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1 Provide a CD-Rom with information about a traveller, explorer or theorist whom you consider to be an early anthropologist (i.e. predating British structural.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Provide a CD-Rom with information about a traveller, explorer or theorist whom you consider to be an early anthropologist (i.e. predating British structural."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Provide a CD-Rom with information about a traveller, explorer or theorist whom you consider to be an early anthropologist (i.e. predating British structural functionalism) History of anthropological theory SSA 321 Candidate number: 167562 30 th April 2003 Page

2 2 1855-1940 Candidate no 167562 Page Alfred Cort Haddon

3 3 Colour-code: Any text written in purple is my own interjection Lilac and underlined is a hyperlink Blue is for references of books, articles, and journals Black is either headings or text quoted from elsewhere. In these cases a reference shall be sited as to where it is from. Page

4 4 Haddons Life and Work (Biographical details) Haddons Methodology (and the influence of zoology) Haddons work on art and artefacts, and the influence of Evolutionism Haddons usage of photography and film Haddons written work Bibliography Contents (5) (13) (17) (18) (20) (21) Page

5 5 Haddons life and work (Back to contents) This section details sources that are especially relevant to the biography of Haddons life, including the major research projects that he embarked upon. The implications and perspectives of this work shall be dealt with in the sections on methodology, Art and Artefacts, Use of Photography, and written work Page

6 6 Rouse Gives an interesting summary of much of Haddons work, and talks of his advocatory interests, trying to promote anthropology as a good training for British living and working in primitive society. Haddon was a keen promoter of the merits of anthropological training for missionaries and colonial officers. Although he had failed to organise a Bureau of Ethnology twenty years earlier, his Conway Memorial Lecture of 1921, The Practical Value of Ethnology, was in part an exposition on how the colonial administrator ('the man of affairs'), could find anthropology useful.42 The advantages to the colonial administration of an appreciation of local practices would be a smoother, more efficient, less confrontational atmosphere. Though he cautioned that anthropologists should not determine governmental policy, it was inevitable that anthropological data would be used by the administration, he naively hoped, in such a way as to lead to a more enlightened rule. For examples Haddon drew on Richard Temple's 1914 work about his experiences in the Indian Civil Service, Anthropology as a Practical Science. Sandra Rouse (Back to contents) Page

7 7 Haddon made various attempts to persuade the administrators of both the colonial service and the mission societies that anthropology should be made a formal part of university study for their candidates. In the Michaelmas term of 1902 he gave a series of lectures 'designed to attract young men who intended to become missionaries, giving them a preliminary training in that branch of anthropology which deals with primitive social and religious ideas'. He justified the value of anthropology to mission work by predicting greater success for a missionary who had an understanding of 'the aboriginal ideas which he proposed to modify or supplant.'44 Some valuable anthropological research, he claimed, came from missionary sources but generally missionaries had no scientific training. If the lectures could stimulate interest in ethnology and its value, 'dealings with uncivilised races may be rendered more intelligent and valuable material for study may be collected among them which would otherwise have been lost. His advocacy of the practical value of anthropology, particularly for colonial administrators, was initially confined to arenas outside of the university. Scientific societies and public lectures were more receptive audiences.(Rouse, 1999: 22-23) Rouse, Sandra, 1999, Haddon, Missionaries and men of Affairs, in Cambridge Anthropology, Vol. 21, No. 1, pages 9-27 (Back to contents) Page

8 8 Stocking, Jr. G. W. 1995, Haddon and the Torres Straits in After Tylor: British Social Anthropology 1888-1951, London: The Athlone Press Stocking gives an interesting description of Haddons role in the Torres Straits expedition. It also gives interesting details of how he came to anthropology at Cambridge. I have selected the most useful parts of this that can be found at the hyperlink below, however the whole article may also be located in the above journal. Haddon and the Torres Straits Stockings account to Haddon and the Torres Straits Expedition (Back to contents) Page

9 9 This article gives an interesting interpretation on his history as Biologist and anthropologist, especially regarding to his fieldwork methodology. It also has a very interesting letter that Haddon sent to his son, showing his ideas of what were interesting to him in the Torres Straits. Also contains an interesting and in- depth biography of his life and work, including his conversion to anthropology. For these see especially pages 61-76. Figure 3.1 Haddon during the first expedition to the Torres Strait. Mabuiag 1888. Rouse, S. 1998, Expedition and institution: A. C. Haddon and anthropology at Cambridige in Rouse, S. and Herle, A. (eds.), Cambridge and the Torres Strait, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pages 50-76 (Back to contents) Page

