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ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 1 Standards and norms. The most boring subject But one of the most useful
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 2 How to measure a dry volume on the market of Troyes? There are exactly 27 bushels (boisseaux) in ten cubic feet of the King. Note: The French use of the word bushel does not correspond to the universal use. Bushel - a measure of dry matter - is in principle equal to one cubic foot. The French bushel corresponded to a cubic foot of the king, and his ninth over.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 3 How to measure a dry volume on the market of Troyes? Only in France there was something like 250.000 different units or values of measurement. According to these measures, each hogshead (muid) contains 12 pints (setiers), or 24 mines or 48 minots, or 144 bushels (boisseaux). But this ratio is right for Paris and for measuring lime, wheat, barley, beans, lentils but does not apply to certain other products. Thus 1 oat (avoine) bushel contains 6 bushels (or 288 bushels per hogshead), and 1 oat of salt contains 4 bushels (or 192 bushels per hogshead). The hogshead (muid) of plaster (platre) contains only 72 bushels (the commodity is measured in "bags", with 36 bags of 2 bushels each per hogshead). The hogshead of Rouen also contained 12 pints of Rouen, but 14 bushels of Paris. The hogshead of Orleans weighed 600 pounds, or 12 mines was equivalent to 2 pints half of Paris, or 5 bushels of Bordeaux. The hogshead of Berry was 21 bushels, with 16 bushels for each hogshead.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 4 How to measure? In the 21 st century: 1 foot = ??? mm 304,799 472 mm in England 304,800 601 mm in USA 304,840 600 mm in Quebec Still use in aviation to measure the altitude.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 5 The metric system, first international standard. Just after the French revolution, the French Academy of Sciences, in 1791, decided to propose a universal measurement unit: the meter as the quarter of the earth circumference divided by 10 million. To measure the circumference of the earth, or at least between Dunkerque and Barcelona, was not an easy job, but they succeeded to give a value and to create the meter in 1899, and then a complete system of measurements. Méchain one of the two mathematicians in charge of the measurement toward Barcelona could not control his works because of the war between France and Spain and made a mistake of 0,2mm. The real length of the meridian is 10 002 290 mètres
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 6 The metric system, first international standard. 17 countries accepted to change their own system and to join the convention of the meter. UK joined one century later, but, a bit lazy, they took one century more to use it really. USA joined at the same time but never used it. So today the whole world uses the same system of measurement, except USA using their specific system, Liberia and Birmania using the Empire system of 1824. This was the first real international standard.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 7 There is a basic need of : -interoperability -safety and environmental use -possibility to compare products. So the standards are required by manufacturers, users and authorities. For an innovative company it is an opportunity, sometimes a war weapon. For lazy companies it is a stain. Be careful: 1 word in English standards = 2 words in French Normes + standards. So we will use two words: Norms and Standards. Standards the need. Usually a standard is made to have a more simple life and a safer business, not to bother people (usually).
interoperability ICE Intellectual Property © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 8
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 9 As it is a voluntary use, why do we have to use them? Standards why do we have to use them? -In a court case, if you use the norm you are supposed to be in accordance with the rule book( rules of art). -In the public or private bids the specifications refers to the different norms. -The customers prefer to get a product or a service in accordance with the norms. -Easier to develop a product. -Safer supply as you can have several suppliers. -Scale effect. Why dont we have to use them (sometimes)? Dubixium case : we had to find tubes round and straight. A streel tube is usually made to transport a fluid. So the requirement of the standards is to be able to weld a flange at each end, nothing more. The machine tools to make a tube are made to produce a tube in accordance with those norms. So if you have to make a tube with a better accuracy, you cannot buy it, you cannot even buy machine tools to make it. Case : Timken bearings or how I got an excellent RnD manager.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 10 Standards Organisations.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 11 Different layers. Laws, directives. Compulsory use.Legislative power of a State. Decrees, orders, regulations Compulsory use.Executive power of a State. Norms standards Voluntary use. Recognized body Standards, specifications, good practice Voluntary use.Private organization Standards some general ideas. NORM: it is establish by a consensus between producers, consumers, authorities. Under the control of a recognized body. At the end approved and published by a recognized body. that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at an optimal level of order in a given context.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 12 National organizations. It is a network of associations named national standards bodies. These national standards bodies make up the ISO membership and they represent ISO in their country. 2 or 3 levels: Country: AFNOR for France created in 1926, DIN for Germany, ANSI American standard institute, BSI British standards institute, JAS Japanese standards association, NVD Swiss etc... Europe (European Community): CEN, CENELEC (electro technique), ETSI (telecommunications). World : ISO, CEI (electro technique), UIT (telecommunications).
