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Leaving Certificate History British withdrawal from India, 1945-1947: helping students to think critically.

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Presentation on theme: "Leaving Certificate History British withdrawal from India, 1945-1947: helping students to think critically."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leaving Certificate History British withdrawal from India, 1945-1947: helping students to think critically

2 © SLSS 2010 2 Cultural & Environmental Ed Pillar 6 Ancient Greek/Latin Art Classical Studies CSPE Environmental & Social Studies Geography HISTORY Music

3 © SLSS 2010 3 Administrator Angela Thompson Tel: 053 - 923 9121 Fax: 053 – 923 9132 E-mail: angelathompson@eircom.net National Co-ordinator Conor Harrison Mobile: 087 – 240 5710 E-mail: conorharrison@slss.ie Co. Wexford Education Centre Milehouse Road Enniscorthy Co. Wexford Cultural & Environmental Education

4 © SLSS 2010 4 Helping students to think critically Increasing focus on students ability to think critically The enquiry-focused approach: rationale The multi-perspective approach A critical skills exercise

5 © SLSS 2010 5 The enquiry-focused approach Aims To give a clear focus to a series of lessons To clarify for all concerned what the learning purposes are To ensure that the sequence of lessons is leading to improved understanding on the part of the students

6 © SLSS 2010 6 The multi-perspective approach Aims To gain a more comprehensive understanding of historical events and developments To gain a deeper understanding of the historical relationship between nations … or majorities and minorities within national borders To gain a broader understanding of the dynamics of what happened through examining the interactions between the people and groups involved and their interdependence

7 © SLSS 2010 7 Introducing the case study The broader context of colonialism An overview of the case study British withdrawal from India, 1945-1947: glossary (key terms, episodes)

8 © SLSS 2010 8 A chronological overview The Raj The independence struggle The Pakistan movement World War II and its aftermath

9 © SLSS 2010 9 Profiles Congress Party leaders Muslim League leaders British administrators and politicians

10 © SLSS 2010 10 A possible enquiry What happened between 1945 and 1947 that led to the creation of two states as the British withdrew from India? Potential benefits of using this question to focus on the subject matter of the case study?

11 © SLSS 2010 11 British withdrawal from India Image: http://www.thehindu.com/fline/fl1910/19100781.jpg

12 © SLSS 2010 12 A possible hook A newsreel film clip showing the establishment of the two states may be downloaded at www.harappa.com/wall/wall.html www.youtube.com/watch?v=hYR Y6hmcOns www.harappa.com/wall/wall.html www.youtube.com/watch?v=hYR Y6hmcOns

13 © SLSS 2010 13 India before independence and partition: http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/findhelpregion/asia/india/indianindependence/map1/large14213.html Source: British Library

14 © SLSS 2010 14 Enquiry question: What happened between 1945 and 1947 that led to the creation of two states as the British withdrew from India? Stage 1 of the enquiry: In 1945, what circumstances, already existing, made moves towards British withdrawal, Indian independence and the creation of Pakistani likely? Stage 2 of the enquiry: What developments during 1945 made moves towards British withdrawal, Indian independence and the creation of Pakistan more likely?

15 © SLSS 2010 15 Enquiry question: What happened between 1945 and 1947 that led to the creation of two states as the British withdrew from India? Stage 3 of the enquiry: What actions by, and interactions between, the British government, the Congress Party and the Muslim League had a significant impact on developments during 1946? Stage 4 of the enquiry: Why did British plans for India undergo a number of changes during 1947?

16 © SLSS 2010 16 Strategy for the enquiry Identification of significant developments/trends Show your critical awareness questions Use of primary source materials, including speeches, newspaper reports, newsreel footage, cartoons Consideration of historians judgements Questions to interrogate the primary and secondary sources

17 © SLSS 2010 17 Stage 1 of the enquiry In 1945, what circumstances, already existing, made moves towards British withdrawal, Indian independence and the creation of Pakistan likely? Relevant circumstances Show your critical awareness Related sources Questions on the sources

18 © SLSS 2010 18 The Cripps Mission, 1942 Image: http://www.ivu.org/history/europe20a/cripps.html Cripps with Gandhi, 1942

19 © SLSS 2010 19 Stage 2 of the enquiry What developments during 1945 made moves towards British withdrawal, Indian independence and the creation of Pakistan more likely? Relevant developments/trends Show your critical awareness Related sources Questions on the sources

