Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Language Shift and Language Death Daniel Schlunegger Sascha Kocher Basil Rohrer 1.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Language Shift and Language Death Daniel Schlunegger Sascha Kocher Basil Rohrer 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Language Shift and Language Death Daniel Schlunegger Sascha Kocher Basil Rohrer 1

2 Overview -Terminology -Some numbers -Classifications -Types of language death -Sudden death (linguicide) -Radical death -Gradual death -Bottom-up / Top-down 2

3 Terminology Schmid, Monika S. Language Attrition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,

4 Terminology -Language death -When the last speaker is dead -Extinct language -A dead language -e.g. Ancient Greek, Latin, Old English,... -May still be used in science or as sacred languages Crystal, David. "What is language death?" In Language Death, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, "Extinct language." In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. n.d. Accessed May 6,

5 Terminology -Language shift -Weinreich: "the change from the habitual use of one language to that of another" (1953, p.68) -Community of speakers shifts from one language to another -In most cases part of language death -Language attrition -Loss of proficiency in a language by a healthy individual -Aphasia -pathological, brain injury - Crystal, David. "Why do languages die?" In Language Death, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Schmid, Monika S. Language Attrition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Weinreich, Uriel. Languages in Contact, Findings and Problems. New York: Linguistic Circle of New York,

6 Some numbers – 7000 living languages in the world -Half of them are going to disappear in the course of the current century -Every two weeks one language dies out -96% of all languages are spoken by only 4% of the population - Crystal, David. "What is language death?" In Language Death, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.), Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: (Accessed May 6, 2013) 6

7 Classifications Stage 8Only a few isolated old folks speak the language Stage 7Speakers are socially integrated but beyond child-bearing age Stage 6Some informal oral intergenerational use of the language Stage 5Language is alive and well Stage 4Language is taught and required in elementary schools Stage 3Language is used in business and by employees in lower work sphere Stage 2Language is used by lower government and mass media Stage 1Language is used by higher government and in higher education Fishmans Scale for endangered languages - Fishman, Joshua A. Reversing Language Shift Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Assistance to Threatened Languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, Miroslav Černý. Language Death versus Language Survival: A Global Perspective. In Beyond Globalisation: Exploring the Limits of Globalisation in the Regional Context (conference proceedings), Ostrava: University of Ostrava Czech Republic, Adapted from Fishman (1991); Černý (2010) 7

8 Types of language death -Sudden death (linguicide) -Radical death -Gradual death -Bottom-up / Top-down death 8

9 Sudden death (linguicide) - In a short period of time a language becomes completely extinct (no occurance of language shift) -Death of all or almost all of its speakers -Because of catastrophic natural causes, genocide, diseases, civil wars -Resulting in a high mortality and decay of the community -e.g. The Black War in Tasmania - Campbell, Lyle, and Martha C. Muntzel. "The structural consequences of language death." In Investigating Obsolescence: Studies in Language Contraction and Death, edited by Nancy C Dorian, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Crystal, David. "Why do languages die?" In Language Death, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,

10 Radical death -Similar to sudden death -fast decline of the language -often political repression and genocide -Loss of language "out of selfdefence, a survival strategy" (Campbell & Muntzel, 1989) -e.g. El Salvador (1932): -Insurgents of a revolt were assumed to be "communist- inspired Indians" Those identified were killed (10000 – 40000) -Out of fear, people stopped speaking their language (Lenca, Cacaopera and Pipil) - Campbell, Lyle, and Martha C. Muntzel. "The structural consequences of language death." In Investigating Obsolescence: Studies in Language Contraction and Death, edited by Nancy C Dorian, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Crystal, David. "Why do languages die?" In Language Death, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, University of California, San Diego. "SSHL: Latin American Election Statistics: El Salvador elections and events " Internet Archive: Wayback Machine. Accessed May 7,

11 Gradual death -Gradual language shift towards the dominant language -"immense pressure (...) to speak the dominant language" (Crystal, 2000) -Intermediate stage of bilingualism -Young generation becomes more proficient in the new language and less proficient in the old language. - Campbell, Lyle, and Martha C. Muntzel. "The structural consequences of language death." In Investigating Obsolescence: Studies in Language Contraction and Death, edited by Nancy C Dorian, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Crystal, David. "Why do languages die?" In Language Death, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,