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 13 ISO International Standards Organisation. Founded in 1947, and since then have published more than 19 500 International Standards covering almost all aspects of technology and business. Today ISO have members from 164 countries and about 150 people work full time for our Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 14 ISO Technical committees : TC – SC. P - Participating -Full members (or member bodies) influence ISO standards development and strategy by participating and voting in ISO technical and policy meetings. Full members sell and adopt ISO International Standards nationally. O - Observers - Correspondent members observe the development of ISO standards and strategy by attending ISO technical and policy meetings as observers. Correspondent members can sell and adopt ISO International Standards nationally. Subscriber members keep up to date on ISOs work but cannot participate in it. They do not sell or adopt ISO International Standards nationally. Technical committees / Sub committees: TC 1 focusing on screw threads was created in 1947 and TC 269 on railway applications was created in 2012. For each Technical Committee there are three member categories.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 15 ISO Technical committees. ISO/TC 72/SC 5 Industrial laundry and dry-cleaning machinery and accessories Secretariat: SNV Chairman: Mr. Cyril Grandpierre until end 2006 Creation date: 1995 Number of published ISO standards ISO/TC 72/SC 5: 1515 Participating countries: 1111 Observing countries: 55
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 16 HOW TO CREATE A NORM. -Professionals or Prof assos -Public authorities -Associations of consumers Association of Standards P member in the TC TC chairman secretary 1-Proposal for drafting or revision NOYES Creation or activation of a WG expert WG members 2- Commitee Draft TC chairman secretary CASE DUBIX 3 graphical symbols Experts list Meeting report
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 17 HOW TO CREATE A NORM. Working Group Association of Standards WG members 3- Commitee Draft consultation 3 months Observations 3bis- Commitee Draft revised 4- Draft International Standard
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 18 HOW TO CREATE A NORM. Association of Standards P members 5 months -Vote YES with or without comments -Votes NO with technical remarks -Abstention. 4- Draft International Standard NO <33% Working Group NO = 0 NO >33% 4bis- Draft International Standard revised 5- Final Draft International Standard
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 19 HOW TO CREATE A NORM. Working Group Validation 6- Published International Standard 5- Final Draft International Standard Last (?) vote Association of Standards P members ISO secretary approval
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 20 DIFFERENT KIND OF NORMS 1-Fundamental norms. Terminology, acronyms, symbols, metrology. For instance the norm ISO 216 coming from a German DIN norm of 1922, define the size of papers, envelopes aso.... The famous format A4 is defined there. If you can fold a sheet of paper in 3 or in 4 and put it in an envelope, it is thanks to this norm. 2-Specifications norms. Safety. Characteristics and performances of a product or service. The European norm EN 1888 gives the safety requirements and the test method for a push chair (baby chair). For instance it says that the folding system must have a lock which needs 2 actions to be activated and cannot be unlocked by the child. You cannot patent a folding system needing 2 actions aso., there are as many technical solutions as you want. Usually the norm says the result expected, not the way to get it. So everybody is able to find an innovative technical solution and patent it. The enormous advantage to be at the origin of the norm before the others is that you can study and patent the best technical solutions. CASE DUBIX 1 safety norms
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 21 DIFFERENT KIND OF NORMS 2bis-Specifications norms. Performance. Characteristics and performances of a product or service. During the history of the automobile, the power of the models could be expressed by very different standards: Horses DIN (German) Horses British Horse Power Horses SAE (American) JIL, CUNA… CASE DUBIX 2 performance norms What car has the most horses ? Then, certain standards have gone to a better understanding, now it is : measured power with all engine accessories. Are still used Horses CEE / HP et Horses DIN Then we started to harmonize with international measurement system with the SI expression kW of power, logic, but use not widespread. Golf TDI 115 : 84,5 kw ; 113 hp CEE ; 115 hp DIN
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 22 DIFFERENT KIND OF NORMS 3-Analysis and tests norms. Methods and means to test and analyze, for instance quality of water, air aso. Quality of air : 2 kinds of norms : 1-maximum amount of pollutant. sulfur dioxide, ground-level ozone, nitrogen dioxide, total reduced sulfur, carbon monoxide, the fine particles = safety norm. 2-how to measure it. = analysis and test norm (metrology)
