Presentation on theme: "CERN 50 th Anniversary A Photographic Timeline Miguel Angel Marquina (Editor) CIEMAT/CERN."— Presentation transcript:
CERN 50 th Anniversary A Photographic Timeline Miguel Angel Marquina (Editor) CIEMAT/CERN
Introduction This sampling has been built recreating the document Highlights of CERN History, written on the occasion of CERNs 40 th and 50th anniversaries. Pictures and photographic material have been taken from CERNs CDS system, which contains more than 5000 entries; all are copyrighted CERN.CDS system
1949 During the European Cultural Conference at Lausanne, the French physicist and Nobel prize-winner Louis de Broglie proposes the creation of a European science laboratory.
1950 At the 5th General Conference of UNESCO held in Florence, the American physicist and Nobel prize- winner Isidore Rabi puts forward a resolution, which is unanimously adopted, authorising the Director General of UNESCO, "to assist and encourage the formation and organization of regional centres and laboratories in order to increase and make more fruitful the international collaboration of scientists...".
1952 After two UNESCO Conferences are held on the subject, 11 European governments sign an agreement setting up a provisional "Conseil européen pour la Recherche nucléaire" (CERN). At a meeting of the CERN council in Amsterdam, a site near Geneva is selected for the planned laboratory.
1954 The European Organization for Nuclear Research is formally created on 29th September, when sufficient ratifications of the Convention establishing CERN are obtained from Member States, thus dissolving the "provisional" CERN. The acronym CERN, however, is retained.
1955 Twelve founding Member States ratify the Convention: Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland and Yugoslavia.
1959 Austria joins CERN First operation of the 28 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS), which is for a time the highest energy accelerator in the world. In the same year, the first experiments using neutrino beams are carried out; this field of research eventually becomes a speciality of the physics programme at CERN.
1961 Yugoslavia leaves the Organization for financial reasons. Spain joins CERN
1963 First bubble chamber pictures of neutrino interactions are taken. Neutrino physics benefits greatly from fast ejection of protons from the Synchrotron, which is achieved for the first time ever during May this year.
1965 Agreement with French authorities is signed in September on extending the CERN site over the French border. In December, the Council approves the construction of the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) on this extension of the site.
1967 CERN commissions one of the world's finest facilities for the study of very short-lived nuclei - the Isotope Separator On-line (ISOLDE). An agreement between CERN, France and Germany covers the construction of a 3.7 metre hydrogen bubble chamber equipped with the largest superconducting magnet in the world. During its working life from 1973 to 1984, the "Big European Bubble Chamber" (BEBC) takes over 6 million photographs.
1968 Invention by Georges Charpak of multiwire proportional chambers and drift chambers - representing some of the most important advances in the domain of electronic particle detectors. He will be awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1992 for this invention.
1971 Approval of the proposal to build a second laboratory adjoining the existing site in France and Switzerland for the construction of a new Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) which is initially planned to reach an energy of 300 GeV. Although at first administratively separate, the two CERN laboratories are united in January 1976.
1972 A four ring 800 MeV Booster is completed to increase the injection energy of the PS. With the booster and the new Linac, which starts operation in 1978, the PS machine exceeds its design intensity by more than a thousand times.
1973 First important discoveries from the experiments at the ISR emerge: protons grow in size as their energy is increased; and colliding protons can produce diffraction patterns rather like those of light bending around a disc, thus showing the wave nature of the proton. It is with the French-built Gargamelle bubble chamber in a neutrino beam at the Proton Synchrotron (PS) that one of CERN's greatest physics discoveries is made: it is found that neutrinos can interact with another particle without changing into a muon. This behaviour is known as the "neutral current interaction" and is the discovery which opens the door to what is known as "new physics". It has great implications for the theoretical ideas about the fundamental forces of physics. In particular, it gives strong support to the theory which attempts to unite our understanding of the weak force - governing such phenomena as radioactivity - with the familiar electromagnetic force.
1976 Start of operation of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). As with the ISR, machine construction is completed ahead of schedule and within the authorised budget. The accelerator performance improves rapidly so that the design intensity is exceeded and at the end of 1978, the peak energy is taken to 500 GeV.
1981 Conversion of the SPS into a proton-antiproton collider and the building of two experimental areas (UA-1 and UA-2) where data from the collisions can be taken. From then on, the operation of the SPS is divided between this collider mode and fixed-target physics. The first proton-antiproton collisions at an energy of 2 x 270 GeV are seen in July 1981, a few months after the start-up of the new Antiproton Accumulator ring (AA), where stochastic cooling is applied to produce the antiproton beam. The Member States authorise construction of the Large Electron- Positron collider (LEP) for an initial operating energy of 50 GeV per beam.
1983 Discovery of the W-bosons (January) and the Z-boson (May) - the carriers of the weak nuclear force - thus confirming the theory of electro-weak interactions and unifying the weak and electromagnetic forces. In September, the ground-breaking ceremony for LEP takes place in the presence of the French and Swiss Presidents, Mr. François Mitterrand and Mr. Pierre Aubert. LEP is the largest scientific instrument ever constructed, with a circumference of 27 kilometers. Spain rejoins CERN
1984 Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer receive the Nobel Prize for Physics for their experimental work on proton-antiproton collisions which culminated in the discovery of the W boson and Z boson at CERN in 1983.
1989 In August, LEP starts up. In October, only two months after the first collisions in LEP, CERN makes a very important physics discovery. After an extremely accurate measurement of the width of the Z0 particle, CERN physicists announce that the fundamental building blocks of matter consist of only three families of particles. On the 13th of November, LEP is officially inaugurated by Heads of State and Science Ministers from CERN Member States and other countries involved in the CERN experimental programme. Tim Berners-Lee invents the World Wide Web
The years from 1989 are marked by the success of LEP experiments. The outstanding result is the precision measurement of the Z resonance parameters: over the period from 1989 to 1993 the four LEP detectors - ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL - reconstructed more than 10 million Z decays. The World-Wide-Web was also cooked and then exposed thanks to NCSA-Mosaic during the early 90s
1991 In December, CERN's Council delegates agree unanimously that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the right machine for further significant advance in the field of high energy physics research and for the future of CERN. Finland and Poland join CERN
1992 George Charpak, a CERN physicist, is awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for the invention of the multiwire proportional chamber, which enables physicists to make major progress in the tracking of particles and which is now used for many medical applications. Hungary joins CERN
1994 On December 16 th the CERN Council gave the go-ahead for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, to be financed by the Member States with substantial contributions by non-Member States.