wetlands to biodiversitySustaining fisheries as an economic resourcePromote “Wise Use” of resourcesCreate a scientific forum for wetlands educationPhoto:
18 1. Sustainable management of wetland ecosystems for fisheries “Wise use” and maintenance of ecological structure of wetlandsPhotos:
19 Implementation: “Wise Use” Framework The Ramsar Toolkit14 handbooks on how to implement the Ramsar ConventionPhotos:
20 2. Increased International Cooperation Salmon migration:ChumChinookSockeyeSource:
21 3. Improvements to information on the status of fisheries in Ramsar sites Salmon Indicators at Izembek National Wildlife Refuge—1st U.S. RAMSAR siteImportant salmon spawning groundRequire pure, well-oxygenated cold waterIndicators:abundancegenetic diversitygeographic distributionstage of lifecycleFirst ramsar site (in 1987??), this is an imporatn salmon spawning ground- 5 different species of salmon are found here. Important economically- many people in this area depend on fishing, culturally-since 60s “salmon day??”, for the whole food web-bears eat the salmon “see so many per mile…”Photo:
22 Controversies Related to Wetland Destruction/Ramsar COP 9 Policies Mitigated wetlandsCross-border cooperation on ecological goalsPhoto:
23 1. Mitigation of Wetlands Do constructed wetlands have the same quality as natural wetlands?Can compensate for wetland loss and restore formerly impacted wetlandsCan require management for several decadesQuality sacrificed for quantityMitigated wetland might not reflect the characteristics of the natural wetland it is replacingMitigated = resorting, replacing or creating ecological habitats in one area to compensate for loss of natural habitats in another area due to development
25 2. Cross-Border Resource Management 5 of 22 US Ramsar sites span state or international bordersCado Lake: see output 8Map: Microsoft Encarta
26 Measuring the Success of COP 9 Resolution IX.4 Indicator CriteriaSimple and pragmaticCapable of distinguishing the difference made by the Ramsar ConventionReflective of multiple variablesRelated to readily available informationServiceable by wide popular audiencesCan also speak about these in relation to:Priority rankings for importance in respect of effectiveness of the Convention, Feasibility,Creation of an initial suite of indicators which span a range of key issues, Favoring initially some indicators which are generic or "umbrella" in character, and which are capable of incorporating elements from some of the others in the original list developed by the STRP.Photo:
27 Priority Indicators 2006-2008 Overall conservation status of wetlands Water-related indicator(s)Overall population trends of wetland taxaPicture source:Source:
28 Future Monitoring Finalization of current indicators Status and trends report: 2008 & 2011Inclusion of more indicatorsWise use policyWetland services for humansAdditional water-related indicatorsPicture source:Photo:
29 ConclusionWetlands provide important ecological and socio-economic servicesDegradation limits their ability to provide these servicesCOP 9 of Ramsar proposes several solutions to reduce wetland destruction and promote wetland conservation for sustainable fisheriesImplementation of U.S. wetland conservation measures in conjunction with existing policy has improved management and monitoring of our nations wetlands
30 Acknowledgements The RAMSAR Group Aimee Barnes, Emily Capello, Matthew Ebright, Emily Gaskin, Lauren Kell, Megan Stouffer, Rebecca Smith, Sean Mandel, Whitney Blake, Helen Morris , Flora Lee…and congratulations to all our fellow classmates for making it through the summer term!
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.