20 © SLSS 2010 20 The Simla Conference, 1945 Wavell greets Jinnah at Simla, 1945 Image: www.pakistan.gov.pk/Quaid/images/leader/06.jpg

21 © SLSS 2010 21 The Simla Conference, 1945 Our stand has been, and we have repeatedly made it clear to the British government several times since 1940, that we cannot consider or enter into any provisional government unless a declaration is made by the British government guaranteeing the right of self-determination of Muslims and pledging that after the war, or as soon as it may be possible, the British government would establish Pakistan having regard to the basic principles laid down in the Lahore resolution of the Muslim League passed in 1940. From a press conference given by Jinnah in Simla, 14 th July, 1945

22 © SLSS 2010 22 The Red Fort Trials, 1945-46 Image: /www.s1942.org.sg/s1942/indian_national_army/_images/remember_redfort.jpg There has seldom been a matter which has attracted so much Indian public interest, and, it is safe to say, sympathy. Director of the Intelligence Bureau

23 © SLSS 2010 23 Stage 3 of the enquiry What actions by, and interactions between, the British government, the Congress party and the Muslim league had a significant impact on developments during 1946? Significant actions and interactions Show your critical awareness Related sources Questions on the sources

24 © SLSS 2010 24 The Cabinet Mission, March-June, 1946 Acknowledgement: Daily Mail. Illingworth, 19 March: Civil war and famine are heading towards India

25 © SLSS 2010 25 Cabinet Mission proposals, 1946 Long-term –1 st tier: federal union (foreign affairs, defence, communications) –2 nd tier: autonomous provinces, able to form subordinate unions of their own Short-term –Setting up of interim government –Elections for Constituent Assembly (to work out details of constitution), with provinces grouped to reflect communal differences)

26 © SLSS 2010 26 Direct Action Day, 16 August, 1946 Even before 10 oclock Police Headquarters had reported that there was excitement throughout the city, that shops were being forced to close, and that there were many reports of stabbing and throwing of stones and brickbats. The trouble had already assumed the communal character which it was to retain throughout … Later reports indicate that the Muslims were in an aggressive mood from early in the day and that their processions were well armed with the lathis, iron rods and missiles. Their efforts to force Hindu shops to close as they passed through the streets were greeted with showers of brickbats from the roofs above – indicating that the Hindus were not unprepared for trouble – and from this sort of exchange of missiles, matters soon degenerated into arson, looting and murder. Letter from Sir Frederick Burrows to Lord Wavell, 22 nd August, 1946

27 © SLSS 2010 27 Indian politics, November 1946 Acknowledgement: Daily Mail. As seen by Illingworth, Daily Mail, 29 November: Indian politics

28 © SLSS 2010 28 Stage 4 of the enquiry Why did British plans for India undergo a number of changes during 1947? Relevant developments Show your critical awareness Related sources Questions on the sources

29 © SLSS 2010 29 February 1947: a new Viceroy Image:http://www.tree.familyhistory.uk.com/showmedia.php?mediaID=5

30 © SLSS 2010 30 Mountbattens initial plan for withdrawal, May 1947 Image:http://www.masters-of-photography.com/B/bourke-white/b-w_nehru_full.html Nehru wrote that the plan would Balkanise India, lead to a breakdown of the central authority, provoke civil conflict (Narendra Singh Sarila, 2005)

31 © SLSS 2010 31 Communal violence and the mounting pressure for a solution Acknowledgement: Daily Mail. As seen by Illingworth, Daily Mail, 20 May: Free India

32 © SLSS 2010 32 Mountbattens plan, 3 June, 1947 INDIA WINS INDEPENDENCE AND PARTITION So India is to have independence – and partition. That is the effect of the plan announced by the British prime minister. Before the end of this year the British will leave India. They will hand over power not to one government but two, It was the only solution, but it has brought little joy to any party … The Irish Times, 14 th June, 1947

33 © SLSS 2010 33 The transfer of power, 14-15 August, 1947 Film clip: A New India Transcript: page 14 Provenance: Universal Newsreel was one of the five major US newsreel companies from 1929 until 1967.Newsreels appeared semi-weekly in US and international movie theatres; most India stories were a minute long. (Source: http://www.harappa.com/film/u0.html)

34 © SLSS 2010 34 Group activity Critical skills exercise


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