Presentation on theme: "BEST PRACTICES IN COLLEGE TEACHING: Creating an Active Learning Environnent Debra Dunlap Runshe January 19, 2011."— Presentation transcript:
1BEST PRACTICES IN COLLEGE TEACHING: Creating an Active Learning Environnent Debra Dunlap RunsheJanuary 19, 2011
2K – W - L What do you know about active learning? What would you like to know about active learning?What have you learned about active learning?
3Active Learning By the end of this session, participants will: articulate a rationale for using active learning in the classroomdescribe instructional methods that encourage active learningidentify techniques that can be incorporated into their classes to create an active learning environmentimprove student retention and success
10Seven Principles for Good Practice Encourages contact between faculty and students.Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students.Uses active learning techniques.Gives prompt feedback.Emphasizes time on task.Communicates high expectations.Respects diverse talents and ways of learning.(Chickering and Gamson, 1987)
11Passive vs. Active Learning Students learn both passively and actively.Passive learning takes place when students take on the role of “receptacles of knowledge”; that is, they do not directly participate in the learning process.Active learning is more likely to take place when students are doing something besides listening.(Ryans and Martin, 1989)
12Retention of Information After 24 hours, what percent of information is retained by students in a lecture environment?5%10%20%40%50%
14Why Active Learning?Kuh et al identified a positive correlation between active learning and gains in general education and intellectual skills Also determined that, among good practice variables, active learning is the best predictor of gains for both men and women at colleges and universities (Kuh, Pace, & Vesper, 1997)
15Why Active Learning?Students who have little mainstream culture experience and limited English proficiency may feel less isolated through participation.Instructors can identify terminology preferences made by social groups that may be hindering or strengthening the learning process.(McKeachie, 2009)Instructors can engender a sense of success in students through frequent written and oral feedback.(Wlodkowski & Ginsberg, 1995)
16Why Active Learning? More Evidence on Impact: (Prince, 2004) Interactive engagement methods leads to improved test performanceCollaborative learning methods enhance/improve academic achievement, student attitudes, and retentionProblem-based learning develops positive student attitudes, interpersonal skills, problem solving and lifelong learning skills, knowledge retentionCooperative learning methods enhance student achievement, interpersonal skills, self-esteem(Prince, 2004)
17Student Involvement is the Key to Learning Research supports this:“Analysis of the research literature. . . suggests that students must do more than just listen. They must read, write, discuss, or be engaged in solving problems.” --Bonwell & Eison, 1991“The body of research on the impacts of the college academic experience is extensive. The strongest general conclusion [is that] the greater the student’s involvement or engagement in academic work, the greater his or her level of knowledge acquisition.” Pasquerilla & Terenzini, 1991Limited interactionExtensive interactionMore controlLess control
19Start Right Away!Use an active learning technique on the first day of class – it sets an expectation of participation form the very beginning of the semester.Start with an activity that is quick and easy. This will help students acclimate to your teaching style as well as help them learn how to participate in collaborative learning
20Where do I start? Punctuate your lecture: Pause 3 times for two minutes each during a lecture to allow students to consolidate, share, and compare notes.Assign short, ungraded written exercises followed by class discussion.Give two mini-lectures separated by a small group study session built around a study guide.
21Easy to Implement Techniques Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) simple, ungraded activities that can:provide feedback about how your students are doinghelp your student monitor their own learningfocus your students attention on course content through reflection, writing, and speakingallow you to punctuate your lecture with learning activities
22Purpose of CATs“. . . to improve learning in progress by providing teachers with the kind of feedback they need to inform their day-to-day instructional decisions, and by providing students with information that can help them learn more effectively."‑Tom Angelo
23Characteristics of CATs Learner‑CenteredTeacher‑DirectedMutually BeneficialFormativeContext‑SpecificOngoingRooted In Good Teaching Practice
24Basic Assumptions of CATs Learning is directly related to teaching.Effective assessment begins with clear, specific goals and objectives.Students need appropriate feedback, early and often.The best type of assessment to evaluate teaching and learning is that which is created and conducted by the faculty, themselves.Classroom assessment does not require specialized training.(Angelo & Cross, 1993)
26Purpose of a Background Knowledge Probe For students, it highlights key information to be studied, offering a preview of material to come and/or a review of prior knowledge.For teachers, it helps determine the best starting point and the most appropriate level for a lessonFor both, it can be used for either pre- or post-lesson assessment of learning
27Examples of Background Knowledge Probe Pro-Con GridSurvey/inventoryPlace yourself along the continuum.“Signs up”
28Background Knowledge Probe How familiar are you with Angelo and Cross’s Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers?What assessment techniques, if applicable do you routinely use in your classes?
