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4 Waves G482 Electricity, Waves & Photons 4 Waves G482 Electricity, Waves & Photons 2.4.1 Wave Motion 2.4.1 Wave Motion Mr Powell 2012 Index 2.4.2. EM.

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Presentation on theme: "4 Waves G482 Electricity, Waves & Photons 4 Waves G482 Electricity, Waves & Photons 2.4.1 Wave Motion 2.4.1 Wave Motion Mr Powell 2012 Index 2.4.2. EM."— Presentation transcript:

1 4 Waves G482 Electricity, Waves & Photons 4 Waves G482 Electricity, Waves & Photons Wave Motion Wave Motion Mr Powell 2012 Index EM Waves EM Waves Interference Interference Stationary Waves Stationary Waves

2 Mr Powell 2012 Index Electromagnetic Waves Assessable learning outcomes..... a)state typical values for the wavelengths of the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to X-rays; b)state that all electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed in a vacuum; c)describe differences and similarities between different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; d)describe some of the practical uses of electromagnetic waves; e)describe the characteristics and dangers of UV-A, UV-B and UV-C radiations and explain the role of sunscreen (HSW 6a); f)explain what is meant by plane polarised waves and understand the polarisation of electromagnetic waves; g)explain that polarisation is a phenomenon associated with transverse waves only; h)state that light is partially polarised on reflection; i)recall and apply Maluss law for transmitted intensity of light from a polarising filter. Assessable learning outcomes..... a)state typical values for the wavelengths of the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to X-rays; b)state that all electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed in a vacuum; c)describe differences and similarities between different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; d)describe some of the practical uses of electromagnetic waves; e)describe the characteristics and dangers of UV-A, UV-B and UV-C radiations and explain the role of sunscreen (HSW 6a); f)explain what is meant by plane polarised waves and understand the polarisation of electromagnetic waves; g)explain that polarisation is a phenomenon associated with transverse waves only; h)state that light is partially polarised on reflection; i)recall and apply Maluss law for transmitted intensity of light from a polarising filter. Book pages

3 Mr Powell 2012 Index EM Spectrum Can you remember any parts of it. Write out 1-8 in your books and test yourself?

4 Visible Light White light is dispersed by a prism to form a spectrum (not to scale) Wavelength in nanometres (nm) 1x10 -9 or x m Visible light is detected by the human eye. White light consists of ROY-G-BIV (as shown above). Each colour is a range of wavelengths and is absorbed differently by the cells in the eye. Visible light is the middle part of the EM Spectrum sandwiched between Ultraviolet (more than violet) & Infra Red (less than red) Violet Indigo Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Copy text & diagram

5 Mr Powell 2012 Index Visible Light OYV Infra RedUltraviolet > <400 Wavelength in nanometres (nm) 1x10 -9 or x m Shorter Wavelength Higher Frequency Copy & Complete

6 Mr Powell 2012 Index Visible Light IRROYGBIVUV Infra RedRedOrangeYellowgreenBlueIndigoVioletUltraviolet > <400 Wavelength in nanometres (nm) 1x10 -9 or x m Shorter Wavelength Higher Frequency Answers

7 Mr Powell 2012 Index a) state typical values for the wavelengths of the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to X-rays; etic_spectrum The types of electromagnetic radiation are broadly classified into the following classes: Gamma radiation X-ray radiation Ultraviolet radiation Visible radiation Infrared radiation Terahertz radiation Microwave radiation Radio waves

8 Mr Powell 2012 Index a) state typical values for the wavelengths of the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to X-rays; γ= Gamma raysGamma rays MIR= Mid infrared HF= High freq.High freq. HX= Hard X- raysX- rays FIR= Far infrared MF= Medium freq.Medium freq. SX= Soft X-raysRadio wavesLF= Low freq.Low freq. EUV= Extremeultravi oletultravi olet EHF= Extremely high freq.Extremely high freq. VLF= Very low freq.Very low freq. NUV= Near ultravioletNear ultraviolet SHF= Super high freq.Super high freq. VF/ULF= Voice freq.Voice freq. Visible light UHF= Ultra high freq.Ultra high freq. SLF= Super low freq.Super low freq. NIR= Near InfraredInfrared VHF= Very high freq.Very high freq. ELF= Extremely low freq.Extremely low freq. Freq=Frequenc yFrequenc y

9 Mr Powell 2012 Index b) state that all electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed in a vacuum; The wave theory of light developed into another theory about the propagation of electromagnetic waves through space with or with an medium. This was as a result of theoretical work by James Clark Maxwell who showed mathematically in 1865 that a changing current in a wire creates waves of changing electric and magnetic fields that radiate from the wire. Maxwell showed that the waves are transverse in nature and that the electric waves are in phase with and perpendicular to the magnetic waves as shown

