Presentation on theme: "Quantum Dot Infrared Photo-detector"— Presentation transcript:
1Quantum Dot Infrared Photo-detector Quantum Electronics for EngineerPresent by: Chintana KeoDate: May 3, 2006
2Agenda What is a Photo-detector? What is the different between Quantum Dot Infrared Photo-detector (QDIP) and Quantum Well Infrared Photo-detector (QWIP)?Sample sketch or diagram of QDIPHow does the device work?Advantage of QDIPDark current calculation & Why?Detection energy calculationSome possible applicationsConclusion
3What is a photo-detector? A photo-detector is a semi-conductor photodiode device that generate electrical current or electrons excitation when light source is shine onto its’ surface or when light source is entering a diode semiconductor device made from such material as GaAs & InGaAs.A photo-detector is an opto-electronics device that allow us to produce an image of an object as a result of the electrical current produced by shining a light source within a given wavelength range depending on what materials is used.
4What is a photo-detector? (Continues) A photo-detector is basically a photodiode in principle. When struck by light source, the electrons within become stimulated and create current across a diode resulting in an exact duplicated image as the source.
5The different between quantum well & quantum dot There similarities and different characteristics of photo detectors:Quantum Well Infrared Photo-Detector (QWIP)Quantum Dot Photo-Detector (QDIP).Figure shows the different between quantum dot and quantum well:Left is quantum well infrared photo-detectorWell between barriersRight is quantum dot infrared photo-detectorDots between barriers
6Schematic Sample of Quantum Dot Boron doped Ge quantum dots growth sampleProducing using molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) method in a thin layer of semi-conductor materials.
7Basic Device Both device has an emitter and a collector The detection mechanism in both devices is by intraband photo excitation of electrons between energy levels
8The Advantage of QDIPQDIP allow direct incident normal to wafer surfaces.Avoid fabricating grate coupler as in QWIP.In producing QWIP, a grating coupler required which yield in extra fabrication steps.It has lower dark current & high detection sensitivity than QWIP.Better Radiant sensitivity and Efficiency resulting in better detection.Dominant in normal direction response to growth direction.
9Dark Current Calculation Dark current is the current produce internal to the photodetector resulting as noiseSimplest way to calculate dark current density is to count mobile carrier barrier and carrier velocityJdark is a dark currentυ is a drift velocityn3d is current densityCan be calculate using the second formula at left.mb is a barrier effective massEa is thermal activation energy
10Radiant Sensitivity and Quantum Efficiency Current produce when light hitting a semi-conductor radiating electrons excitation.This can be calculate using the following formulaQE = ((S x 1240) / λ ) x 100%Where S is the radiant sensitivityLong exited electron lifetime lead to high responsivity, higher temp and higher dark current which will limited detectivity
11ResponsivityResponsivity can be calculated using the formula at left, where:υ - a phonon frequencyη - the absorption efficiencyg - photoconductive gainHigher absorption efficiency have better detection.
12Possible Applications High speed infrared detectionInfrared image application—possible use in security systems to produce image of various objects.Possible use in IR SpectrophotometerPossible use in Cell SorterCould be use in Infrared Camera
13ConclusionThere are still many challenges to overcome such fabrication or manufacturing process that will produce quantum dot to meet design requirementCurrent manufacturing process limit to size and dot density that it is impractical for commercial usedDue to complex fabrication process and limited size it is expensive to manufactureStill in its infancy—needs better doping control
15Credit & Reference Prof: Joel Therrien—UMass Lowell. American Science & Engineering—Billerica, MaProf: Sam Milshtein—UMass LowellPhotodiodes—Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. Solid State DivisionThe Photonics Dictionary, 42nd Ed 1996—The Tropel SpectrumGrowth Study of Surfactant-Mediate SiGe graded layers—Thin Solid Film 380 (2000) 54-56Photoluminescence of multi-layer of SiGe dot growth on Si—J. Wa, H Lou—Device research laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department---University of California at Los AngelesReshifting and broadening of quantum well infrared photo-detector—IEEE Journal of selected topic in quantum electronics, vol 4 No 4 July/August 1998Intersuband absorption in boron dope multiple Ge Quantum Dot—Applied Physic Letter Vol. 74, Number 2, January 11, 1998Normal Incidence Mid-Range Ge Quantum dot photo-detector—Fei Lou, Song Tong, Jianlin Liu & Kang L. Wang--Journal of Electronics materials, vol. 33, Number 8, 2004Zhen Yang, Yi Shi, Jianlin Liu, Bo Yan, Rang Zhang, Youdou Zhen & Kanglong Wang—Optical Properties of Ge/Si quantum dot superlatices—Department of Physic and National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure, Nanjing University & University of California. Science Direct—Material Letters 58 (2004)