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Radiation Safety Capt. David Ayre CAP, SWR-TX-176.

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Presentation on theme: "Radiation Safety Capt. David Ayre CAP, SWR-TX-176."— Presentation transcript:

1 Radiation Safety Capt. David Ayre CAP, SWR-TX-176

2 RADIATION The definition of radiation is the emission (sending out) of waves and/or particles thru space.

3 TYPES OF RADIATION heat light radio waves x-rays nuclear IONIZING OR NON - IONIZING non -ionizing ionizing

4 Nuclear Radiation One source of radiation is the nuclei of an unstable atom. These radioactive atoms become more stable when the nuclei ejects or emits subatomic particles and/or high-energy photons (gamma rays).

5 This Is the Way the Atom Probably Looks Nucleus Proton Neutron Electron Atomic Structure

6 Atomic Number Atomic number (Z number) is the number of PROTONS in the nucleus of an atom.

7 Atomic Mass (A number), is the number of PROTONS plus the number of NEUTRONS in the nucleus of an atom.

8 Mass and Charges of Basic Atomic Particles MassCharge Proton 1 amu+ 1 Neutron 1 amu 0 or neutral Electron 1/2000 amu - 1

9 ISOTOPE Atoms with the same atomic number, but different atomic mass. 6 Protons 6 Neutrons 6 Protons 7 Neutrons 6 Protons 8 Neutrons Carbon-12 (6P + 6N) Atomic Mass = 12 Carbon-13 (6P + 7N) Atomic Mass = 13 Carbon-14 (6P + 8N) Atomic Mass = 14

10 IODINE ISOTOPE EXAMPLE Isotope Atomic Mass Atomic Number Number of Neutrons I I I

11 Discovery of Radiation Henri Becquerel 1896 Marie Curie -To describe the behavior of uranium and thorium she invented the word radioactivity --based on the Latin word for ray. Ernest Rutherford Wilhelm Roentgen 1895

12 RUTHERFORDS EXPERIMENT Photographic Plate

13 TYPES OF RADIATION Types of Radiation MassChargeStopped By Alpha4+ 2 Thin Sheet of Paper Gamma Ray No MassNo Charge Several Inches of Lead or Steel X RayNo MassNo Charge Several Inches of Lead or Steel Beta1/ Thin Aluminum Neutron10 High Hydrogen Content

14 Electromagnetic Spectrum

15 INDUSTRIAL USES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS Power Plants Medical Farming Ranching Textile Auto Soda Can

16 CASES OF HIGH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO RADIATION Early Scientists Watch Dial Painters Nuclear Weapons Research Military Personnel Emergency/Medical Personnel

17 Giga (G) = 1 billion Mega (M) = 1 million kilo (k) = 1 thousand milli (m) = 1 thousandth micro (u) = 1 millionth COMMON PREFIXES

18 The SI UNIT is the _____Becquerel____ which is one nuclear transformation or one disintegration per second. Curie A UNIT used to measure the activity of a radioactive source and equals 37,000,000,000 disintegration's per second. UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

19 Roentgen A measure of the ionization effect Gamma and X radiation have in AIR. UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

20 REM A measure of the biological effect radiation has on man. REM stands for Roentgen Equivalent Man UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

21 Half-Life The time required for the amount of radioactive material to decrease by one half. Original Material Material after one Half-Life Material after two Half-Lives

22 HALF-LIVES OF VARIOUS ISOTOPES Isotope Half- Life Am Years Cs Years Ra Years I Days Co Years

23 FILM BADGES Radiation will expose film just as light will. The greater the dose of radiation the darker the film will become. Detecting Radiation and the PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS

24 T N JAN 01, 1997 Z T John Doe LANDAUER TLDs use three chips that when exposed to radiation store the energy. When the chip is heated it gives off light proportional to the radiation absorbed. THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSIMETER

25 OSLs use two thin Al 2 O 3 strips which when exposed to radiation record Photons (X & d Rays) in the 5 keV / 40 MeV range & Beta Particles in the 150 keV / 10 MeV range. During analysis, the Al 2 O 3 is stimulated with selected frequencies of laser light, which cause it to become luminescent in proportion to the amount of radiation exposure received. A third component, for the measurement of Neutrons, is also enclosed. This is a Neutrak 144 Allyl Diglycol carbonate solid state track detector. In this case measurement is made by chemical etching followed by track counting. Energies measured are between 100 keV / 30 MeV. JOHN DOE TRAINING luxel LANDAUER ® FRONT OPTICALLY STIMULATED LUMINESCENCE (OSL) DOSIMETER

26 Dose Measurement Range Photon1 mREM to 1000 REM Beta Particle10 mREM to 1000 REM Neutron20 mREM to 25 REM Accuracy Deep Dose Deep Dose = ±15% at the 95% confidence interval for photons above 20 keV Shallow Dose Shallow Dose = ±15% at the 95% confidence interval for photons above 20 keV and beta particles above 200 keV T Whole Body (chest) A BACK OPTICALLY STIMULATED LUMINESCENCE (OSL) DOSIMETER

27 The OSL is the principle device used to measure radiation exposure personnel. The OSL will only measure what your body will receive and does not protect from radiation. A OSL will simply measure what you have been exposed to and will allow us to determine if you have received to much radiation. John Doe TRAINING luxel LANDAUER ®

28 RADIATION MONITORING Radiation Quality is an indication of the type of radiation received Radiation Quality Type of Radiation Received P Gamma Only CPN Combination Gamma and Neutron NF Fast Neutron M Minimal (Less than 1.0 mR)