10 Mr Powell 2012 Index When an AC current is applied to a wire the alternating current in a wire creates an alternating magnetic field which generates an alternating electric field which generates an alternating magnetic field further from the wire which generates an alternating electric field which generates an alternating magnetic field further yet further from the wire and so on. Maxwell knew that the strength of the electric field depends on the permittivity of free space, 0. He also knew that the magnetic field strength depends on the equivalent magnetic constant, the permeability of free space, 0. He showed mathematically that the speed of electromagnetic waves in free space, c, is given by (3 x 10 8 ms -1 ) b) state that all electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed in a vacuum; 0 = 8.85 × F m 1 0 = 4 × 10 7 T m A 1

11 Mr Powell 2012 Index c) describe differences and similarities between different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; WaveWavelengthUse Long Wave Radio1500 mBroadcasting Medium Wave Radio300 mBroadcasting Short Wave Radio25 mBroadcasting FM Radio3 mBroadcasting and communication UHF Radio30 cmTV transmissions Microwaves3 cm Communication Radar Heating up food Infra red3 mm Communication in optical fibres Remote Controllers Heating Light nm Seeing Communicating Ultra violet100 nm Sterilising Sun tanning X-ray5 nmShadow pictures of bones Gamma rays<0.01 nmScientific research

12 Mr Powell 2012 Index c) describe differences and similarities between different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; WaveWavelengthHazardPrevention Long Wave Radio1500 mNo hazard Medium Wave Radio300 mNo hazard Short Wave Radio25 mNo hazard FM Radio3 mNo hazard UHF Radio30 cmNo hazard Microwaves3 cm Heating of water in the body Metal grid Infra red3 mmHeating effectReflective surface Light nmNo hazard Ultra violet100 nmCan cause cancerSun cream (or cover up) X-ray5 nmCauses cell damageLead screens Gamma rays<0.01 nmCauses cell damage Thick lead screens or concrete

13 Mr Powell 2012 Index c) describe differences and similarities between different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; The Earth and all life on it has developed a tolerance & use for some parts of the EM Spectrum due to how it behaves as it passes through air. Some parts are absorbed fully, partly or not at all.

14 Mr Powell 2012 Index c) describe differences and similarities between different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum;

15 Mr Powell 2012 Index Which word links all of these images...

16 Mr Powell 2012 Index e) describe the characteristics and dangers of UV-A, UV-B and UV-C radiations and explain the role of sunscreen (HSW 6a); Ozone molecules are vitally important to life because they absorb the biologically harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. (even in small amounts) There are three different types of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, UV-A ( nm), UV-B ( nm), and UV-C ( nm). UV-C is entirely screened out by ozone around 35 km altitude. On the other hand, UV-a reaches the surface, but it is not as genetically damaging, so we don't worry about it too much. It is the UV-B radiation that can cause sunburn and that can also cause genetic damage, resulting in things like skin cancer, if exposure to it is prolonged. Ozone screens out most UV-b, but some reaches the surface. Were the ozone layer to decrease, more UV-b radiation would reach the surface, causing increased genetic damage to living things

17 Mr Powell 2012 Index Skin Cancer For the two diagrams show on the right can you answer the following questions; 1.What part of the body is a man most at risk for? 2.What part of the body is a woman most at risk from? 3.Why is there a difference between men and women in term of the head and neck? 4.Why are men's legs only 15% when women's are 42%

18 Mr Powell 2012 Index Yearly Trends Can you clearly explain the trend seen on this graph? Can you explain why the trend might be occurring?

19 Mr Powell 2012 Index Age Trends Can you clearly explain the trend seen on this graph? Can you explain why the trend might be occurring?

20 Mr Powell 2012 Index UV Index UV index depends on: where you are in the world the time of year the weather the time of day how high up you are (the altitude) Met Office UV index forecasts include the effects of: the position of the Sun in the sky forecast cloud cover amount of ozone in the stratosphere

21 Mr Powell 2012 Index Types of Skin Try and work out your own skin......

22 Mr Powell 2012 Index What is your risk You can work out from the UV index and your skin type when you are in danger? Try it out

23 Mr Powell 2012 Index Incidence of melanoma Europe (2002 estimates) 1.Can you clearly explain any trend or pattern seen on this graph i.e. Highs and lows? 2.Can you explain why the trend might be occurring?

24 Mr Powell 2012 Index Incidence of melanoma World (2002 estimates) 1.Can you clearly explain any trend or pattern seen on this graph i.e. Highs and lows? 2.Can you explain why the trend might be occurring?

25 Mr Powell 2012 Index Sun Creams If you were buying sun protection lotion, what factors would be important to you? Factors to be considered: 1.volume 2.sun protection factor (SPF) 3.brand 4.price 5.target (adult/child) 6.waterproof properties SPF means sun protection factor. SPF = 100 ÷ % of UV radiation transmitted If 10% is transmitted, SPF = 100/10 = 10 If 3% is transmitted, SPF = 100/3 = 33 What is the SPF of a sunscreen that transmits 5% UV radiation?

