Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Electronic Work Flow Chapter 13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Objectives Distinguish between.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Electronic Work Flow Chapter 13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Objectives Distinguish between."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Electronic Work Flow Chapter 13

3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Objectives Distinguish between analog form and digital form. State the functions of word processing, page composition, and illustration programs. Explain the functions of PDLs. Summarize the functions of Print Production Format (PPF) and Job Definition Format (JDF).

4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Objectives Cite the definition of preflighting and explain its importance to prepress production. Describe the basic creation, transmission, and output of electronic media. List proofing methods used in the printing industry.

5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Objectives Identify the basic functions of raster image processors (RIPs), imagesetters, and platesetters. Define digital printing.

6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Analog vs. Digital Most images enter the work flow in analog form and are converted to digital form Analog imagesAnalog images are continuous and can vary in density Digital imagesDigital images consist of cells on a grid (pixels)

7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. The Transition to Digital Image reproduction was originally limited to type and black-and-white line drawings Invention of photography in the 1800s made it possible to capture photographic images Reproducing these images was not possible until the invention of the halftone screen in 1886 Electronic scanners and digital cameras are used now

8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Computer Platforms Major ones in use today: –PC –Macintosh computer Defined by operating system used Many service bureaus use a particular platformservice bureaus Cross-platformCross-platform programs, formats, or devices work on different platforms

9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. SoftwareSoftware Programs Used for many applications in the printing industry Text creation and editing are done in word processing programsword processing programs Text can be imported into a page composition programpage composition program Other software is used for image creation and manipulation and imposition

10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Paint Programs Create or transform images into bitmap graphicsbitmap graphics Bitmap graphic pattern of pixels arranged on a grid Number of bits in a pixel is the bit depthbit depth One-Bit PixelsEight-Bit Pixels

11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Draw Programs Use straight and curved lines to produce vector graphicsvector graphics Vector graphics are represented as mathematical formulas –Can be greatly enlarged and still remain sharp –Require less computer memory than bitmap files

12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Image Manipulation Programs Paint programs that generate bitmap graphics More advanced programs allow manipulation of almost any aspect of an image –Cropping images –Changing color and contrast –Removing and replicating images

13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Page Composition Programs Integrate files produced by very different types of software Understand different languages used and translate elements into a common language

14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Translating Files PDL directs imaging performed by the output devices output devices InterpretersInterpreters translate PostScript page descriptions line by line into patterns of dots or pixels Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) files Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) files include low-resolution representations of documents

15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Portable Document Format (PDF) Evolved out of PostScript technology Designed to support: –CD-ROMs –Internet- and intranet-page production –Digital-printing technologies –Digital work flow of computer-to-plate (CTP) technologycomputer-to-plate (CTP) technology A good preflighting toolpreflighting

16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Integrating All of Production International Cooperation for Integration of Prepress, Press, and Postpress (CIP3) International Cooperation for Integration of Prepress, Press, and Postpress (CIP3) was created to reduce compatibility problems CIP3 produced Print Production Format (PPF)Print Production Format (PPF) PPF evolved into Job Definition Format (JDF)Job Definition Format (JDF)

17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Desktop Publishing Basis for all electronic prepress Used to produce art, copy, and page composition Pages are output as laser proofslaser proofs Corrected files are translated to PostScript format and sent to printer

18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Stages of Electronic Prepress

19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Power Supply When electrical power supply is disrupted, digital work flow is halted An uninterruptible power supply saves time and prevents work-flow interruptionsuninterruptible power supply Desktop computers can use a small battery supply Some uninterruptible power-supply systems protect from power surges

20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Service Bureaus Contracted by publishers to scan high- resolution images or output film Provide link between publishers or ad agencies and printers Some offer a full range of prepress servicesprepress services Output service bureausOutput service bureaus limit their services to high-resolution output from PostScript files

21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. File Formats Attention must be paid to the format in which data is stored Text files can be saved in various formats and reformatted for use in other programs Graphic image formats are not as flexible