12 Bottom-up / Top-down -Bottom up -Language change starts at home, in the family and in peer- groups -latinate pattern which has been identified in Uto-Aztecan where the language is lost first in the contexts of domestic intimacy and last in the most elevated ritual routines (Hill, 1983) -Top down -Language change starts at a higher level (e.g. government) -Language policy and laws - Campbell, Lyle, and Martha C. Muntzel. "The structural consequences of language death." In Investigating Obsolescence: Studies in Language Contraction and Death, edited by Nancy C Dorian, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Crystal, David. "Why do languages die?" In Language Death, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Hill, Jane H. "Language Death in Uto-Aztecan." International Journal of American Linguistics 49, no. 3 (1983): doi: / "Language death." In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. n.d. Accessed May 7,

13 To conclude -There is never only one single factor responsible for language death -Factors which put people in physical danger are mainly responsible for sudden death and radical death -Factors which change the culture of the people are mainly responsible for gradual death 13

14 Language shift / death and Colonisation Overview Colonial nations 3 different types of colonisation Diseases typical for colonies Pidgin Creoles 14

15 Which countries were the 5 biggest colonisers? Colonisation Portugal France Spain Britain Netherlands 15

16 16th century Colonisation 16

17 3 different types of colonisation, according to Mufwene (2002) Trade colonies Exploitation colonies Settlement colonies 17

18 Trade colonies First colonies, especially at west coast of Africa and Asia from 15th to 18th century Languages: anything (trial and error) Pidgin No languages endangered 18

19 Exploitation colonies Many trade colonies turned into exploitation colonies Lingua franca – Pidgin – Urban vernacular Examples for linguas francas: Swahili in East Africa Wolof in Senegal Lingala in the Congo Hausa in Nigeria (Mufwene, 2002) British empire: Colonial language policy (Brutt-Griffler, 2002) 19

20 Settlement colonies Produced monolingualism, favouring language of colonising nation (English, Spanish, Portugiese) Languages of slaves and europeans from other countries doomed Plantation and non-plantation settlement colonies Indigenous languages lost due to diseases / war / relocation / language shift (adaptation) 20

21 Diseases in settlement colonies Smallpox Measles Yellow fever Influenza Cholera Syphilis Tuberculosis … Over 90% of indigenous people killed in the Americas (Crystal, 2000) 21

22 Trade coloniesExploitation coloniesSettlement colonies -West coast of Africa -India -Zanzibar -No significant loss of indigenous languages -Purpose: Bring new goods to european countries. -Colonists and indigenous people on equal levels -Africa and Asia -No significant loss of indigenous languages, not much pressure to shift -Indigenous people should keep their languages -Lingua franca (eventually led to language shift) -Purpose: bring new goods to european countries/ control the sources -Colonists were minority Caribean islands, Australia, New Zealand Huge language loss Purpose: new homes for colonists Colonists were majority of people, ecological pressure for language shift (in non- plantation colonies) 22

23 18th century Colonisation 23

24 4th type of colonisation La Réunion and Mauritius by the French 24

25 25

26 19th century Colonisation 26

27 Pidgin From Chinese word for business (in Canton, even though no colony) No native languages, are created (www.icaltefl.com) Developed out of contacts between colonial and indigenous languages Colonial language functioned as superstrate language which provided the vocabulary Lingua franca in trade colonies Examples: – I no no I dont know (Nigeria) – Come chop Come and eat (Nigeria) – Brah Brother or pal (Hawaii) – Garans guaranteed (Hawaii) 27

28 Creoles Pidgins learned as native language by next generation Further development of grammar Mainly in settlement colonies passing on indigenous language was disadvantage Loss of indigenous language (slaves) enabled further development of lingua franca Still in use in former plantation settlement colonies (Mufwene, 2002) 28

29 English based creoles List of languages : Afro-Seminole United States Aluku French Guiana Anguillan Creole Anguilla Antiguan Creole Antigua and Barbuda Tok Pisin Papua New Guinea Barbadian Creole Barbados Bbislama Vanuatu Belizean Creole Belize 29

30 French based creoles 30

31 Closure Indigenous languages have been eroded not by the European languages but by the indigenous lingua franca. Mufwene, 2002 Language loss has been the most catastrophic in settlement colonies and new languages varieties have emerged additively in trade colonies. Mufwene,