29 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURES 5 REM per Year Lifetime Dose – ( Age - 18 ) * 5 REM Recommended exposure while pregnant 500 mREM Average exposure for Wireline Logging & Perforating Personnel mREM per Quarter

30 Detecting Radiation and the ENCLOSED GAS VOLUME PROCESS Geiger-Mueller Counters An enclosed tube has an anode and a cathode and usually an inert gas inside the tube. The radiation enters the tube ionizing the gas thus creating a current flow. The amount of radiation is proportional to the current flow. Electrical Current Measuring Device Anode + Cathode Voltage Source Inert Gas Incident Ionizing Radiation

31 Detecting Radiation and the SCINTILLATION CRYSTAL PROCESS e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- P Optical Coupling Grease Scintillating Crystal Preamp High Voltage Dynodes Photo-Cathode Glass Vacuum Tube e - Electrons P Photons Gamma Ray Photo-Multiplier Tube

32 A Milliroentgens EYE PIECE D LENS C B DIRECT - READING POCKET DOSIMETER A. Charging Rod B. Metal Support for Fibers C. Movable Fine Metal Coated Quartz Fiber D. Transparent Scale LENS Detecting Radiation and the Direct-Read Pocket Dosimeter

33 VICTOREEN MODEL 493

34 Ludlum Model 2

35 What exposure rate is this meter reading? X 1 _______mREM/hour X 10 _______mREM/hour X 100_______mREM/hour What exposure rate is this meter reading? X 0.1 ______mREM/hour X 1.0 ______mREM/hour X 10 ______mREM/hour EXPOSURE RATE

36 _____ mREM/hour 100 mREM/year (General Public) 500 mREM/year (If Attended Awareness Training) 5 REM/year OCCUPATIONAL DOSE RATES

37 BACKGROUND RADIATION DOSE SourceRadiation Received Radon Gas200 mREM/year Daughter Products28 mREM/year Food & Water40 mREM/year Cosmic Rays28 mREM/year Medical Radiation53 mREM/year T.V. Consumer Products7 mREM/year TOTAL 356 mREM/year

38 RADIATION DOSES FROM OTHER SOURCES SOURCE EXPOSURE One Hour of Jet Flight at 37,000 Feet 2 mREM/hour Chest X-Ray or Dental Exam 10 mREM/hour Dose to Unborn Child Due to Background 200 mREM/hour Pelvic Exam 600 mREM/hour Lower GI Series 700 mREM/hour Areas of High Background Up to 5000 mREM/year

39 Biological Effects Due to Exposure Can Be Divided Into Two Groups EARLY EFFECTS LATE EFFECTS (ACUTE) (DELAYED) Blood Count Changes Genetic Damage Vomiting Increased Cancer Risk Nausea Shortened Life Span Death

40 Some Acute Effects of High Exposure Over a Short Period Are DOSE (1 week)EFFECT (30 days) REM Detectable changes in blood counts REM Nausea and vomiting within 24 hours REM Death may occur 350 REM 50% will Die within 30 days REM Death will probably occur over 600 REM 100% will die within 30 days

41 Estimated Loss of Life Expectancy From Health Risks HEALTH ESTIMATES OF DAYS OF RISK LIFE EXPECTANCY LOST, AVERAGE Smoking (6.5 years) Cigarettes/Day OVERWEIGHT 435 (1.2 years) (by 20 %)

42 RISK CHART CONTINUED AUTO ACCIDENTS 200 DAYS ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION 130 DAYS

43 RISK CHART CONTINUED HOME ACCIDENTS 95 DAYS DROWNINGS 41 DAYS

44 RISK CHART CONTINUED SAFEST JOBS (SUCH AS ………………..) 30 DAYS NATURAL BACKGROUND RADIATION (Calculated) 8 DAYS

45 RISK CHART CONTINUED 1 REM Occupational Radiation Dose Calculated (Industry Average Is 0.34 REM/year) 1 DAY 1 REM/year for 30 Years, Calculated 30 DAYS 5 REM/year for 30 years, Calculated 150 DAYS

46 Everyday Items Containing Radioactive Materials Scale Found on Oil Field Pipe Brazil Nuts Smoke Detectors Lantern Mantles Some Ceramics Salt Substitutes

47 ALARA PRINCIPLE ALARA stands for AS LOW AS REASONABLY ACHIEVABLE

48 REDUCING YOUR EXPOSURE The three most important safety rules to remember while working with radiation areTimeDistanceShielding

49 The Effect of Time on Radiation Exposure EXPOSURE = DOSE RATE X TIME For Example: 495 mREM per hour 1 HOUR = 495 mREM 2 HOURS = 990 mREM 3 HOURS = 1485 mREM

50 The Effect of Distance on Radiation Exposure The Equation for Calculating Radiation Exposure as a Function of Distance: I 1 x ( D 1 ) 2 = I 2 x ( D 2 ) 2 OR I 2 = I 1 x ( D 1 ) 2 ( D 2 ) 2

51 SHIELDING DEFINITION OF SHIELDING Using some material as a shield to reduce the radiation exposure. SHIELD GAMMA RAYS

52 SHIELDING MATERIALS ALPHA PAPER SKIN SEVERAL INCHES OF AIR GAMMA LEAD STEEL GOLD BETA TIN THIN DEPLETED ALUMINUM URANIUM NEUTRONS WATER WAX PARAFFIN


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