10 10 Articles from Nature Journal. These are interesting insofar as they give accounts from Haddon Before and after the expedition. For before the expedition see: Haddon, 1898, The Cambridge Expedition to Torres Straits and Borneo in Nature, Vol. 57, No. 1473, page 276 For after the expedition see: Haddon, 1899, The Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits and Sarawak, in Nature, Vol. 60, No. 1557, pages 413-416 Also: Haddon, A. C. 1898, Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, in Nature, Vol. 59, No. 1521, page 174 (Back to contents) Page

11 11 Obituary of Haddon Quiggin and Fegan give a comprehensive outline of Haddons life and work. This can either be found on the web at: http://uk.jstor.org/view/00251496/dm993606/99p2270p/0?confi g=jstor&frame=noframe&userID=892c01c8@swan.ac.uk/0282 58cb3a00502afe68&dpi=3 Some useful extracts that I have taken from them are also on the Hyperlink bellow: Haddon's obituary Or the original can be found in Man: Quiggin, A. H. and Fegan, E. S. July 1940, Alfred Cort Haddon, 1855-1940, in Man, Vol.40, No.123, pages 97-100 (Back to contents) Page

12 12 For an overview of other members of the Torres Straits expedition, see: A. C. Haddon, April 1939, Obituary of Sidney Herbert Ray: 28 th May, 1858 – 1 st January, 1939 in Man, Vol. 39, Pages 58-60 http://uk.jstor.org/view/00251496/dm993591/99p2001v/0?config=jstor&frame=nof rame&userID=892c01c8@swan.ac.uk/028258cb3a00502ad7d8&dpi=3 Fortes, M. February 1941, Obituary of Charles Gabriel Seligman, 1873-1940, in Man, Vol. 41, Pages 1-6 http://uk.jstor.org/view/00251496/dm993612/99p2380x/0?config=jstor&frame=nof rame&userID=892c01c8@swan.ac.uk/028258cb3a00502ad7d8&dpi=3 Haddon, Barlett and Fegman, Obituary of William Halse Rivers Rivers, M. D., President of the Royal Anthropological Institute, born 1864, died June 4 th, 1922 in Man, Vol. 22, Pages 97-61 http://uk.jstor.org/view/00251496/dm995192/99p13344/0?config=jstor&frame=nof rame&userID=892c01c8@swan.ac.uk/028258cb3a00502ad7d8&dpi=3 (Back to contents) Page

13 13 Haddons Methodology Several writers have talked about Haddons methodology, however his evolutionist analysis and the use of his background in zoology is apparent from his own writing. In this section there is a selection of examples of this occurrence in Haddons work, and other writers interpretation of Haddons methodology. (Back to contents) Page

14 14 One interesting subject explored is Haddons description of Art into different classifications analogous to that of a zoologists classification of the animal world. This illustration shows these ideas (Urry, 1993: 72) Urry also makes an interesting statement comparing the life and work of Haddon in Britain to that of Boas in the USA: Like Franz Boas in America, Haddon brought new methods and ideas to anthropology, and an aura of respectability which furthered the professionalization of the subject. Unlike Boas, however, Haddon did not create an epistemological break with earlier anthropological thought and establish a "new" anthropology. Haddon's vision of anthropology belonged essentially to the nineteenth century, and remained so until his death. In contrast, Boas, although Haddon's almost exact contemporary, made the transition from the nineteenth to the twentieth century with ease, and remained an eclectic thinker until his death. (Urry, 1993: 78). Urry, J. 1993, From Zoology to Ethnology: A. C. Haddons conversion to anthropology in Before Social Anthropology: Essays on the History of British Anthropology, pages 61-82 This text argues that Haddons background in biology not only influenced his own approach to anthropology, but also that of the vision of anthropology as a whole (Urry, 1993: 61) (Back to contents) Page

15 15 Haddons Book: Evolution in Art, is a prime example of evolutionary and comparative concepts being used in his work. Two extracts of this may be found on the Hyperlink below. Evolution of Art Haddon, A. C. 1895, Evolution in Art, London: Walter Scott Ltd. (Back to contents) Page

16 16 Rouse, S. 1998, Expedition and institution: A. C. Haddon and anthropology at Cambridige in Rouse, S. and Herle, A. (eds.), 1998, Cambridge and the Torres Strait, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press This book gives insight into Haddons methodology, analyses, and conversion to anthropology. Esspecially useful is Rouses article Expedition and institution: A. C. Haddon and anthropology at Cambridige, (pages 50-76) which also gives biographical information: A C Haddon and anthropology at Cambridge (Back to contents) Page

17 17 Art,Artifacts and Evolutionism One of the best resources for seeing Haddons perspective on art, is his book, Art is Evolution. Here are a few extracts that give illustrate his interpretation: extracts from evolution of art (Back to contents) Page