22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Caution Digital data can become damaged or corrupted Always back up your files on a regular basis When you make backup copies, you are copying your files to a second medium as a precaution, in case the first medium fails or is destroyed

23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. File-Naming Conventions Carefully naming files keeps work organized –File names should not begin with a space –Each file name should be unique –Only alphanumeric characters should be used –Appropriate file extensions should be used Automatic picture replacement (APR)Automatic picture replacement (APR) files should not be renamed because the name of the file links to high-res image

24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Preflighting Orderly review of files to identify problems: –No laser proofs supplied –Incorrect page sizes –Inadequate image bleeds –Scans supplied in wrong file format Scitex Graphic Arts Users Association (SGAUA) publishes the Computer Ready Electronic File (CREF) II guidelinesComputer Ready Electronic File (CREF) II guidelines

25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Preflighting Chart

26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Preflighting Chart (Cont.)

27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Checklist for Materials

28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. File Repair Digitally send files to a data-repair and -recovery service Purchase file-repair software –Repairs certain film formats, media, or application files –Recovers graphics files that were accidentally deleted

29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Monitors Software used for word processing and page layout provides a What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) displayWhat You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) Color-management software provides a What You See Is What You Print (WYSIWYP) display What You See Is What You Print (WYSIWYP) Resolution and dot pitch are important

30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Types of Monitors Cathode-ray tube (CRT) monitors –Images are generated from beams of electrons striking phosphors on inside of screen Liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors –Consist of a coating of liquid crystals between two thin sheets of polarized glass Plasma display monitors –Cells containing plasma are activated by a small electric current

31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. CRT Monitors

32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. LCD Monitors

33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Plasma Display Monitors

34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Types of PrintersPrinters Dot matrix printers Ink-jet printers Laser printers Thermal printers Dye sublimation printers

35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Types of Ink-Jet Printers Drop-on-demand ink-jet printers –Thermal ink-jet printersThermal ink-jet printers –Piezoelectric ink-jet printersPiezoelectric ink-jet printers Continuous ink-jet printers –Emit a steady stream of droplets that receive electrical charges –Designed more for speed than image quality

36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Thermal Ink-Jet Printers

37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Piezoelectric Ink-Jet Printers

38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Laser Printers

39 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Engine Speed Maximum number of pages the printer can output in full- or single-color mode Measured in pages per minute

40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Caution Some ink-jet and laser printers use agents that can be irritating or toxic Laser toner can be an irritant to the respiratory tract and eyes MSDSs are available from the toner vendor or manufacturer

41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Types of ProofsProofs Hard proofs Soft proofs Digital proofs Contract proofs

42 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Proofing Customers often require proofs that accurately represent color and halftone reproduction Digital-proofing systems can simulate the dot gain expected on pressdot gain Remote proofingRemote proofing allows a printer to send digital files to out-of-town clients

43 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Imagesetters

44 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Types of Imagesetters

45 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Imagesetter Calibration Ensures high-quality output and repeatability repeatability Imagesetter maintenance is important

46 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Platesetters Eliminate the need for film by exposing directly to plate material Categories: –Flatbed platesetters –Internal-drum platesetters –External-drum platesetters

47 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Imagesetting Systems Consist of imagesetter and raster image processor (RIP) RIP translates language of page-layout software into language of imagesetters and platesetters Conversion of vector images to raster images is rasterizationrasterization Interpreter in the hardware converts fileshardware

48 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. RIP Conversion

49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Automated Ink Control In the past, ink keys were manually set to ensure that areas of the plate received the right amount of ink In the 1900s, plate scanners were developed, which set ink controls automatically Now, digital data from the RIP can also set the ink keys automatically

50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Digital Printing Any method of printing in which imaging of the plate occurs on press Includes two processes: –Digital imaging (DI) technologyDigital imaging (DI) technology Advantages are shorter production time, reduced labor costs, cost-effective short runs, and greater registration control –Digital toner-based press technologyDigital toner-based press technology Main advantage is variable data printing (VDP)variable data printing (VDP)

51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. The InternetInternet Used to communicate, transfer documents, and sell products and services Originally developed for the military Fastest growing part is the World Wide Web (WWW)World Wide Web (WWW)

52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Review Questions What is the main difference between analog form and digital form? Analog images are continuous and can vary in density, while digital images consist of tiny cells on a very fine grid.