32 Sources J. Brutt-Griffler, World English: A Study of its Development html (Accessed 4. Mai 2013)http://linguistlist.org/issues/13/ html Salikoko S. Mufwene, Language birth and death. (Accessed 4. Mai 2013) Salikoko S. Mufwene, Colonisation, Globalisation, and the Future of Languages in the Twenty-first Century. (Accessed 4. Mai 2013)http://humanities.uchicago.edu/faculty/mufwene/vl4n2COLONIZATION-GLOBALIZATION.pdf D. Crystal, Language death. Cambridge University press. 68 – 76. J. H. Cossar, Influence of Travel and Disease tb00553.x/pdf (Accessed 5. Mai 2013)http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ /j tb00553.x/pdf Online sources: (Accessed 4. Mai 2013) (Accessed 4. Mai 2013) (Accessed 4. Mai 2013) (Accessed 5. Mai 2013) (Accessed 5. Mai 2013) (Accessed 5. Mai 2013) (Accessed 5. Mai 2013) (Accessed 5. Mai 2013) 32

33 A language disappears when its speakers disappear or when they shift to speaking another language – most often, a larger language used by a more powerful group. (UNESCO Website) 33

34 English 34

35 Main threat to smaller, local languages Third most spoken language in the world (native speakers) 35

36 36

37 Spread of English Colonisation – Possessions outside of the British Isles used as trading posts (the late 16th & early 18th centuries) – Peak: Largest empire in history and, for over a century, biggest global power. (Ferguson, 2004) – 1922: British Empire 458 million people (Ferguson, 2004) 1/5 of total population almost 1/4 of Earths total land area 37

38 Spread of English Colonization The areas of the world that at one time were part of the British Empire. Current British Overseas Territories have their names underlined in red. 38

39 Spread of English Colonisation After the British colonisation, dominant language in United States Australia New Zealand 39

40 English in the world 3 rd most spoken language in the world by native speakers Most widely spoken language in the world – About one-fourth of the world's population can communicate to some degree in English. 40

41 Globalisation Globalisation typically assumed to be a purely economic phenomenon. Social exchanges Cultural exchange Political exchanges Technological exchanges 41

42 According to Crystal (1997): – 85% of the world's international organizations use English as their official language in transnational communication – About 85% of the worlds important film productions and markets use English – 90% of the published academic articles in several academic fields are written in English 42

43 Factors for the spread of English in the 20 th and 21 th century Globalisation of the English language US as #1 economic power Technological advancements Simplicity of the English language Economic Globalisation 43

44 Simplicity of English Uses Latin alphabet (simple and short) – No use of diacritics Verb conjugation is very simple and easy Almost no Inflections Analytical language Use of Periphrases Receptive Source: Torres, 44

45 Alternatives? Best alternative would be Chinese if it were written in Latin alphabet No conjugations or declension, but a very complicated script and tones. Other examples: – Japanese: has very regular verbs but also a very complicated script – German has many more inflections than English – The major Romance languages, such as French, Spanish and Portuguese, have fewer inflections than most of languages, but their verb conjugation is very complicated – Russian has both complex verb conjugations and numerous noun declensions Source: Torres, 45

46 It may fairly be said that English is among the easiest languages to speak badly; but the most difficult to use well C.L. Wren (1960) 46

47 English as lingua franca Most English as lingua franca (ELF) interaction are between speakers that do not share the same first language Contact language Simplified English as new pidgin? – Globish Global English, World English 47

48 World English Seidlhofer (2005): English is being shaped at least as much by its non- native speakers as by its native speakers. This has led to a somewhat paradoxical situation: on the one hand, for the majority of its users, English is a foreign language, and the vast majority of verbal exchanges in English do not involve any native speakers of the language at all. On the other hand, there is still a tendency for native speakers to be regarded as custodians over what is acceptable usage. 48

49 49

50 Should we just let English kill other languages and all speak English? 50

51 Sources Crystal, D English as a Global Language (Second edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ferguson, N. (2004). Empire, the rise and demise of the British world order and the lessons for global power. New York: Penguin Books. Jenkins, J The Phonology of English as an International Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mufwene, S.S Language birth and death. (Accessed 4. Mai 2013) Phillipson, R English for Globalisation or for the World's People? International Review of Education. Vol. 47, No. 3/4, pp Globalisation, Language and Education. Springer. Power, C Not the Queen's English ; Non-native English-speakers now outnumber native ones 3 to 1. And it's changing the way we communicate. Newsweek Magazine (International Ed.). New York Seidlhofer, B English as a lingua franca. ELT J. 59(4): doi: /elt/cci064 Spichtinger, D The Spread of English and its Appropriation. Universität Wien Treanor, Paul (1996). Making Europe multilingual http//www.heise.de/tp/english/inhalt/te/1155/1.html http//www.heise.de/tp/english/inhalt/te/1155/1.html Online Source: (maps) 51


Download ppt "Language Shift and Language Death Daniel Schlunegger Sascha Kocher Basil Rohrer 1."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google