29Pro-Con GridDevelop a list of what you think would be pros and cons of using active learning techniques and of lecturing.We will then come back together and share what some of those pros and cons are.
31Focus QuestionThinkWhile active learning has the potential to revolutionize instruction, there are many reasons why it doesn’t take place. What are barriers to active learning in the classroom?
32Focus Question Think into the future As students leave the university, what are the skills, strategies, concepts, aptitudes, and personal qualities that they will need to be a productive and successful citizen in the coming years?
33Focused ListingPurpose: To help determine what learners recall about a specific topic, including concepts they associate with a central point.When to use this?Before, during or after a lesson.Steps:Students write key word at the top of a page. For 2 – 3 minutes, just down related terms important to the understanding of that topic.Pair up with peer, sharing lists and explanations of why concepts were included. This will build their knowledge base and clarify their understanding of the topic.
34One Minute PaperWhat technique do you think you will implement in your next course?Specifically, where do you see its use?
35Complete a Sentence Starter Angelo and Cross’s “Minute Paper”, where students typically respond to two questions is the best-known and most widely-used CAT because. . .
37Muddiest PointWhat about incorporating active learning and classroom assessment techniques into your classroom is still confusing to you?
38Memory Matrix Course Objective Beginning of semester routine End of semester routineSpecific evidence of growthTo develop flexible strategies for generating, revising, editing and proofreadingTo write and to read with an awareness of purpose appropriate to the needs of the audienceTo narrow the focus of an essay, using a thesis statement appropriately
39Defining Features Matrix What are the differences between formative evaluation and summative evaluation?FormativeSummative
40Defining Features Matrix What are the differences between formative evaluation and summative evaluation?FormativeSummativeDevelopmentalNon-gradedAnonymousOccurs more frequentlyFormalGraded evaluations (quizzes, exams, papers)Occurs at course transitionsOften too late for students
41Concept Maps Brainstorm terms and short phrases related to the topic. Create a shape for your central topic.Create levels of association with shapes and lines.Insert logical connectives on the lines connecting the concepts (such as includes, excludes, causes, results in, predicts, contradicts, supports).
43Concept Maps Judicial Branches of the Government Legislative Executive SenateLegislativeCongressExecutiveJudicialHouse of RepresentativesSupreme CourtPresidentVice President
44Active Learning Beyond the Classroom Two ways to actively engage your students through the use of technology:Chat SessionsDiscussion ForumsAt the beginning of the semester:Assess student technology experience and access to the environment.Include a demonstration of the online environment.Establish ground rules for on-line interactions.
45Benefits of eLearningLow participants and shy students sometimes open up.There are minimal off-task behaviors.Delayed collaboration is more extensive and rich than real time; real time is more immediate and personal.Students can generate tons of information or case situations on the Web.(Bonk & King, 1998)
46Benefits of eLearning Minimal student disruptions and dominance. Students are excited to publish work.Many forms of online advice are available. Practitioner, expert, instructor, and student online feedback are all valuable and important.(Bonk & King, 1998)
47Benefits of eLearningWith the permanence of the postings, one can print out discussions and perform retrospective analysis and other reflection activities.Discussion extends across the semester and creates opportunities to share perspectives beyond your classroom.E-learning encourages instructors to coach and guide learning.(Bonk & King, 1998)
51How do I Choose? Objectives Activities Assessment What do I want my students to know?What do I want my students to be able to do?How will I assess my students?
