Presentation on theme: "The way out for recycling non-renewable metal values D. Monteiro de Oliveira & L. Sobral RIPREXS Meeting (Mexico/2012)"— Presentation transcript:
The way out for recycling non-renewable metal values D. Monteiro de Oliveira & L. Sobral RIPREXS Meeting (Mexico/2012)
INTRODUCTION The future availability of metals is a complex topic, and one which depends on a mix of geological knowledge, industrial potential, and economics. We are limited to informed guesswork as to growth of personal incomes, changing cultural preferences, future technological advances, and the like. What we can be certain of is that improved rates of recycling will be vital to any sustainable future, and that knowing where we stand today provides a most useful perspective, and one of the foundations upon which we can build a more sustainable world.
The recycling of metals is widely reviewed as a fruitful sustainability strategy. However, how such recycling is actually taking place? Electronic Scrap INTRODUCTION
Metals play an important part in modern societies and have, historically, been linked with industrial development and improved living standards. Society can draw on metal resources from Earths crust as well as from metal discarded after use in the economy. Inefficient recovery of metals from the economy increases reliance on primary resources and can impact nature by increasing the dispersion of metals in ecosystems. INTRODUCTION
The recycling of non-renewable resources is often advocated as the solution to potentially restricted supplies. It is indeed true that every kilogram of resources that is successfully recycled obviates the need to locate and mine that kilogram from virgin ores. Unfortunately, however, notwithstanding their potential values, industrial and consumer products containing these resources have often been regarded as waste material rather than as Surface Mines waiting to be exploited. As the planets mineral deposits become less able to respond to demand, environmental challenges, or geopolitical decisions, we limit our technological future by using these resources once and then discarding them through neglect, poor product design, or poor planning. INTRODUCTION
Metals are uniquely useful materials by virtue of their fracture toughness, thermal and electrical conductivity, and performance at high temperatures, among other properties. For these reasons they are used in a wide range of applications in areas such as machinery, energy, transportation, building and construction, information technology, and appliances. Additionally, of the different resources seeing wide use in modern technology, metals are different from other materials in that they are inherently recyclable. This means that, in theory, they can be used over and over again, minimizing the need to mine and process virgin materials and thus saving substantial amount of energy and water while minimizing environmental degradation in the process. INTRODUCTION
Recycling data have the potential to demonstrate how efficiently metals are being reused, and can thereby serve some of the following purposes: Determine the influence of recycling on resources sustainability; Provide information for research on improving recycling efficiency; Provide information for life-cycle assessment analysis; Stimulate informed recycling policies. Scope of Study
Ferrous Metals Ferrous Metals: V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Nb, Mo Non-ferrous Metals Non-ferrous Metals: Mg, Al, Ti, Co, Cu, Zn, Sn, Pb Specialty Metals Specialty Metals: Li, Be, B, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Y, Zr, Cd, In, Sb, Te, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Hg,Tl, Bi.
Simplified metal and product life cycle product life cycle The cycle is initiated by Choices in product design; Which material are going To be used, how they will Be joined, and which process are used for manufacturing. Scope of Study
Metal Recycling Considerations
Rare earths roster Here's a closer look at some of the ways each rare earth element is used: Scandium Scandium: Added to mercury vapor lamps to make their light look more like sunlight. Also used in certain types of athletic equipment including aluminum baseball bats, bicycle frames and lacrosse sticks as well as fuel cells. Yttrium Yttrium: Produces color in many TV picture tubes. Also conducts microwaves and acoustic energy, simulates diamond gemstones, and strengthens ceramics, glass, aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys, among other uses. Lanthanum Lanthanum: One of several rare earths used to make carbon arc lamps, which the film and TV industry use for studio and projector lights. Also found in batteries, cigarette-lighter flints and specialized types of glass, like camera lenses.
