Presentation on theme: "Quantum Dot Infrared Photo-detector 16.508 Quantum Electronics for Engineer Present by: Chintana Keo Date: May 3, 2006."— Presentation transcript:
Quantum Dot Infrared Photo-detector Quantum Electronics for Engineer Present by: Chintana Keo Date: May 3, 2006
Agenda What is a Photo-detector? What is the different between Quantum Dot Infrared Photo-detector (QDIP) and Quantum Well Infrared Photo-detector (QWIP)? Sample sketch or diagram of QDIP How does the device work? Advantage of QDIP Dark current calculation & Why? Detection energy calculation Some possible applications Conclusion
What is a photo-detector? A photo-detector is a semi-conductor photodiode device that generate electrical current or electrons excitation when light source is shine onto its surface or when light source is entering a diode semiconductor device made from such material as GaAs & InGaAs. A photo-detector is an opto-electronics device that allow us to produce an image of an object as a result of the electrical current produced by shining a light source within a given wavelength range depending on what materials is used.
What is a photo-detector? (Continues) A photo-detector is basically a photodiode in principle. When struck by light source, the electrons within become stimulated and create current across a diode resulting in an exact duplicated image as the source.
The different between quantum well & quantum dot There similarities and different characteristics of photo detectors: Quantum Well Infrared Photo- Detector (QWIP) Quantum Dot Photo-Detector (QDIP). Figure shows the different between quantum dot and quantum well: Left is quantum well infrared photo-detector Well between barriers Right is quantum dot infrared photo-detector Dots between barriers
Schematic Sample of Quantum Dot Boron doped Ge quantum dots growth sample Producing using molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) method in a thin layer of semi-conductor materials.
Basic Device Both device has an emitter and a collector The detection mechanism in both devices is by intraband photo excitation of electrons between energy levels
The Advantage of QDIP QDIP allow direct incident normal to wafer surfaces. Avoid fabricating grate coupler as in QWIP. In producing QWIP, a grating coupler required which yield in extra fabrication steps. It has lower dark current & high detection sensitivity than QWIP. Better Radiant sensitivity and Efficiency resulting in better detection. Dominant in normal direction response to growth direction.
Dark Current Calculation Dark current is the current produce internal to the photodetector resulting as noise Simplest way to calculate dark current density is to count mobile carrier barrier and carrier velocity J dark is a dark current υ is a drift velocity n 3d is current density Can be calculate using the second formula at left. m b is a barrier effective mass E a is thermal activation energy
Radiant Sensitivity and Quantum Efficiency Current produce when light hitting a semi- conductor radiating electrons excitation. This can be calculate using the following formula QE = ((S x 1240) / λ ) x 100% Where S is the radiant sensitivity Where S is the radiant sensitivity Long exited electron lifetime lead to high responsivity, higher temp and higher dark current which will limited detectivity
Responsivity Responsivity can be calculated using the formula at left, where: υ - a phonon frequency η - the absorption efficiency g - photoconductive gain Higher absorption efficiency have better detection.
Possible Applications High speed infrared detection Infrared image applicationpossible use in security systems to produce image of various objects. Possible use in IR Spectrophotometer Possible use in Cell Sorter Could be use in Infrared Camera
Conclusion There are still many challenges to overcome such fabrication or manufacturing process that will produce quantum dot to meet design requirement Current manufacturing process limit to size and dot density that it is impractical for commercial used Due to complex fabrication process and limited size it is expensive to manufacture Still in its infancyneeds better doping control
Question? Thank You
Credit & Reference Prof: Joel TherrienUMass Lowell. American Science & EngineeringBillerica, Ma Prof: Sam MilshteinUMass Lowell PhotodiodesHamamatsu Photonics K.K. Solid State Division The Photonics Dictionary, 42 nd Ed 1996The Tropel Spectrum Growth Study of Surfactant-Mediate SiGe graded layersThin Solid Film 380 (2000) Photoluminescence of multi-layer of SiGe dot growth on SiJ. Wa, H LouDevice research laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department---University of California at Los Angeles Reshifting and broadening of quantum well infrared photo-detectorIEEE Journal of selected topic in quantum electronics, vol 4 No 4 July/August 1998 Intersuband absorption in boron dope multiple Ge Quantum DotApplied Physic Letter Vol. 74, Number 2, January 11, 1998 Normal Incidence Mid-Range Ge Quantum dot photo-detectorFei Lou, Song Tong, Jianlin Liu & Kang L. Wang--Journal of Electronics materials, vol. 33, Number 8, 2004 Zhen Yang, Yi Shi, Jianlin Liu, Bo Yan, Rang Zhang, Youdou Zhen & Kanglong Wang Optical Properties of Ge/Si quantum dot superlaticesDepartment of Physic and National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure, Nanjing University & University of California. Science DirectMaterial Letters 58 (2004) Zhen Yang, Yi Shi, Jianlin Liu, Bo Yan, Rang Zhang, Youdou Zhen & Kanglong Wang Optical Properties of Ge/Si quantum dot superlaticesDepartment of Physic and National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure, Nanjing University & University of California. Science DirectMaterial Letters 58 (2004)