52How do I choose? Course Objectives Personal Style Student Experience Acquisition of knowledgeAcquisition of skills/attitudesPersonal StyleLimited interactionExtensive interactionMore controlLess controlStudent ExperienceInexperiencedExperienced(Bonwell & Sutherland, 1996)
53How do I choose? Students are Active/Lower Level of Risk DemonstrationsSelf-assessmentsBrainstorming activitiesQuizzes or testsLecture with pauses or discussionSurveys/questionnairesStudents are Active/HigherRole playingSmall group presentationsIndividual presentationsGuided imagery exerciseUnstructured small group discussionResponsive lectureStudents are Inactive/Lower Level of RiskShow a film for the entire class period.Lecture for the entire class period.Students are Inactive/HigherInvite a guest speaker.
54What do you think?What techniques are suitable for your class? What techniques are you already using?Write down an area of your course you believe is appropriate for active learning and the technique you would use.
55Plan, Plan, PlanCreate your learning goals and objectives for the session activity is to take place as well as the course.Plan the activity.Articulate your goals and objectives to your students in verbal and written instructions.Debrief after the activity. What did they learn? What about the process?Assess the activity.Refine the objectives, activity, and assessment for next time.
56Words of Wisdom When I hear, I forget. When I hear and see, I remember a little.When I hear, see, and ask questions about it or discuss it, I begin to understand.When I hear, see, discuss, and do, I acquire knowledge and skill.(Silberman, 1996)
58ResourcesPublications Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Bean, J. C. (1996). Engaging ideas: The professor's guide to integrating writing, critical thinking, and active learning in the classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Bligh, D. A. (2000). What's the use of lectures? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Bonwell, C. C., & Eison, J. A. (1991). Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, no. 1. Washington, D.C.: The George Washington University, School of Education and Human Development. Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., Cocking., R. R. (Eds.). (2000). How people learn: Brian, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Chickering, A. W., and Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. AAHE Bulletin 39(7): 3-7. Chickering, A., & Erhmann, S. (1996, October). Implementing the seven principles: Technology as lever. AAHE Bulletin, October. Retrieved from
59ResourcesPublications Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Diamond, R. M. (2008). Designing & assessing sources & curricula: A practical guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Finkel, D. L. (2000). Teaching with your mouth shut. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers. Halpern, D. F. & Hakel, M. D. (2003). Applying the science of learning. Change. (July/August) Hatfield, S. R. editor; with David G. Brown ... [et al.]; and special sections by Martin Nemko, contributing editor. (1995). The seven principles in action: improving undergraduate education. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing. Johnson, D. W. & Johnson, R. T. (1994). Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Kuh, G. D., Pace, C. R. & Vesper, N. (1997). The development of process indicators to estimate student gains associated with good practices in undergraduate education. Research in Higher Education 38(4):
60Resources Publications MacGregor, J. (2000). Strategies for energizing large classes: From small groups to learning communities. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Meyers, C. & Jones, T. B. (1993). Promoting active learning: Strategies for the college classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Millis, B. J., & Cottrell, P. G. (1998). Cooperative learning for higher education faculty. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (1998). Studying college students in the 21st century: Meeting new challenges .The Review of Higher Education, 21(2),Silberman, M. L. (1996). Active learning: 101 strategies to teach any subject. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Sousa, D. A. (2001). How the brain learns: A classroom teacher's guide (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Svinicki, M. D. (2004). Learning and motivation in the postsecondary classroom. Bolton, MA: Anker Pub. Co.
61ResourcesCase Study Teaching web sites National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science Virginia Tech Case Study Site Harvard University Case Site for Business Penn State University Case Site Institute for Case Development
62Resources Problem Based Learning web sites Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy Center for Problem Based LearningMaricopa Center for Teaching and LearningSamford UniversityProblem Based Learning at McMaster UniversityProblem Based Learning InitiativeProcess Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL)University of Delaware