Presentation on theme: "PHOTOELECTRIC DEVICES Prepared by CynthiaYoungblood Jay High School, Santa Rosa County."— Presentation transcript:
PHOTOELECTRIC DEVICES Prepared by CynthiaYoungblood Jay High School, Santa Rosa County
A photoelectric effect is any effect in which light energy is converted to electricity.
When light strikes certain light-sensitive materials, b It may cause them to give electrons. b It may change their ability to conduct electricity. b It may cause them to develop an electrical potential, or voltage across two surfaces. ( These are called photoelectric devices.)
These devices that make use of the photoelectric effect are often called b A photo electric cell b A photo cell, or b An electric eye
KINDS OF PHOTOELECTRIC CELLS b Photoemissive b Photoemissive cells b Photoconductive b Photoconductive cells b Photovoltaic b Photovoltaic cells
PHOTOEMISSIVE CELLS b First explained by Albert Einstein
Photoemission b Light, like all other radiation, is made up of small particles called photons. b The amount of energy the photons have depends on the frequency of the light. b The frequency of light is the number of times that a light wave vibrates in a second. b The higher the frequency, the more energy the photons have.
…Photoemission b If a photon hits an atom of a certain material, it may be absorbed by an electron of that material. b However, if the photon has enough energy, the electron is ejected, or emitted, from the atom. b In this way, light energy changes into electrical energy.
If wires are attached to a photoemittive material, the electrons can flow along the wires, forming an electric current.
Photoemission cells are used in motion picture projectors to read film sound tracks.
Example of Photoelectric Cells The photocell on this photographers slave flash unit uses the photoelectric effect. When a nearby flashgun goes off, it immediately fires the slave flash.
PHOTOCONDUCTIVE CELLS b Results from light hitting a semiconductor b Semiconductors contain free, negatively charged electrons b A free electron is an electron that has left its atom and so is not bound to it b When the electron leaves its atom, it creates a positive charge in the atom b The positive charge attracts an electron from another atom
This process repeats itself, creating an electric current. When light falls on certain semiconductors, the number of electrons leaving their atoms increases. This increases the current.
A streetlight is a good example of an application of photoconductivity. As daylight fades, the electrical current in the streetlights semiconductor comes to a stop. This activates a switch that turns the streetlight on.
When the light source to the semiconductor is interrupted by a person walking through the beam of light, a switch is activated that triggers the alarm. Burglar alarms sometimes have electric eyes that operate on the principle of photoconductivity.
Other examples of electric eyes : Automatic door openers Elevator doors Supermarket scanners
PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS b Is similar to photoconductivity. b In this effect, light falls on two semiconductors, or on a metal and a semiconductor sandwiched together. b A boundary develops between these two substances. b Free electrons build up along the boundary but cannot flow across it. b However, if the two substances are connected in a circuit, then the electrons can flow across it.
The voltage generated from a single photovoltaic cell is typically a fraction of a volt. By connecting many thousands of individual cells together, however, as in modern solar batteries, more than 1 kilowatt of electric power can be generated.
The energy efficiency of most present-day photovoltaic cells is only about 7 to 11 percent that is, only that fraction of the incoming radiant energy is converted to electric energy. Since the intensity of solar radiation is lowabout 125 watts per square foot (1,350 watts per square meter) above the atmosphere and less at the Earth's surfacehuge and costly assemblies of such cells are required to produce even moderate amounts of power.
Photovoltaic cells are used in exposure meters for photography. Light falling on the meter causes a current to flow. The size of the current depends on the amount of light. The light can be measured indirectly by measuring the current.
Consequently, photovoltaic cells that operate on solar light (using solar cells or solar batteries) have so far been used primarily for very low-power applications. These applications include their use as power sources for calculators, watches, and cameras, for example. Larger units have been used to power space satellites and experimental airplanes and automobiles. Solar cells work on the same principle.
Bibliography Sharpe, Diane. Illustrated Science Encyclopedia. Photoelectric Devices. Austin, Texas: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, Photoelectric Device. Microsoft Internet Explorer. 13 Nov.2001.