26 Mr Powell 2012 Index Example Exam Question (Basic) The electromagnetic spectrum covers a very wide range of wavelengths, frequencies and photon energies. (i) State the names and wavelengths for the shortest and longest electromagnetic waves. shortest: name wavelength m longest: name wavelength m (4 marks) (ii)Calculate the ratio..... Longest wavelength / shortest wavelength ratio = ( 1 mark)

27 Mr Powell 2012 Index How does the intensity spread out

28 Mr Powell 2012 Index Example Exam Question (Basic) The electromagnetic spectrum covers a very wide range of wavelengths, frequencies and photon energies. (i) State the names and wavelengths for the shortest and longest electromagnetic waves. shortest: name wavelength m longest: name wavelength m (4 marks) (ii)Calculate the ratio..... Longest wavelength / shortest wavelength ratio = ( 1 mark) (i)shortest: gamma (1) allow any wavelength between 10 –12 and 10 –16 (m) (1) longest: radio (1) allow any wavelength between 10 2 and 10 5 (m) (1)4 (ii)candidates ratio e.g / 10 –14 = (1)1

29 Mr Powell 2012 Index Polarisation.....

30 Mr Powell 2012 Index f,g,i) Polarisation Create your own diagram to show this concept clearly. Then explain it to another student. As you rotate 90 or /2 the light gradually fades Try it with a polariser! Electric field vector

31 Mr Powell 2012 Index f,g,i) Polarisation Create your own diagram to show this concept clearly. Then explain it to another student. Electric field vector

32 Mr Powell 2012 Index i) recall and apply Maluss law for transmitted intensity of light from a polarising filter. Malus' law, which is named after Étienne-Louis Malus, says that when a perfect polarizer is placed in a polarized beam of light, the intensity, I, of the light that passes through is given by………….Étienne-Louis Malus I max = is the initial intensity i = is the angle between the light's initial polarization direction and the axis of the polarizer. Examples.... Angle 0 Angle 45 Angle 90 Angle 180

33 Mr Powell 2012 Index i) recall and apply Maluss law for transmitted intensity of light from a polarising filter. Malus' law, which is named after Étienne-Louis Malus, says that when a perfect polarizer is placed in a polarized beam of light, the intensity, I, of the light that passes through is given by………….Étienne-Louis Malus I max = is the initial intensity i = is the angle between the light's initial polarization direction and the axis of the polarizer. Examples.... Angle I = I max * cos (0) * cos (0) = I max Angle 45 or / I = I max * cos (45) * cos (45) = * = 2 = 0.5 I max Angle 90 or / I = I max * cos (90) * cos (90) = 0 Angle 180 or I = I max * cos (180) * cos (180) = I max

34 Mr Powell 2012 Index f,g,i) Applications of Transverse Polarisation… Transverse Polarisation Radio? (GCSE)ConcentrationStress TestingSun Glasses Calculator? (Extension) Can you research each one of these ideas and see how Polarisation has an impact. Draw out a mind map and write out the key points for each one. You only need the basic idea for the exam not the details…. G&T Sheet 12_1

35 Mr Powell 2012 Index f,g,i) Uses of Polarisation

36 Mr Powell 2012 Index f,g,i) Fishing?

37 Mr Powell 2012 Index f,g,i) Using polarisation to measure concentration © John Parkinson 37 Sugar solution laser polariser analyser 1.Some liquids are optically active and rotate the electric vector. 2.The liquids concentration is proportional to the electric vector rotation.

38 Mr Powell 2012 Index f,g,i) Stress Analysis © John Parkinson 38 The structure of certain plastics will show polarisation. When viewed under stress the structure polarises the light differently. The place where stress is greatest shows a more rapid colour change. Models can be made of complex components which are viewed with a polarising filter so engineers can design out the stresses.

39 Mr Powell 2012 Index

40 Mr Powell 2012 Index

41 Mr Powell 2012 Index Polarisation Exam Question…. (Basic Level) (b) Daylight passes horizontally through a fixed polarising filter P. An observer views the light emerging through a second polarising filter Q, which may be rotated in a vertical plane about point X as shown in the diagram. Describe what the observer would see as Q is rotated slowly through 360°. (1 mark)

42 Mr Powell 2012 Index Polarisation Exam Question…. (Basic Level) Answer (b) variation in intensity between max and min (or light and dark) (1) or two maxima (or two minima) in 360° rotation (1) (b) Daylight passes horizontally through a fixed polarising filter P. An observer views the light emerging through a second polarising filter Q, which may be rotated in a vertical plane about point X as shown in the diagram. Describe what the observer would see as Q is rotated slowly through 360°. (1 mark)