18 18 Use of Photography and Film http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/isca/haddon/allfootage.html Haddons film is recorded in the location below: The Haddon film archive is also useful for searching for any other film in the ethnographic period between 1845-1945. Coupled with this, it is interesting to read his own description of the film as the first anthropologist to produce an ethnographic film, he was in the unique position of not being influenced by other filmmakers in the genre of anthropological film. The extract can be found below: Haddon's description in Head Hunters (Back to contents) Page

19 19 There is much interesting information on the web about Haddons film footage. One of the best articles can be found on the addres below: http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/isca/haddon/article.html Tomaselli, De Brigard, De Bromhead and Barnouw also have interesting things to say about Haddon as a filmmaker: Tomaselli, De Brigard, De Bromhead and Barnouw (Back to contents) Page

20 20 Haddons Written Work Different theorists place Haddons work as more or less important in relation to the corpus f anthropological writings. Some members of the Cambridge school (such as Hart) hold that his work in the Torres Straits was essential for the development of both Radcliffe-Brown and Malinowski, whereas other theorists maintain that he is less important for the development of and for contemporary anthropology. Pleas refer to the links below: Expedition's place in history Sillitoe's description of Torres Straits Torres Straits overview (Back to contents) Page

21 21 Bibliography Fortes, M. February 1941, Obituary of Charles Gabriel Seligman, 1873-1940, in Man, Vol. 41, Pages 1-6 Haddon, A. C. 1895, Evolution in Art, London: Walter Scott Ltd. Haddon, 1898, The Cambridge Expedition to Torres Straits and Borneo in Nature, Vol. 57, No. 1473, page 276 Haddon, A. C. 1898, Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, in Nature, Vol. 59, No. 1521, page 174 Haddon, 1899, The Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits and Sarawak, in Nature, Vol. 60, No. 1557, pages 413-416 Haddon, A. C. 1932, Head-Hunters, London: C. A. Watts and Co. Limited Haddon, A. C. 1932, The Malu Ceremonies in Head Hunters, London: C. A. Watts and Co. Haddon, Barlett and Fegman, 1922 Obituary of William Halse Rivers Rivers, M. D., President of the Royal Anthropological Institute, born 1864, died June 4 th, 1922 in Man, Vol. 22, Pages 97-61 Haddon, A. C. April 1939, Obituary of Sidney Herbert Ray: 28 th May, 1858 – 1 st January, 1939 in Man, Vol. 39, Pages 58-60 Quiggin, A. H. and Fegan, E. S. July 1940, Alfred Cort Haddon, 1855-1940, in Man, Vol.40, No.123, pages 97-100 Page

22 22 Rouse, S. 1998, Expedition and institution: A. C. Haddon and anthropology at Cambridige in Rouse, S. and Herle, A. (eds.), Cambridge and the Torres Strait, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pages 50-76 Rouse, Sandra, 1999, Haddon, Missionaries and men of Affairs, in Cambridge Anthropology, Vol. 21, No. 1, pages 9-27 Sillitoe, P. 1977, To Mer, Maibuiag, Moresby: The Torres Straits Expedition in Cambridge Anthropology, Vol. 3, No.2, pages 1-19 Stocking, Jr. G. W. 1995, Haddon and the Torres Straits in After Tylor: British Social Anthropology 1888-1951, London: The Athlone Press Stocking, Jr. G. W. 1995, Haddon and the Torres Straits in After Tylor: British Social Anthropology 1888-1951, London: The Athlone Press Tomaselli, K. G. 1999, Appropriating Images: The Semiotics of Visual Representation, Hojbjerg: Intervention Press Urry, J. 1993, From Zoology to Ethnology: A. C. Haddons conversion to anthropology in Before Social Anthropology Essays on the History of British Anthropology, pages 61-82 Page

23 23 Websites: http://human-nature.com/science-as-culture/hart.html http://uk.jstor.org/view/00251496/dm993606/99p2270p/0?config=jstor&frame=noframe&userID=892c01c8@sw an.ac.uk/028258cb3a00502afe68&dpi=3 http://uk.jstor.org/view/00251496/dm993591/99p2001v/0?config=jstor&frame=noframe&userID=892c01c8@sw an.ac.uk/028258cb3a00502ad7d8&dpi=3 http://uk.jstor.org/view/00251496/dm993612/99p2380x/0?config=jstor&frame=noframe&userID=892c01c8@sw an.ac.uk/028258cb3a00502ad7d8&dpi=3 http://uk.jstor.org/view/00251496/dm995192/99p13344/0?config=jstor&frame=noframe&userID=892c01c8@sw an.ac.uk/028258cb3a00502ad7d8&dpi=3 http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/isca/haddon/allfootage.html http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/isca/haddon/article.html Page


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