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The coming diet revolution Dr Rosemary Stanton OAM nutritionist.

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Presentation on theme: "The coming diet revolution Dr Rosemary Stanton OAM nutritionist."— Presentation transcript:

1 the coming diet revolution Dr Rosemary Stanton OAM nutritionist

2 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 the balanced diet nutrition & health environmental sustainability taste food literacy

3 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 considerations global warming is occurring what we eat affects global warming global warming will inevitably affect what we eat

4 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 environmental changes farms pushed from good growing areas family farms disappearing & farms devoted to monoculture are increasing fertilisers & irrigation needed pollution of waterways dryland salinity increasing use of land for ethanol production climate change

5 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 greenhouse gases changes in last 200 years carbon dioxide - up 30% –responsible for 70% of global warming –burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) –land clearing www.greenhouse.gov.au/education/factsheets/what.html

6 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 greenhouse gases changes in last 200 years methane - up 145% –contributes 20% of global warming –increased numbers of cattle –rice cultivation ( temperature, CO 2 ) –escape of natural gas –decomposing waste in landfill www.greenhouse.gov.au/education/factsheets/what.html

7 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 greenhouse gases changes in last 200 years nitrous oxide - up 15% –burning vegetation –emissions from industry –nitrogenous fertilisers www.greenhouse.gov.au/education/factsheets/what.html

8 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 fuel or food? ethanol-based fuels - a help? 11 acres ethanol for 1 car for 1 year 11 acres food for 7 people for 1 year corn used for ethanol in the US in 2004 could have fed 100 million people 30-70%* more energy is needed to produce ethanol than it contributes source: Professor David Pimental, Cornell University

9 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 factors related to food fertilisers & pesticides irrigation & water use increased consumption of animal products & intensive rearing of animals harvesting & increased storage of crops processing & packaging transport & widespread distribution of food

10 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 food factors food industry driven by profits uneven distribution (eg compare price paid to coffee growers with café prices) environmental costs not factored in to product pricing environmental costs borne by the community, with disproportionate costs to the poor

11 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 for discussion overproduction - is it sustainable? overconsumption of food = waste packaging is an issue return to seasonal eating food miles should we go down the food chain? should we go organic?

12 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 for discussion overproduction - is it sustainable? overconsumption of food = waste packaging is an issue return to seasonal eating food miles should we go down the food chain? should we go organic?

13 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 food exports Australia exports 80% of grains/sugar/oilseeds 75% of seafood 70% of mutton (+ 38% of lamb) 65% of beef 50% of milk production source: dfat.gov.au

14 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 food exports exports important ($24 billion/year) but we have ignored environmental factors, including –water –dryland salinity (land clearing) –use of pesticides, fertilisers –overworked land –reduced mineral content of soils

15 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 fish production CSIRO predicts 35% decline overall (64% in Tasmania) due to changes in temperature ocean currents & winds nutrient supply rain ocean acidity extreme weather Gina Newton, Australian Marine Sciences Association, www.frdc.com.au

16 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 overproduction - action more relevant in some areas government help/intervention essential action most likely to occur with the water crisis on the mainland GM crops that can tolerate salinity?? more controls on pesticides mixed farming to avoid monocultures more research on soil minerals

17 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 GM foods will they hinder or help? ? sales tactics of GM companies not likely to feed the poor possibility of destroying eco systems fail to address causes of climate change fail to tackle depletion of water & soil nutrients creating problems for beneficial insects

18 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 for discussion overproduction - is it sustainable? overconsumption of food = waste packaging is an issue return to seasonal eating food miles should we go down the food chain? should we go organic?

19 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 overconsumption excess weight in Australia occurs in 67% of men 52% of women 20-25% of children

20 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 overconsumption obesity increases the risks of type 2 diabetes high blood pressure coronary heart disease strokes cancers, especially bowel, breast, endometrium, kidney, oesophagus gallstones

21 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 overconsumption obesity also increases the risks of surgery makes arthritis worse worsens back and knee problems is sometimes involved in depression

22 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 overconsumption environmental effects increased purchases = increased waste 40-50% landfill waste is food and garden waste (8.4 million tonnes/yr) each kilogram of food waste in landfill contributes 1kg of greenhouse gases

23 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 overconsumption - action greater publicity about problems of excess consumption (health & environmental) increased price for some foods (likely as resources/transport costs increase or via taxation based on energy rating of foods) collection system with emphasis on education + subsidies for composting or worm farms (both domestic & industrial)

24 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 for discussion overproduction - is it sustainable? overconsumption of food = waste packaging is an issue return to seasonal eating food miles should we go down the food chain? should we go organic?