Cerium: Cerium: The most widespread of all rare earth metals. Used in catalytic converters and diesel fuels to reduce vehicles' carbon monoxide emissions. Also used in carbon arc lights, lighter flints, glass polishers and self-cleaning ovens. Praseodymium: Praseodymium: Primarily used as an alloying agent with magnesium to make high-strength metals for aircraft engines. Also may be used as a signal amplifier in fiber-optic cables, and to create the hard glass of welder's goggles. Neodymium: Neodymium: Mainly used to make powerful neodymium magnets for computer hard disks, wind turbines, hybrid cars, earbud headphones and microphones. Also used to color glass and to make lighter flints and welder's goggles. Metal Recycling Considerations
Promethium: Promethium: Does not occur naturally on Earth; must be artificially produced via uranium fission. Added to some kinds of luminous paint and nuclear-powered microbatteries, with potential use in portable X-ray devices. Samarium: Samarium: Mixed with cobalt to create a permanent magnet with the highest demagnetization resistance of any known material. Crucial for building "smart" missiles; also used in carbon arc lamps, lighter flints and some types of glass. Europium: Europium: The most reactive of all rare earth metals. Used for decades as a red phosphor in TV sets and more recently in computer monitors, fluorescent lamps and some types of lasers but otherwise has few commercial applications. Gadolinium: Gadolinium: Used in some control rods at nuclear power plants. Also used in medical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and industrially to improve the workability of iron, chromium and various other metals. Metal Recycling Considerations
Terbium: Terbium: Used in some solid-state technology, from advanced sonar systems to small electronic sensors, as well as fuel cells designed to operate at high temperatures. Also produces laser light and green phosphors in TV tubes. Dysprosium: Dysprosium: Used in some control rods at nuclear power plants. Also used in certain kinds of lasers, high-intensity lighting, and to raise the coercivity of high-powered permanent magnets, such as those found in hybrid vehicles. Holmium: Holmium: Has the highest magnetic strength of any known element, making it useful in industrial magnets as well as some nuclear control rods. Also used in solid-state lasers and to help color cubic zirconia and certain types of glass. Erbium: Erbium: Used as a photographic filter and as a signal amplifier (aka "doping agent") in fiber-optic cables. Also used in some nuclear control rods, metallic alloys, and to color specialized glass and porcelain in sunglasses and cheap jewelry. Metal Recycling Considerations
Thulium: Thulium: The rarest of all naturally occurring rare earth metals. Has few commercial applications, although it is used in some surgical lasers. After being exposed to radiation in nuclear reactors, it's also used in portable X-ray technology. Ytterbium: Ytterbium: Used in some portable X-ray devices, but otherwise has limited commercial uses. Among its specialty applications, it's used in certain types of lasers, stress gauges for earthquakes, and as a doping agent in fiber-optic cables. Lutetium: Lutetium: Mainly restricted to specialty uses, such as calculating the age of meteorites or performing positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Has also been used as a catalyst for the process of "cracking" petroleum products at oil refineries. Metal Recycling Considerations
Recycling rates reported for the 60 elements studied: ElementMain UsesElementMain Uses PbBatteriesAujewelry, electronics Agelectronics, industrial applications Alin construction and transportation Sncans and soldersCuconducting electricity and heat Crstainless steelsNistainless steels and super- alloys Nbhigh strength / low alloy steels and super-alloys MnSteel Zncoating steel - galvanizingFethe basis and chief constituent of all ferrous metals Cosuper-alloys, catalysts, batteries Regas turbines (perhaps 60% of use), and catalysts Tipaint, transportationPd, Pt, Rh auto catalysts