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 23 DIFFERENT KIND OF NORMS 4-Organization norms. Functions, relations and organization within an organisation. The most well known are ISO 9001 quality insurance, ISO 14000 environmental organisation, FD X50-551 quality in research in a network. A craftsman without organisation can produce a good product. An industry without organisation can produce one good product, not all. Hot forging plant India
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 READ A NORM. A norm about laundry of course ! Why do you cut your skirt ?!! it says, wash colors separately.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 25 READ A NORM. An ISO standard, accepted as a European Norm, so a French Norm, under the same number. Title : the 3 official languages of the standardization French, English and German. Replaces a previous norm. Date of effect.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 26 READ A NORM. Surrounding Key words for search changes from the previous standard : An Annex has been changed due to the modification of an other standard.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 27 READ A NORM. Safety requirements for industrial laundry machinery - Part 1: Common requirements (ISO 10472-1:1997) This European Standard was approved by CEN on 12 October 2008. CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 28 READ A NORM. This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association to provide a means of conforming to Essential Requirements of the New Approach Directive Machinery 98/37/EC, amended by 98/79/EC. Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Communities under that Directive and has been implemented as a national standard in at least one Member State, compliance with the normative clauses of this standard confers, within the limits of the scope of this standard, a presumption of conformity with the relevant Essential Requirements (except 1.7.4. (f)) of that Directive and associated EFTA regulations.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 29 READ A NORM. References to other standards. A standard is in the middle of a spider net of standards. The presentation, must be done according to several standards, as well as the words used etc.. There are references to an incredible number of other standards. NF EN 563 : Composants électroniques - Système CENELEC d'assurance de la qualité - Connecteurs coaxiaux pour fréquences radioélectriques - NF EN 614-1 : Sécurité des machines - Principes ergonomiques de conception - Partie 1 : terminologie et principes généraux NF EN 746-2 : Équipements thermiques industriels - Partie 2 : prescriptions de sécurité concernant la combustion et la manutention des combustibles - NF EN 953 : Sécurité des machines - Protecteurs - Prescriptions générales pour la conception et la construction des protecteurs fixes et mobiles ……..
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 30 READ A NORM. 2 Normative references ISO/TR 12100-1:1992, Safety of machinery Basic concepts, general principles for design Part 1: Basic terminology, methodology. ISO/TR 12100-2:1992, Safety of machinery Basic concepts, general principles for design Part 2: Technical principles and specifications. ISO 13849-1:2), Safety of machinery Safety related parts of control systems Part 1: General principles for design. ISO 13850:1996, Safety of machinery Emergency stop Principles for design. ISO 13851:2), Safety of machinery Two-hand control devices Functional aspects and design principles.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 31 READ A NORM. 5.3 Thermal hazards When a machine contains parts that could create burn hazards, the equipment shall be designed so as to minimize the risk of burn injury caused by contact with or proximity to machine parts at high temperatures. This can be achieved when the surface temperatures for incidental contact (less than 1 s contact time) do not exceed the following values under normal processing conditions, unless otherwise specified in ISO 10472-2 to ISO 10472-6: uncoated metal: 70°C coated metal (e.g. paint thickness 60 microns): 80°C glass: 85°C not including process surfaces For machines that may occasionally process at higher temperatures, the manufacturer shall describe in the instruction handbook these particular circumstances and give advice to the user for staff training and preparation of safety instructions. For deliberate contact surfaces, e. g. manual valves and door handles, means shall be provided to ensure that the surface temperatures do not exceed those given in EN 563 for 10 s contact.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 32 READ A NORM. 5.2 Electrical hazards The electrical equipment of machines shall be designed in accordance with EN 60204- 1:1992, option 1, or IEC 335 [see b)] as specified in 5.3 of ISO 10472-2:1997, ISO 10472- 4:1997 and ISO 10472-5:1997, depending on the intended use of the machine. a) If EN 60204-1 applies, the appropriate clauses given in table 3 shall be used. These machines shall be equipped with an emergency stop device in accordance with ISO 13850:1996,4.1.5 - category 0, unless specified otherwise in ISO 10472-2 to ISO 10472-6. The manufacturer shall fit emergency stop devices as required in ISO 13850:1996, 4.4 and at each loading and unloading position.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 33 READ A NORM. 5.1 Mechanical hazards 5.1.1 Escape and rescue of trapped persons Where there is a residual risk of entrapment, for example due to malfunction of a safety device or during maintenance, the manufacturer shall provide means and instructions for releasing an entrapped person to minimize injury. EXAMPLES reversal of a roller ironer; separation of roll and bed;