53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Review Questions Text creation and editing should be done in a(n) _____ program. word processing

54 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Review Questions What is the main function of a PDL? A PDL directs the imaging that an output device performs.

55 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Review Questions PPF evolved into _____, which is a standard method of communication that eliminates the need for data to be reentered as a job moves from one system to another during production. Job Definition Format (JDF)

56 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Review Questions What do we call the orderly review of files to identify potential problems that could occur during production? Preflighting

57 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Review Questions Which of the following types of printers operates very similarly to photocopying machines? A. Dot matrix printer B. Dye sublimation printer C. Ink-jet printer D. Laser printer

58 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Review Questions What is the difference between hard proofs and soft proofs? Hard proofs are tangible sheets of paper made directly from digital files, while soft proofs are the images displayed on a computer monitor.

59 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Review Questions A(n) _____ is a high-resolution output device that takes bitmap data generated by a RIP and writes it to film, paper, or printing plates, using a laser that writes the data line by line. imagesetter

60 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Review Questions What is digital printing? Any reproduction technology that receives electronic files and uses spots (or dots) for replication.

61 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Analog image –An image created by variations in voltage or density, instead of digitized numerical values. Automatic picture replacement (APR) –A process by which high-resolution image files are automatically substituted for low-resolution image files at output time.

62 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Bit depth –The number of bits used to represent each pixel of an image. Bitmap graphic –A digital representation of an image created with pixels arranged in rows and columns.

63 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Cathode-ray tube (CRT) monitor –A large vacuum tube with an inside surface that is a flat screen on which images appear when light is selectively allowed to strike it. Computer platform –The basic computer architecture, or hardware, a particular model uses.

64 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Computer Ready Electronic File (CREF) II guidelines –The guidelines the SGAUA publishes to improve prepress productivity. Computer-to-plate (CTP) technology –A combination platemaking and printing process that allows plates to be imaged directly from electronic data.

65 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Continuous ink-jet printer –A device that emits a steady stream of tiny drops of ink. Contract proof –A color proof representing the appearance of the finished printed product that the printer and the client agreed on.

66 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Cross-platform –The capacity to function with two or more computer platforms, such as the Microsoft Windows operating system, Linux software, and Mac OS operating system software. Desktop publishing –The process of creating and assembling pages on a desktop computer.

67 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Digital image –An image created by a unique combination of numerical values known as bits. Digital imaging (DI) technology –The hardware and software that images a plate on the press.

68 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Digital printing –Any reproduction technology that receives electronic files and uses spots (or dots) for replication. Digital proof –A proof generated by outputting files on a high-resolution, high-quality printer, rather than from film separations.

69 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Digital toner-based press technology –A type of DI in which the image is imparted to the plate by electrically charging image areas that attract toner material. Dot gain –The optical increase in the size of a halftone dot during prepress operations or the mechanical increase in halftone-dot size that occurs as the image is transferred from plate to blanket to paper.

70 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Dot matrix printer –A low-quality output device that prints dots to form an image. Draw program –A software program used to produce and manipulate vector graphics.

71 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Drop-on-demand ink-jet printer –A device that emits tiny drops of ink when commanded by digital data. Dye sublimation printer –An electronic output device that produces photographic-quality digital color proofs using a sublimable dye.

72 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) file –A file format used to transfer PostScript- image information from one program to another and for outputting to an imagesetter. Engine speed –The maximum number of pages per minute the printer can output in full- or single-color mode.

73 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Hard proof –A proof printed onto a sheet of paper or other material. Hardware –The basic computer architecture a particular model uses.

74 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Image manipulation program –A graphics program providing a variety of special features for altering bitmap images. Imagesetter –A high-resolution output device that takes bitmap data generated by a RIP and writes it to film, paper, or printing plates, using a laser that writes the data line by line.