Recycling rates reported for the 60 elements studied: ElementMain UsesElementMain Uses Mgconstruction and transportation Mohigh-performance stainless steels Irelectro-chemistry, crucibles for mono-crystal growing, spark plugs ElementMain UsesElementMain Uses Wcarbide cutting toolsRuelectronics (hard disk drives), process catalysts / electrochemistry Cdbatteries (85%), pigments (10%) Metal Recycling Considerations
Recycling rates reported for the 60 elements studied: ElementMain UsesElementMain Uses Hglargely being phased out; main remaining uses: chlorine / caustic soda production Sbflame retardant (65% of use), lead acid batteries (23%) ElementMain UsesElementMain Uses BeelectronicsGaelectronics: ICs, LEDs, diodes, solar cells Inas a coating in flat-panel displays Semanufacturing glass, manganese production, LEDs, photovoltaics, infrared optics Metal Recycling Considerations
Recycling rates reported for the 60 elements studied: ElementMain UsesElementMain Uses Srpyrotechnics, ferrite ceramic magnets for electronics Tain capacitors in electronics Gein night vision (infrared) lenses (30%), PET catalysts (30%), solar cell concentrators, fiber optics Erfiber-optics Testeel additives, solar cells, thermo-electronics Hfin nuclear reactors, and to a small degree in electronics Zrin nuclear reactorsTloccasional use in medical equipment Vhigh strength-low alloy steelsAsArsenic metal is used in semiconductors (electronics, photovoltaics) and as an alloying element; Arsenic oxide is used in wood preservatives and glass manufacture Metal Recycling Considerations
Recycling rates reported for the 60 elements studied: ElementMain UsesElementMain Uses Badrilling fluid (perhaps 80% of use); as a filler in plastic, paint and rubber (about 20%) Bimetallurgical additive and alloy constituent Liin batteriesLain batteries Scin aluminium alloysYas a phosphor Euas a phosphorYbas a phosphor Lua scintillator in computerized tomography Ceas a catalyst Os(occasionally used as a catalyst, but has little industrial importance Tmno significant uses Prglass manufacturing and magnets Gdin ceramics and magnets Bin glass, ceramics, magnetsNd, Sm, Tb, Dy, Ho main use for all five: in magnets Metal Recycling Considerations
Metal Stocks in Society Metal Recycling Considerations
Electoleaching of Electronic Scraps Metal Recycling Considerations
Recycling Aluminium from Water Treatment Sludge Metal Recycling Considerations
Recycling Metals from Brass Scraps Metal Recycling Considerations
Recycling Metals from Automotive Catalyst Metal Recycling Considerations
Recycling Metals from Steelworks Dust Metal Recycling Considerations
Recycling Metals from Galvanic Effluent Metal Recycling Considerations
Aluminium Recycling from Tetra pak Tetra pak packings Before the disintegration After the disintegration Al + H 2 SO 4 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + H 2 Flocculant Agent Melting Dissolution LDPE after cleaning operation Metal Recycling Considerations
Final Remarks The recycling of non-renewable metal values out of secondary sources is of paramount Importance for the sustainable use of natural metal resources. Therefore, some key points have to be taken into consideration: The definition of cost effective metal extraction processes, in terms of energy savings, and, in addition, bearing in mind the environment preservation; To wave for the final use of the metal values extracted either as metal, back as final use as raw material to the mechanical industrial sector or as chemicals, such as CuSO 4, CuCN, NiSO 4, ZnSO 4 etc., to be used in the plating and agricultural sectors; Taking into consideration the huge variety of metals being used nowadays in sophisticated electronic devices, which are quickly obsolete due to the ever increasing technological advances, it is necessary to find out how much of those elements are being recycled as an attempt to drive the attention of our Central Government, in particular the Ministry of Mine and Energy, to consider, while issuing the ore prospecting directives for the Brazilian mining sector to go for recycling metals, in order to obviate the need to locate and mine virgin ores.
Débora Monteiro de Oliveira M.Sc. Service of the Metallurgical and Biotechnological Processes Luiz Gonzaga Santos Sobral Ph.D Head of the Metallurgical and Biotechnological Processes Division Centre for Mineral Technology CETEM/MCT Av. Pedro Calmon, 900 Cidade Universitária Rio de Janeiro - RJ CEP: Tel: Fax: