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Leaving Certificate History British withdrawal from India, : helping students to think critically
© SLSS Cultural & Environmental Ed Pillar 6 Ancient Greek/Latin Art Classical Studies CSPE Environmental & Social Studies Geography HISTORY Music
© SLSS Administrator Angela Thompson Tel: Fax: 053 – National Co-ordinator Conor Harrison Mobile: 087 – Co. Wexford Education Centre Milehouse Road Enniscorthy Co. Wexford Cultural & Environmental Education
© SLSS Helping students to think critically Increasing focus on students ability to think critically The enquiry-focused approach: rationale The multi-perspective approach A critical skills exercise
© SLSS The enquiry-focused approach Aims To give a clear focus to a series of lessons To clarify for all concerned what the learning purposes are To ensure that the sequence of lessons is leading to improved understanding on the part of the students
© SLSS The multi-perspective approach Aims To gain a more comprehensive understanding of historical events and developments To gain a deeper understanding of the historical relationship between nations … or majorities and minorities within national borders To gain a broader understanding of the dynamics of what happened through examining the interactions between the people and groups involved and their interdependence
© SLSS Introducing the case study The broader context of colonialism An overview of the case study British withdrawal from India, : glossary (key terms, episodes)
© SLSS A chronological overview The Raj The independence struggle The Pakistan movement World War II and its aftermath
© SLSS Profiles Congress Party leaders Muslim League leaders British administrators and politicians
© SLSS A possible enquiry What happened between 1945 and 1947 that led to the creation of two states as the British withdrew from India? Potential benefits of using this question to focus on the subject matter of the case study?
© SLSS British withdrawal from India Image:
© SLSS A possible hook A newsreel film clip showing the establishment of the two states may be downloaded at Y6hmcOns Y6hmcOns
© SLSS India before independence and partition: Source: British Library
© SLSS Enquiry question: What happened between 1945 and 1947 that led to the creation of two states as the British withdrew from India? Stage 1 of the enquiry: In 1945, what circumstances, already existing, made moves towards British withdrawal, Indian independence and the creation of Pakistani likely? Stage 2 of the enquiry: What developments during 1945 made moves towards British withdrawal, Indian independence and the creation of Pakistan more likely?
© SLSS Enquiry question: What happened between 1945 and 1947 that led to the creation of two states as the British withdrew from India? Stage 3 of the enquiry: What actions by, and interactions between, the British government, the Congress Party and the Muslim League had a significant impact on developments during 1946? Stage 4 of the enquiry: Why did British plans for India undergo a number of changes during 1947?
© SLSS Strategy for the enquiry Identification of significant developments/trends Show your critical awareness questions Use of primary source materials, including speeches, newspaper reports, newsreel footage, cartoons Consideration of historians judgements Questions to interrogate the primary and secondary sources
© SLSS Stage 1 of the enquiry In 1945, what circumstances, already existing, made moves towards British withdrawal, Indian independence and the creation of Pakistan likely? Relevant circumstances Show your critical awareness Related sources Questions on the sources
© SLSS The Cripps Mission, 1942 Image: Cripps with Gandhi, 1942
© SLSS Stage 2 of the enquiry What developments during 1945 made moves towards British withdrawal, Indian independence and the creation of Pakistan more likely? Relevant developments/trends Show your critical awareness Related sources Questions on the sources
© SLSS The Simla Conference, 1945 Wavell greets Jinnah at Simla, 1945 Image:
© SLSS The Simla Conference, 1945 Our stand has been, and we have repeatedly made it clear to the British government several times since 1940, that we cannot consider or enter into any provisional government unless a declaration is made by the British government guaranteeing the right of self-determination of Muslims and pledging that after the war, or as soon as it may be possible, the British government would establish Pakistan having regard to the basic principles laid down in the Lahore resolution of the Muslim League passed in From a press conference given by Jinnah in Simla, 14 th July, 1945
© SLSS The Red Fort Trials, Image: /www.s1942.org.sg/s1942/indian_national_army/_images/remember_redfort.jpg There has seldom been a matter which has attracted so much Indian public interest, and, it is safe to say, sympathy. Director of the Intelligence Bureau
© SLSS Stage 3 of the enquiry What actions by, and interactions between, the British government, the Congress party and the Muslim league had a significant impact on developments during 1946? Significant actions and interactions Show your critical awareness Related sources Questions on the sources
© SLSS The Cabinet Mission, March-June, 1946 Acknowledgement: Daily Mail. Illingworth, 19 March: Civil war and famine are heading towards India
© SLSS Cabinet Mission proposals, 1946 Long-term –1 st tier: federal union (foreign affairs, defence, communications) –2 nd tier: autonomous provinces, able to form subordinate unions of their own Short-term –Setting up of interim government –Elections for Constituent Assembly (to work out details of constitution), with provinces grouped to reflect communal differences)
© SLSS Direct Action Day, 16 August, 1946 Even before 10 oclock Police Headquarters had reported that there was excitement throughout the city, that shops were being forced to close, and that there were many reports of stabbing and throwing of stones and brickbats. The trouble had already assumed the communal character which it was to retain throughout … Later reports indicate that the Muslims were in an aggressive mood from early in the day and that their processions were well armed with the lathis, iron rods and missiles. Their efforts to force Hindu shops to close as they passed through the streets were greeted with showers of brickbats from the roofs above – indicating that the Hindus were not unprepared for trouble – and from this sort of exchange of missiles, matters soon degenerated into arson, looting and murder. Letter from Sir Frederick Burrows to Lord Wavell, 22 nd August, 1946
© SLSS Indian politics, November 1946 Acknowledgement: Daily Mail. As seen by Illingworth, Daily Mail, 29 November: Indian politics
© SLSS Stage 4 of the enquiry Why did British plans for India undergo a number of changes during 1947? Relevant developments Show your critical awareness Related sources Questions on the sources
© SLSS February 1947: a new Viceroy Image:http://www.tree.familyhistory.uk.com/showmedia.php?mediaID=5
© SLSS Mountbattens initial plan for withdrawal, May 1947 Image:http://www.masters-of-photography.com/B/bourke-white/b-w_nehru_full.html Nehru wrote that the plan would Balkanise India, lead to a breakdown of the central authority, provoke civil conflict (Narendra Singh Sarila, 2005)
© SLSS Communal violence and the mounting pressure for a solution Acknowledgement: Daily Mail. As seen by Illingworth, Daily Mail, 20 May: Free India
© SLSS Mountbattens plan, 3 June, 1947 INDIA WINS INDEPENDENCE AND PARTITION So India is to have independence – and partition. That is the effect of the plan announced by the British prime minister. Before the end of this year the British will leave India. They will hand over power not to one government but two, It was the only solution, but it has brought little joy to any party … The Irish Times, 14 th June, 1947
© SLSS The transfer of power, August, 1947 Film clip: A New India Transcript: page 14 Provenance: Universal Newsreel was one of the five major US newsreel companies from 1929 until 1967.Newsreels appeared semi-weekly in US and international movie theatres; most India stories were a minute long. (Source:
© SLSS Group activity Critical skills exercise
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