43 Mr Powell 2012 Index Activity Ideas... Students can discuss the purpose of using sunscreen. (HSW 6a) The teacher can demonstrate polarisation using a metal grill for microwave and polarising filter for light. Students can observe light reflected from a glass surface through a polarising sheet. Students can discuss the use of polarising filters in photography and in sun glasses to reduce glare. (HSW 6a)

44 Mr Powell 2012 Index f,g,i) Calculator LCD Displays Nematic Crystals 1.Polariser filter film with a vertical axis to polarize light as it enters. 2.Glass with electrodes to show patterns when the LCD is turned ON. 3.Twisted nematic liquid crystal. Rotates light 90 or /2 when turned on. 4.Glass substrate with electrode film 5.Polarising filter film with a horizontal axis to block/pass light. 6.Reflective surface to send light back to viewer. KEY Point. System allows on/off change of transmission by use of Twisted nematic liquid crystal & crossed polarisers Extension Work General Polarisation

45 Mr Powell 2012 Index Quick Questions (From Real Exams)... Jan (a) X-rays and radio waves are two examples of electromagnetic waves. (i) Name two other examples of electromagnetic waves. [1] (ii) State one similarity and one difference between X-rays and radio waves. [2] (iii) Explain why X-rays are easily diffracted by layers of atoms, about 2 × 10 –10 m apart, but radio waves are not. [2] (b) On the Earth, we are all exposed to ultraviolet radiation coming from the Sun. State one advantage and one disadvantage of UV-B radiation. [2] (c) (i) Circle a typical value for the wavelength of an X-ray from the list below × 10 –4 m 2 × 10 –7 m 2 × 10 –10 m 2 × 10 –13 m [1]

46 Mr Powell 2012 Index Markscheme

47 Mr Powell 2012 Index Practical Skills are assessed using OCR set tasks. The practical work suggested below may be carried out as part of skill development. Centres are not required to carry out all of these experiments. Students should gain a qualitative understanding of superposition effects together with confidence in handling experimental data. Students should be able to discuss superposition effects and perform experiments leading to measurements of wavelength and wave velocity. Use an oscilloscope to determine the frequency of sound. Observe polarising effects using microwaves and light. Investigate polarised light when reflected from glass or light from LCD displays. Study diffraction by a slit using laser light. Study hearing superposition using a signal generator and two loudspeakers. Study superposition of microwaves. Determine the wavelength of laser light with a double-slit. Determine the wavelength of light from an LED using a diffraction grating. Demonstrate stationary waves using a slinky spring, tubes and microwaves. Determine the speed of sound in air by formation of stationary waves in a resonance tube.

48 Mr Powell 2012 Index Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore the outcomes of the learning, emphasising why this will be beneficial for the learner Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore the outcomes of the learning, emphasising why this will be beneficial for the learner Demonstration Use formative feedback – Assessment for Learning Vary the groupings within the classroom for the purpose of learning – individual; pair; group/team; friendship; teacher selected; single sex; mixed sex Offer different ways for the students to demonstrate their understanding Allow the students to show off their learning Demonstration Use formative feedback – Assessment for Learning Vary the groupings within the classroom for the purpose of learning – individual; pair; group/team; friendship; teacher selected; single sex; mixed sex Offer different ways for the students to demonstrate their understanding Allow the students to show off their learning Activation Construct problem-solving challenges for the students Use a multi-sensory approach – VAK Promote a language of learning to enable the students to talk about their progress or obstacles to it Learning as an active process, so the students arent passive receptors Activation Construct problem-solving challenges for the students Use a multi-sensory approach – VAK Promote a language of learning to enable the students to talk about their progress or obstacles to it Learning as an active process, so the students arent passive receptors Consolidation Structure active reflection on the lesson content and the process of learning Seek transfer between subjects Review the learning from this lesson and preview the learning for the next Promote ways in which the students will remember A news broadcast approach to learning Consolidation Structure active reflection on the lesson content and the process of learning Seek transfer between subjects Review the learning from this lesson and preview the learning for the next Promote ways in which the students will remember A news broadcast approach to learning

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50 Mr Powell 2012 Index Further Research.... Radio waves: Radio wavesRadio waves Microwaves: MicrowavesMicrowaves Infrared Visible Light: LightLight Natural sources produce EM radiation across the spectrum. EM radiation with a wavelength between approximately 400 nm and 700 nm is directly detected by the human eye and perceived as visible light. Other wavelengths, especially nearby infrared (longer than 700 nm) and ultraviolet (shorter than 400 nm) are also sometimes referred to as light, especially when visibility to humans is not relevant.wavelengthnmhuman eyelight Ultraviolet: UltravioletUltraviolet X-rays: X-raysX-rays Gamma rays: Gamma raysGamma rays


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