Presentation on theme: "The History of Presbyterianism in the United States"— Presentation transcript:
1The History of Presbyterianism in the United States Part 3: A Determined UnbeliefC – Evolution as PropagandaAndrew Frye, Worldview Academyand the Rev. David G. Barker
2Master Timeline United States Europe United States (cont.) 1620 – Mayflower lands1730s-1743 – 1st Great Awakening– American Rev.– 2nd Great Awakening1830 – Book of Mormon– 3rd Great Awakening– American Civil War1870 – Scottish Common Sense1889 – Moody Bible Institute1891 – Briggs’ address1909 – Scofield Reference Bible1910 – Pres. G.A.: 5 Fundamentals– World War I1922 – “Shall Fund.s Win?”1923 – The Auburn Affirmation1925 – The Scopes Trial1929 – Westminster Theo. Seminary1936 – Orthodox Presbyterian Ch.1936 – John Mackay, Princeton Sem.1643 – Westminster Confession of Faith– Age of European Enlightenment& of Scottish Common Sense Philosophy1770s-1900 – Rise of German Higher Criticism– French Revolution1827 – Plymouth Brethren begin meeting1833 – Slavery Abolition Act of EnglandCharles Darwin – Origin of Species– Darby travels to the United States1919 – Rise of Neo-OrthodoxyUnited States (cont.)1937 – Death of J. Gresham Machen- Bible Presbyterian Ch. (McIntyre)1955, 1960 – Inherit the Wind1966 – RTS, Jackson, MI1967 – Confession of ‘67, Book of Confessions1973 – PCA1983 – Union of UPCUSA & PCUS
3What has Changed Since the Scopes Trial in 1925? The scientific evidence confidently cited in the Scopes trial - “Piltdown Man” and “Nebraska Man” - had been dismissed as fraud and incorrect respectively. Other scientific evidence for evolution has come and will, before long, also be abandoned. Nothing in evidence of evolution has stood the test of time.“If Darrow had wanted, he probably could just as easily have made the leading evolutionary scientists of the day look foolish.” (P. Johnson)
4What has Changed Since the Scopes Trial in 1925? The scientific evidence confidently cited in the Scopes trial - “Piltdown Man” and “Nebraska Man” - had been dismissed as fraud and incorrect respectively. Other scientific evidence for evolution has come and will, before long, also be abandoned. Nothing in evidence of evolution has stood the test of time.But now the humility of sincere scientific endeavor has given way to outright contempt for that which would try to oppose it. Fantasy must be put in its place. If we cannot yet prove evolution to be true we can at least demonstrate Christianity to be false.
5Births per Thousand in the United States Margaret Sanger1916 – 1st BirthControl Clinic in U.S.Senator Joseph McCarthy1921 – Founded Planned Parenthood
6What has Changed Since the Scopes Trial in 1925? So justified is this mandate that revisionist history is considered appropriate to continue the “education” of the public. In 1960, Hollywood releases Inherit the Wind with top stars of the day to do just that. The impact can still be vehemently felt today - people have learned not from history or from the truth but from their fear and prejudice and, ultimately, their unbelief.“The play has had so much impact that its story is more important than what really happened. The play is not primarily about a single event; it is about the modernist understanding of freedom.”(P. Johnson)
8Inherit the Wind Jan. 10, 1955 – Inherit the Wind opens on Broadway. 1960 –Film version of Inherit the Wind opens at a drive-in movie theater in Dayton. Scopes returns to the town for the premiere and is given the key to the city.Starred Hollywood heavyweights Spencer Tracy, Gene Kelly and Fredric March.
9Matthew Brady arrives in Hillsboro (14:13-16:09) Inherit the WindMatthew Brady arrives in Hillsboro (14:13-16:09)
10Inherit the Wind Jan. 10, 1955 – Inherit the Wind opens on Broadway. 1960 –Film version of Inherit the Wind opens at a drive-in movie theater in Dayton. Scopes returns to the town for the premiere and is given the key to the city.Starred Hollywood heavyweights Spencer Tracy, Gene Kelly and Fredric March.Bryan’s character was portrayed as having a ‘head-in-the-sand’ approach to life by refusing even to read Darwin’s writings. In fact, Bryan was highly educated and he had read Darwin’s On the Origin of Species 20 years before the Scopes trial.Some versions portrayed Bryan as a Republican – he was a Democrat.
11Inherit the WindBryan’s movie character claims that sexual intercourse is the ‘original sin’. In the actual trial, there was however no mention made about sex at all.Contrary to the play, Scopes issued no plea for empathy, there was no fiancée and the real Scopes was never arrested.Who’s rude? Bryan was courteous at all times in his handling of witnesses, as the trial transcript reveals. Darrow, on the other hand, was at times condescending and contemptuous in his treatment of witnesses, jurists, opposing lawyers and even the judge.
12The Speech of Henry Drummond (1:17:24-1:20:16) Inherit the WindThe Speech of Henry Drummond (1:17:24-1:20:16)
13The Battle for the Mind of America (43:46-46:26) Inherit the WindThe Battle for the Mind of America (43:46-46:26)
14Persecution in an angry town? Christian townspeople are presented as ignorant country folk brandishing pitchforks and burning effigiesDarrow - ‘I don’t know as I was ever in a community in my life where my religious ideas differed as widely from the great mass as I have found them since I have been in Tennessee. Yet I came here a perfect stranger and I can say what I have said before that I have not found upon any body’s part—any citizen here in this town or outside the slightest discourtesy. I have been treated better, kindlier and more hospitably than I fancied would have been the case in the north’
15Persecution in an angry town? H.L. Mencken’s first dispatch sent to his newspaper: ‘Nor is there any evidence of that poisonous spirit which usually shows itself when Christian men gather to defend the great doctrine of their faith. … On the contrary, the Evolutionists and the Anti– Evolutionists seem to be on the best of terms, and it is hard in a group to distinguish one from the other.’
16Matthew Brady’s Pathetic Death (1:59:55-2:02:28) Inherit the WindMatthew Brady’s Pathetic Death (1:59:55-2:02:28)
17Final Scene?May 17, 1967 – Tennessee repeals the Butler Act, the law that banned the teaching of evolution in public schools.1968 – In Epperson v. Arkansas, the Supreme Court strikes down an Arkansas law banning the teaching of evolution.Oct. 21, 1970 – John Scopes dies at the age of 70.1987 – In Edwards v. Aguillard, the Supreme Court rules that a Louisiana law requiring public schools to give "balanced treatment" to creationism and evolution is unconstitutional.
18Who Decides?“Historians are not just dispassionate chroniclers. By their selection, ordering, highlighting, attribution and analysis of facts they fashion a particular version of the past. And they also play a part in the disputes of the present, by legitimizing or undermining the rationales, heroes and myths which influence current debates. Historical figures are forever being conscripted for fresh cultural battles.” - The London Times, "Truth, trust and rewriting history" 4/4/02“History is philosophy teaching by example.” Lord Bolingbroke, 18th cen. British writerEvery action of history, every work of art or literature, every theory and act of government is affected by or reflects a worldview.
19How Propaganda gets propagated “[H]istory is always written by winners. … As Napoleon once said, ‘What is history, but a fable agreed upon?’” (Prof. Teabing in The Da Vinci Code, p. 256) Rather than being a truth of the historical record, it is the perpetual lie of the intentionally misleading.
20New Covenant Presbyterian Church Preaching God’s Sovereign Graceto a World of Need128 St. Mary’s Church Rd., Abingdon, MD