DESIGN CULTURE is; the study of the interrelationships between design artefacts, in all their manifestations, the work of designers, design production (including marketing, advertising and distribution) and their consumption.
Design and Culture have always been closely interrelated. In many instances design is flaunted as a measure of culture, as a reflection of cultural behaviors and visions of a society, rather than belonging to part of cultural context of the society. Chicken-Egg debate
Commonly known, Culture is referred to as a pattern that signifies human activity manifested by the arts, music, sculpture, theatre, dance, film, fashion, design, food and architecture.
Traditionally; Culture embraces complex ways of living, value systems, traditions, beliefs and habits; including knowledge, morals, law and customs, acquired by those within that Society.
DESIGN CULTURE can simply be defined as the visibility of creation and the acceptance of the society towards design organization.
At the beginning of 20th century design activity was quite a single/personal practice (like arts…)
Few designers declared themselves around design manifestos. The organization and ideology of design rested limited in these groups. Bauhaus design metal workshop: Marianne Brandt, Christian Dell, László Moholy-Nagy, Hans Przyrembel, Wilhelm Wagenfeld and others
FEW ABOUT EARLIER DESIGN MANIFESTOS 1889 The Arts and Crafts of Today, William Morris 1909 The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism, F.T. Marinetti 1914 Manifesto of Futurist Architecture, Antonio SantElia 1918 De Stijl Manifesto 1919 Bauhaus Manifesto, Walter Gropius 1919 Das grüne Manifest (The Green Manifesto), Leberecht Migge 1920 Down with Seriousism, Bruno Taut 1922 Manifesto of the Painters Union, Taller de Grafica Popular 1923 Topology of Typography, El Lissitzky 1923 The New Typography, László Moholy-Nagy 1933 Charter of Athens, Congres Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne
BEGINNING OF DESIGN CULTURE Throughout its history, design culture signifies the business approach and organization, in other words design consultancy and institualisation of design. This evolution to professionalism originated the design culture today.
Design consultancy, that means whole service in design process, found in advertising first. By the 1920s an array of specialist activities are seen in USA. This model of whole service was consolidated in 1930s while it did not take shape in Europe until the early 1960s. BEGINNING OF DESIGN CULTURE
The design studio founded in 1929. In 1938 it employed 18 designers, in 1941 there were 56 and between 1947 and mid 1960s it expanded from 150 to 180 empoyees. Loewy himself combined a background in engineering with illustration and he sought to coordinate all aspects of design provision from product origination to its styling and brand identity.
In 1950s – 1960s design studios of famous designers become more common and accepted. But the institualisation of design consultancy was still shadowed by their name. Left to Right: George Nelson, Edward Wormley, Eero Saarinen, Harry Bertoia, Charles Eames and Jens Risom
During 1950s – 1970s design was demanded mostly for technical aspects and mass production. The Fordism impact on every levels of production shaped the preferences in design.
Fordism is a modern economic and social system based on industrial mass production. The concept is used in various social theories about production and related socio-economic phenomena.
Fordist productionJust-in-time production PRODUCTION PROCESS Mass production of homogeneous goodsSmall batch production Uniformity and standardization Flexible and small batch production of a variety of product types Resource-drivenDemand-driven Vertical and horizontal integrationQuasi vertical integration sub-contracting LABOUR Single task performance workerMultiple tasks High degree of job specializationElimination of job demarcation Vertical labor organizationMore horizontal labor organization SPACE Functional spatial specializationSpatial clustering and agglomeration Spatial division of laborSpatial integration Homogenization of regional labour markets Labor market diversification
STATE RegulationDeregulation RigidityFlexibility Socialization of welfareprivatization of collective needs Centralization Decentralization and sharpened interregional/intercity competition Subsidy state/cityEntrepreneurial state/city National regional policiesTerritorial regional policies IDEOLOGY Mass consumption of consumer durablesIndividualized consumption The consumption of societyYuppie culture ModernismPostmodernism socializationIndividualization The spectacle society
The chief growth area for design practice during the 1980s was not in design for manufacture, but in design for the service sector in general and the mediation and distribution of goods and services in particular. This changement of mentality in design perception started at
Retail design, packaging and corporate identity, annual report design events and exhibition design were the real boom areas.
Thinking by a populist understanding, cultural identity in 1990s permanently converged Design and Culture into one cultural fusion, and became universally communicated as measure of cultural success.
So The design culture is reshaped itself through a growing structure related with many other fields and services.
The design culture includes the study of the production, mediation, circulation and regulation of design.
Design culture is about processes, people, relationships, flows, fluxes and vectors.
Global Design Culture Neo-liberalism mostly involves the competition of monopolies. This is not just between products or services for market share but between brands. This case, priviliges orienting design culture through the brands. Design can be legitimized throughout the brands…
Concurrent Design Culture The rise of branding in design, create a linear system of development. In a corporation, departments worked in a chain of command. Different departments take the responsibility of developing a different part of the product. Departments of same corporation concurring while the corporation concours with other brands.
Intensive Design Culture Design studios may be physically distanced from both their productive infrastructure and their consumer bases. Creative clusters and creative quarters are formed in creative cities. 7/24 design lifestyle…
Local Design Culture Being designerly capital on specific locations. Such locations could be the Parisian fashion system, the Milanese furniture scene, Barcelonas designscape, Montreal as design city -- Local design culture allows for the dignity of the specific. Running after even lost authenticity…