75 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Imagesetting system –An imagesetter and its RIP. Ink-jet printer –A computer output device that forms images with a printhead containing nozzles that shoot tiny dots of ink onto the substrate.

76 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary International Cooperation for Integration of Prepress, Press, and Postpress (CIP3) –An association working to produce systems for digital documents that can be created in prepress and used to set up press and finishing devices.

77 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Internet –A worldwide computer network in which smaller networks and individual computers are connected to each other by means of a complex system of routers and gateways.

78 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Interpreter –A computer program residing on a controller board in the printer. Job Definition Format (JDF) –A format that allows data input by customers seeking an estimate to be used by workstations involved in the jobs production.

79 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Laser printer –A medium- to high-quality computer output device that uses a laser beam to polarize images on the drum. Laser proof –A proof created on a laser printer.

80 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor –A flat screen on which images appear by the rotation of selected liquid crystals. Output device –A target for information held in the central computer unit.

81 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Output service bureau –A supplier generally specializing in PostScript output, rather than in a broader range of color separation and prepress service. Page composition program –Computer software that allows the user to determine the page size and format and to assemble the page elements.

82 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Paint program –Computer software that allows the user to create original bitmap graphics or manipulate existing ones. Piezoelectric ink-jet printer –A device that emits tiny drops of ink when the ink chamber is squeezed.

83 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Plasma display monitor –A flat screen on which images appear when electrons strike selected cells and cause the creation of UV light, which in turn, creates visible light. Platesetter –The platemaking component of a CTP system, used to image plates containing paginated text and graphics.

84 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Portable document format (PDF) –A file format Adobe Systems developed for representing documents in a manner that is independent of the original program software, hardware, and operating system used to create those documents. Preflighting –An orderly review of files to identify things that might cause problems during prepress operations or at the output stage.

85 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Prepress service –A service bureau offering a full range of prepress services, including everything from manual page composition to high- end scanning and RIPping. Print Production Format (PPF) –A format that allows data input at the beginning of a jobs production to be read by several workstations throughout the jobs production.

86 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Printer –An electronic device that outputs digital information onto a substrate, such as paper. Proof –A prototype of the printed job made digitally from electronic data, photochemically from film and dyes, or photomechanically from plates.

87 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Raster image processor (RIP) –A hardware-software combination that interprets digital data into an array of dots (a bitmap), which can be output through an imagesetter marking engine. Rasterization –The process of converting mathematical and digital information into a series of dots by an imagesetter or a platesetter for the production of film or plates.

88 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Remote proofing –Sending a digital image across the Internet to a proofer located in a different location. Repeatability –The ability of an imagesetter or another device to achieve exactly the same results each time, given the same data. This ability is a critical specification for accurate color-film separations.

89 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Service bureau –A supplier providing services such as high- resolution scanning or film output. Soft proof –A proof displayed on a computer screen.

90 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Software –A computer program that initiates the functions of a computer, such as word processing, page composition, and image creation and manipulation. Thermal ink-jet printer –A device that emits tiny drops of ink through the use of heat.

91 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Thermal printer –A computer output device that uses the thermal transfer process to output color images. Uninterruptible power supply –A battery that supplies temporary power to a computer when there is a power loss.

92 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Variable data printing (VDP) –A type of digital printing that allows different type and images to be printed on consecutive press sheets because the plate is reimaged between impressions. Vector graphic –An electronic image represented as mathematical formulas that define all the shapes in the image, as well as their placements on a page.

93 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) –The ability of computers to display text, graphics, color, and other page elements almost exactly the way they will print. What You See Is What You Print (WYSIWYP) –Software that adjusts printers and other output devices to output the same colors seen on the monitor.

94 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Glossary Word processing program –Computer software that allows the user to compose the text, or body matter, of a page. World Wide Web (WWW) –An interlinked collection of pages corresponding to files on widely separated computers.


Download ppt "Electronic Work Flow Chapter 13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Objectives Distinguish between."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google