25 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 packaging Australia produces 3.3 million tonnes of packaging materials/year ~ 65% packaging for food/beverages useful because it improves shelf life and reduces food waste a problem because it uses energy resources to produce and more when it is discarded and adds to landfill

26 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 packaging throughout the world, 400 billion plastic water bottles added to landfill each year packaging makes up 72% of litter in Australia (and includes 25 million plastic bags discarded as litter/year)

27 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 packaging recycling possible & improving kerbside recycling collects 20% of packaging problem: 50% food & non-alcoholic beverages consumed away from home

28 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 packaging industry & retailers should be responsible for waste collection when Ireland added 26c levy, plastic bag usage fell by 90% container deposits in SA achieve 85% return rate

29 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 packaging - action choose foods with less packaging re-use packaging recycle (bins more widely available) push governments to set mandatory rules for container deposits recycling costs should be included in product price

30 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 for discussion overproduction - is it sustainable? overconsumption of food = waste packaging is an issue return to seasonal eating food miles should we go down the food chain? should we go organic?

31 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 seasonal eating seasonal foods link us to production & increase food literacy ignored in favour of choice choice increases consumption - as more variety is offered, we consume more

32 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 has choice gone mad? average Australian supermarket stocks 30,000 foods do we need or even want all this? do we need 1800 snack foods? do we need Californian oranges in summer when Valencias are in season?

33 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 drivers of food choices the food supply was once driven by what was in season cultural influences also played a role in the daily diet

34 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 new drivers convenience profit what large retailers want to sell health & science advertising & marketing

35 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 functional foods new super foods –attempt to rescue the diet –some may be useful; others designed for disease shopping –highly priced –divert attention from real dietary problems

36 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 functional foods often a techno-fix aiming to produce something as good as fruit & vegetables but we already have fruit & vegetables!

37 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 for discussion overproduction - is it sustainable? overconsumption of food = waste packaging is an issue return to seasonal eating food miles should we go down the food chain? should we go organic?

38 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 food miles distance food travels from paddock to plate –how far food has travelled –mode of transport (heavy vehicles, air, sea, packaging) –sustainability associated with the foods production

39 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 food miles consider sustainability –Australian animals graze year round & rarely need winter housing –New Zealand uses less pesticide than most countries, so may be preferable

40 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 food miles water also a vital issue –should Australia import rice and cotton rather than deplete the Murray/Darling river system? –to produce 1 kg coffee requires 20,000L water, so grow it in tropical areas and provide an income for growers

41 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 food miles not always simple cant divorce food miles from global considerations equity issues important (eg coffee growers need fair price) importing some products may not be sustainable

42 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 food miles - action check the origin of foods consider seasonality (education needed for parents, in schools, farmers, retailers, food & recipe writers, journalists) reject foods out of season develop school kitchen gardens promote home/community gardens

43 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 for discussion overproduction - is it sustainable? overconsumption of food = waste packaging is an issue return to seasonal eating food miles should we go down the food chain? should we go organic?

44 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 go down the food chain? world health authorities recommend we bias our diets towards plant foods and less processed foods for health & sustainability

45 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 go down the food chain? as populations become more affluent, they eat more animal products, more processed foods and fewer plant foods and develop obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancers of the bowel and breast

46 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 effects of the affluent diet more meat, more processed foods production of animal foods takes large amounts of land and water processing foods uses more energy & may deliver an imbalance of nutrients low kilojoule and functional foods can be especially problematic

47 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 effects of the affluent diet more meat, more processed foods production of animal foods takes large amounts of land and water processing foods uses more energy & may deliver an imbalance of nutrients low kilojoule and functional foods can be especially problematic

48 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 litres of water for 1 kg food potatoes500 wheat900 maize1,400 rice1,910 soy2,000 chickens3,500 beef, broad acre*50,000 beef (lot-fed)100,000 Source: Pimmental D, Houser J, Preiss E. 1997 Bioscience 47: 97-106 * CSIRO quoted in AFGC Environment Report 2003