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 34 CE mark. The CE mark on a product says that this product is in conformity with the European safety and technical specifications norms, and so can travel freely in the CE countries. The CE mark is affixed by the producer, who have to fulfil a mountain of documents to show how he is in accordance with the CE norms. Then he, or the importer sign the document and is personally responsible of the safety of the product. As CEO of the company, I used to sign those documents, and could go to jail if an accident occur because of the non application of the safety rules.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 35 Private Standards. STANDARD : is developed by one or a group of actors, for instance a group of producers, to define a common reference. The war of standards. History of the videotapes. When I made the film build a ship in the desert, I used a fully manual camera 8 mm... 45 years ago. Then the main electronic suppliers tried to replace it by a family video camera. So you needed a camera + a video reader/recorder + a TV. Competing : 1-Sony world leader with Betamax, already used by professionals. Launched in 1983. Team : Sony, Toshiba, Pioneer, Aiwa, NEC, Zenith, Wega et Sanyo. 2-Philips second world leader, inventor of the video cassette, technically the best. Launched in 1979. Team :Philips and Grundig. 3-JVC little subsidiary of Matsushita, with VHS. Technically the worst by far. Launched in 1978 first on the market. Team :JVC alone.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 36 Private Standards. After few years 2 of them gave up. AND THE WINNER IS... Sony and Philips had the vision to replace the camera 8 mm by a family video camera. So you needed a camera + a video reader/recorder + a TV. JVC had the vision that the video reader/recorder + TV will be mainly used to record films at TV, or to buy/rent already recorded films. A market which didnt exist at all at that time. So their standard was in adequation with this market : bad quality not to compete with cinemas or TV, and duration 2 to 3 hours like a film. They made an agreement with RCA, then all the porno films makers. When the first rental shops opened 90% of the films to rent were under the standard VHS, 10% under V2000 or Betamax. VHS became THE standard, and the competitors had to buy the licence.
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 37 The wonderful story of a private standard. Instruction 3 - stop the production of all the machines in competition with other group factories. And stop to produce for MIELE. FASA 230 – model 1986
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 38 The wonderful story of a private standard. 1990- We asked to be members also of the TC linen treatment, which is the field of launderers, linen rental, hospitals that is to say people using our machines. 1992- AFNOR published the French experimental norm NF G 07 172 :CHECKING METHOD FOR THE HYGIENIC CLEANLINESS OF LINEN. 1996- the big linen rental group voted NO And during this time... We hired specialists and learned, and worked !
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 39 The wonderful story of a private standard. And during this time... We hired specialists and learned, and worked ! And created an association with Institute Pasteur : We created a private standard Pasteur-Dubix. With all the documents to train and help hospitals to organize their laundries. It was completed by books of good practice, cartoons, videos, training sessions, games aso. As it was unique, and hospitals needed a reference to organize their laundries, it became a world wide recognized standard, used even by our competitors. Video Hospital
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 40 books of good practice
41 THE GUIDE ZONES OF RISKS Low riskMedium riskHigh risk Very high risk
ICE Standards © Cyril Grandpierre 2013 42 The wonderful story of a private standard. Impossible to get a standard in France for linen treatment.... So we went through SNV (my secretary as TC72 chairman) to ask for a CEN standard about hygiene in linen treatment. And during this time... -There was already a standard in UK for hygiene in food-processing. -The Pasteur-Dubix standard was already written as a CEN standard. It was fast and easy to mix both to get a new standard for hygiene in linen treatment. -EN 14065 was voted in 2002, and as France was O member in this subject and not P member, the big linen rental groups who refused, where not invited to participate or even to vote. -the application of this standard is not mandatory, but in case of accident … who go to jail ? It took 12 years to get it !!!
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