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Manufacturing Processes, 1311 Dr Simin Nasseri

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1 SHAPING PROCESSES FOR PLASTICS Chapter 13- Part 1 Properties of Polymer Melts Extrusion
Manufacturing Processes, 1311 Dr Simin Nasseri Southern Polytechnic State University

Properties of Polymer Melts Extrusion Production of Sheet, Film, and Filaments Coating Processes Injection Molding Other Molding Processes Thermoforming Casting Polymer Foam Processing and Forming Product Design Considerations

3 Plastic Products Plastics can be shaped into a wide variety of products: Molded parts Extruded sections Films Sheets Insulation coatings on electrical wires Fibers for textiles

4 More Plastic Products In addition, plastics are often the principal ingredient in other materials, such as Paints and varnishes Adhesives Various polymer matrix composites Many plastic shaping processes can be adapted to produce items made of rubbers and polymer matrix composites

5 Trends in Polymer Processing
Applications of plastics have increased at a much faster rate than either metals or ceramics during the last 50 years Many parts previously made of metals are now being made of plastics Plastic containers have been largely substituted for glass bottles and jars Total volume of polymers (plastics and rubbers) now exceeds that of metals

6 Plastic Shaping Processes are Important
Almost unlimited variety of part geometries Plastic molding is a net shape process Further shaping is not needed Less energy is required than for metals due to much lower processing temperatures Handling of product is simplified during production because of lower temperatures Painting or plating is usually not required

7 Two Types of Plastics 1. Thermoplastics 2. Thermosets
Chemical structure remains unchanged during heating and shaping More important commercially, comprising more than 70% of total plastics tonnage 2. Thermosets Undergo a curing process during heating and shaping, causing a permanent change (cross‑linking) in molecular structure Once cured, they cannot be remelted

8 Classification of Shaping Processes
Extruded products with constant cross‑section Continuous sheets and films Continuous filaments (fibers) Molded parts that are mostly solid Hollow molded parts with relatively thin walls Discrete parts made of formed sheets and films Castings Foamed products

9 Polymer Melts To shape a thermoplastic polymer it must be heated so that it softens to the consistency of a liquid In this form, it is called a polymer melt Important properties of polymer melts: Viscosity Viscoelasticity

10 Viscosity of Polymer Melts
Fluid property that relates shear stress to shear rate during flow. Due to its high molecular weight, a polymer melt is a thick fluid with high viscosity. Most polymer shaping processes involve flow through small channels or die openings. Flow rates are often large, leading to high shear rates and shear stresses, so significant pressures are required to accomplish the processes. Ketchup, a highly viscoelastic fluid (like the polymer melt)

11 Viscosity and Shear Rate
Viscosity of a polymer melt decreases with shear rate, thus the fluid becomes thinner at higher shear rates. (Newtonian Material: Viscosity changes by temperature, not by time or shear rate) Figure Viscosity relationships for Newtonian fluid and typical polymer melt. Shear rate Viscosity

12 Viscosity and Temperature
Viscosity decreases with temperature, thus the fluid becomes thinner at higher temperatures Figure Viscosity as a function of temperature for selected polymers at a shear rate of 103 s-1. Temperature Viscosity

13 Viscoelasticity Combination of viscosity and elasticity.
Possessed by both polymer solids and polymer melts. Examples: Shampoo, hand cream, mayonnaise, toothpaste, yoghurt. Temperature, time and shear rate are important and affect the properties of viscoelastic materials (here the polymer melts). Example: die swell in extrusion, in which the hot plastic expands when exiting the die opening.

14 Die Swell Extruded polymer "remembers" its previous shape when in the larger cross section of the extruder, tries to return to it after leaving the die orifice. Figure Die swell, a manifestation of viscoelasticity in polymer melts, as depicted here on exiting an extrusion die.

15 Rod Climbing In this video clip a dilute (0.025 wt%) solution of a high molecular weight polystyrene polymer is dissolved in a low molecular weight Newtonian viscous solvent (Piccolastic, Hercules Inc). Vortices: If you stir water or iced tea (Newtonian liquids) vigorously (but not too vigorously!), you may see tiny "swirls" parallel to the axis of stirring. The flow is downwards.

16 Extrusion 13.2

17 Extrusion Compression process in which material is forced to flow through a die orifice to provide long continuous product whose cross‑sectional shape is determined by the shape of the orifice. Widely used for thermoplastics and elastomers to mass produce items such as tubing, pipes, hose, structural shapes, sheet and film, continuous filaments, and coated electrical wire. Carried out as a continuous process; extrudate is then cut into desired lengths.