49 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 wise use of land crop gross energy outputnumber fed (MJ)/hectare/hectare cabbage105,00023 potatoes102,00022 rice 88,00019 corn 76,00017 wheat 70,00015 pork 14,000 3 rabbit 13,000 3 milk 9,000 2 lamb 7,000 2 chicken, corn-fed 7,000 2 beef 5,000 1 source:Spedding CRW 1990 in Lewis b, Assmann G (eds) Social & Economic contexts of coronary prevention, London: Current Medical Literature

50 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 animal production - feedlots 20-50 kg of feed produces 1 kg meat 40% of world grain fed to animals land cleared to grow grain, then grain transported to feedlots more waste (450kg steer produces 29kg wet waste/day) more methane - 2.5 x if animals fed a rich diet (CSIRO aiming to change cattle microbes & reduce methane by 16%)

51 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 animal production - feedlots beef cattle in feedlots give hormone growth promotants (HGPs) HGPs used in 45% of beef cattle in Australia are HGPs harmful? HGPs banned in EU (and Tasmania) quality of life for feedlot cattle?

52 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 animal production - action reduce meat consumption favour kangaroo (no methane) favour chickens (free range?) reject feedlot beef keep chickens at home (eat scraps, provide eggs on site)

53 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 effects of the affluent diet more meat, more processed foods production of animal foods takes lots of land and water processed foods use more energy & deliver an imbalance of nutrients low kilojoule and functional foods can be especially problematic

54 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 processed foods we need to consider the ratio of the energy content of a food (kilojoules) - to the energy inputs (in production, processing, packaging and distribution)

55 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 value for energy use? processed foods, functional foods aim is to maximise profit use as little real food as possible production of additives uses large amounts of energy functional foods only for wealthy

56 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 kilojoules to process 1 kg food flour2,100 canned fruit/vegetables2,500 bottled water3,000 ice cream3,800 soft drink5,900 low kilojoule soft drink25,000 chocolate77,700 instant coffee79,000 sources: University of Wisconsin Centre for Integrated Agricultural Studies 1999; Heller, MC, Keoleian GA, "Life Cycle-Based Sustainability Indicators for Assessment of the U.S. Food System", Ann Arbor, MI: Center for Sustainable Systems, University of Michigan, 2000.

57 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 tomato sauce - Sweden more than 52 transport & processing stages –tomatoes grown & made into paste (Italy) –processing & packaging into sauce (Sweden) –retail and storage of the final product Andersson, K. Ohlsson, P and Olsson, P. Life Cycle Assessment of Tomato Ketchup. The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg. Journal of Cleaner Production 6 (1998) 277–288

58 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 tomato sauce aseptic bags to package tomato paste made in the Netherlands, sent to Italy, placed in steel barrels, sent to Sweden five layered, red bottles made in the UK or Sweden with materials from Japan, Italy, Belgium, the USA and Denmark polypropylene screw-cap of the bottle and plug made in Denmark and transported to Sweden distributed with shrink-film & corrugated cardboard (labels, glue and ink not included in the analysis)

59 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 bottled water problem worldwide 154 billion litres/year consumed in 2004 ( 57% over 5 years) most consumed in countries with a safe water supply creates greenhouse gases to make bottles, transport water + storage, refrigeration, collection and disposal of waste

60 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 bottled water problem in Australia 550 million litres/year consumed (2004-5) no drop in soft drink sales cost is 10,000 times tap water tap water is high quality waste of energy resources 65% of water bottles not recycled, 38% of litter

61 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 processed food - action refill water bottles from tap or tank use fewer processed products select products with less processing (eg rolled oats not flakes) cook real foods from scratch teach everyone to cook so it is not left to women grow your own

62 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 for discussion overproduction - is it sustainable? overconsumption of food = waste packaging is an issue return to seasonal eating food miles should we go down the food chain? should we go organic?

63 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 organic foods benefits raises environmental consciousness decreases environmental problems (pesticides, artificial fertilisers) decreases energy use decreases greenhouse gases

64 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 organic foods problems expensive no advantages for imported luxury organic foods can overuse organic fertilisers need safe fertilisers

65 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 organic foods - action check labels use locally grown organic foods where possible & affordable home organic growing

66 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 discussion overproduction overconsumption of food packaging seasonal eating food miles go down the food chain go organic

67 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 what can we do now? overproduction - ? overconsumption of food packaging seasonal eating food miles ? go down the food chain go organic ?

68 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 what we eat social equity health protection of land & water

69 © Rosemary Stanton 2007 the balanced diet nutrition & health environmental sustainability taste food literacy


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