18 Feedstock is moved from hopper and preheated.
Extruder Figure Components and features of a (single‑screw) extruder for plastics and elastomers. Polymer is transformed into fluid, air mixed is extracted, and material is compressed. Melt is homogenized and sufficient pressure developed to pump it through die opening. Feedstock is moved from hopper and preheated.

19 Two Main Components of an Extruder
Barrel Screw Die - not an extruder component Special tool that must be fabricated for particular profile to be produced.

20 Extruder Barrel Internal diameter typically ranges from 25 to 150 mm (1.0 to 6.0 in.) L/D ratios usually between 10 and 30: higher ratios for thermoplastics, lower ratios for elastomers Feedstock fed by gravity onto screw whose rotation moves material through barrel. Electric heaters melt feedstock; subsequent mixing and mechanical working adds heat which maintains the melt

21 Extruder Screw Divided into sections to serve several functions:
Feed section - feedstock is moved from hopper and preheated. Compression section - polymer is transformed into fluid, air mixed with pellets is extracted from melt, and material is compressed. Metering section - melt is homogenized and sufficient pressure developed to pump it through die opening. Figure Details of an extruder screw inside the barrel. Pressure is largely determined by dc.

22 Die End of Extruder Functions of screen pack:
Progress of polymer melt through barrel leads ultimately to the die zone. Before reaching die, the melt passes through a screen pack - series of wire meshes supported by a stiff plate containing small axial holes Functions of screen pack: Filter out contaminants and hard lumps Build pressure in metering section Straighten flow of polymer melt and remove its "memory" of circular motion from screw

23 Die Configurations and Extruded Products
The shape of the die orifice determines the cross‑sectional shape of the extrudate Common die profiles and corresponding extruded shapes: Solid profiles Hollow profiles, such as tubes Wire and cable coating Sheet and film Filaments

24 Extrusion of Solid Profiles
Regular shapes such as Rounds Squares Irregular cross sections such as Structural shapes Door and window moldings Automobile trim House siding

25 Extrusion Die for Solid Cross Section
Figure (a) Side view cross‑section of an extrusion die for solid regular shapes, such as round stock; (b) front view of die, with profile of extrudate. Die swell is evident in both views.

26 Hollow Profiles Examples: tubes, pipes, hoses, and other cross‑sections containing holes Hollow profiles require mandrel to form the shape Mandrel held in place using a spider Polymer melt flows around legs supporting the mandrel to reunite into a monolithic tube wall Mandrel often includes an air channel through which air is blown to maintain hollow form of extrudate during hardening Extrusion bridge die making a hollow section product. Note that in the picture the die has been split to show the material passing through it. In reality, the die and the ring fit together, with a gap for the extruded material to flow through. Openlearn, UK

27 Extrusion Die for Hollow Shapes
Figure Side view cross‑section of extrusion die for shaping hollow cross‑sections such as tubes and pipes; Section A‑A is a front view cross‑section showing how the mandrel is held in place; Section B‑B shows the tubular cross‑section just prior to exiting the die; die swell causes an enlargement of the diameter.

28 Blow Extrusion Blow extrusion, in which molten extrudate is forced past a tubing mandrel, expanded into a balloon shape by a stream of air, drawn upward by rollers, and pinched into a collapsed sheet to be cut into a number of products.

29 Wire and Cable Coating Polymer melt is applied to bare wire as it is pulled at high speed through a die A slight vacuum is drawn between wire and polymer to promote adhesion of coating Wire provides rigidity during cooling - usually aided by passing coated wire through a water trough Product is wound onto large spools at speeds up to 50 m/s (10,000 ft/min)

30 Extrusion Die for Coating Wire
Figure Side view cross‑section of die for coating of electrical wire by extrusion.

31 Test yourself! What are the names of different sections along the extrusion barrel? 1 3 2 1- Feed Section 3- Metering Section 2- Compression Section

32 Test yourself! Could extrusion be used for the following products?
The body of a food mixer. Copper pipe for a central heating system. The body of a pen. The body of the food mixer has a complex 3D shape, so it certainly could not be extruded. Copper pipe is ideal for manufacturing by extrusion, using a bridge die to extrude the hollow shape. The ink tube in the pen has probably been extruded. Some pens’ bodies vary in diameter along their length and are typically closed off at one end. This would suggest that the pen body is not extruded. For pieces that have more complex shapes, like caps, ends, and mechanical components, injection molding is used.

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