Presentation on theme: "Social Thinking and Social Influence"— Presentation transcript:
1Social Thinking and Social Influence Chapter 7Social Thinking and Social Influence
2Forming Impressions of Others, continued As we engage in person perception, “the process of forming impressions of others”, we rely on five key sources of information:Appearance.Verbal behavior.Actions.Nonverbal messages (e.g., facial expressions, body language, and gestures).Situations.
3Forming Impressions of Others, continued Snap judgments vs. systematic judgmentsSnap judgments about others “are those made quickly and based on only a few bits of information and preconceived notions”.They are “shortcuts” that rely on automatic processing, and are used when we are not motivated to form an accurate impression of another person.
4Forming Impressions of Others, continued Snap vs. systematic judgments, continuedSystematic judgments require more controlled processing and tend to occur when forming impressions of others that can affect our happiness or welfare.
5Forming Impressions of Others, continued Attributions are “inferences that people draw about the causes of their own behavior, others’ behavior, and events”. There are two types:Internal attributions – when people attribute the cause of others’ behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, or feelings.External attributions – when people attribute the cause of others’ behavior to situational demands or environmental constraints.
6Forming Impressions of Others, continued Attributions, continuedWe are most likely to make attributions about others’ behavior whenOthers behave in unexpected or negative ways.When events are personally relevant.When we are suspicious about others’ motives.
7Forming Impressions of Others, continued Perceiver expectationsHow we expect others to behave can influence our actual perceptions of them.Confirmation bias – “seeking information that supports one’s beliefs while not pursuing disconfirming information”.Self-fulfilling prophecies – occur when “expectations about a person cause the person to behave in ways that confirm the expectations” (see Figure 7.3).
9Forming Impressions of Others, continued Cognitive distortionsSocial categorizations – cognitive “shortcuts” in which we categorize people on the basis of nationality, race, gender, etc.People perceive similar individuals to be members of their ingroup (us) and dissimilar people to be members of the outgroup (them).
10Forming Impressions of Others, continued Social categorization, continuedCategorizing has three important results:People have more negative attitudes toward outgroup members.People see outgroup members as more alike than they really are (the outgroup homogeneity effect).The visibility of outgroup members is heightened when they comprise the minority in a crowd.
11Forming Impressions of Others, continued Stereotypes – “widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group”.Stereotypes persist because ofSimplicity. They are less effortful, cognitively. But, the trade-off for simplicity is inaccuracy.Confirmation bias.Self-fulfilling prophecy.
12Forming Impressions of Others, continued The fundamental attribution error – refers to “the tendency to explain other people’s behavior as the result of personal, rather than situational, factors”.Making attributions requires two steps:Focusing on the person (making an internal attribution).Taking the situation into account (allowing for external attributions).The second step is more effortful, so we often skip it (see Figure 7.5).
13Figure 7. 5. Explaining the fundamental attribution error Figure Explaining the fundamental attribution error. People automatically take the first step in the attribution process (making a personal attribution). However, they often fail to take the second step (considering the possible influence of situational factors on a person’s behavior) because that requires extra effort. The failure to consider situational factors causes observers to exaggerate the role of personal factors in behavior—that is, they make the fundamental attribution error. (Adapted from Brehm, Kassin, & Fein, 2002)
14Forming Impressions of Others, continued A defensive attribution is “the tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way”.
15Forming Impressions of Others, continued Key themes in person perception:Efficiency – when forming impressions of others, we default to automatic processing.Selectivity – we “see what we expect to see” by focusing on aspects of the person that confirm our expectations (see Figure 7.6).Consistency – First impressions do matter! Once a perceiver has formed an impression of someone, he or she tunes out subsequent information. This is called the primacy effect.
16Figure Descriptions of the guest lecturer in Kelley’s (1950) study. These two descriptions, provided to two groups of students before the lecturer spoke, differ by only an adjective. But this seemingly small difference caused the two groups to form altogether different perceptions of the lecturer.
17The Problem of Prejudice, continued Prejudice – “a negative attitude toward members of a group”.Discrimination – “involves behaving differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group”.Prejudice and discrimination often go together, but this is not always the case (see Figure 7.7).Sometimes, we are not even aware of our prejudices as demonstrated by the Implicit Association Test.
18Figure 7. 7. Prejudice and discrimination Figure Prejudice and discrimination. Prejudice and discrimination are highly correlated, but they don’t necessarily go hand in hand. As the examples in the blue cells show, there can be prejudice without discrimination and discrimination without prejudice.
20The Problem of Prejudice, continued “Old-fashioned” vs. modern discrimination“Old-fashioned”, or overt, discrimination has declined in recent years, but a more subtle (“modern”) form of discrimination has emerged.Modern discrimination occurs when “people privately harbor negative attitudes toward minority groups, but express them only when they feel such views are justified, or that it’s safe to do so” (see Figure 7.8).
22The Problem of Prejudice, continued Causes of prejudiceThe authoritarian personality, a “personality type characterized by prejudice toward any group perceived to be different from oneself”.Cognitive distortions and expectations such as stereotyping, fundamental attribution error, defensive attributions, and expectations.
23The Problem of Prejudice, continued Causes of prejudice, continuedCompetition between groups – perceived threats to one’s group, such as conflict over scarce resources, causes prejudice against outgroup members.Threats to social identity – when the collective self-esteem of a group is threatened, two response may occur:Ingroup favoritism.Outgroup denigration.
24The Problem of Prejudice, continued Reducing prejudiceCognitive strategies – make an effort to override stereotypes by using controlled processing.Intergroup contactSuperordinate goals – “goals that require two or more groups to work together to achieve mutual ends” can reduce intergroup hostility.
25The Power of Persuasion, continued Persuasion – “involves the communication of arguments and information intended to change another person’s attitudes”.Attitudes – include “beliefs and feelings about people, objects, and ideas”.
26The Power of Persuasion, continued The elements of the persuasion process (see Figure 7.12).The source is “the person who sends a communication”.The receiver is “the person to whom the message is sent”.The message is “the information transmitted by the source”.The channel is “the medium through which the message is sent”.
27Figure 7. 12. Overview of the persuasion process Figure Overview of the persuasion process. The process of persuasion essentially boils down to who (the source) communicates what (the message) by what means (the channel) to whom (the receiver). Thus, four sets of variables influence the process of persuasion: source, message, channel, and receiver factors. The diagram lists some of the more important factors in each category (including some that are not discussed in the text due to space limitations).
28The Power of Persuasion, continued Source factorsPersuasion is more effective whenThe source has high credibility. Sources are deemed credible if they have expertise and are trustworthy.The source is likable. Likability is increased when the source is attractive and/or similar to the receiver.
29The Power of Persuasion, continued Message factorsMessages are most effective whenTwo-sided arguments are used. This also increases credibility.Persuaders use emotional appeals to shift attitudes.They create positive feelings in the receiver.
30The Power of Persuasion, continued Receiver factorsMood (optimistic vs. pessimistic)The receiver’s need for cognition, or “tendency to seek out and enjoy effortful thought, problem solving activities, and in-depth analysis”.Forewarning, which reduces the impact of arguments on receivers.Receivers are harder to persuade when the message content is incompatible with existing beliefs.
31The Power of Persuasion, continued The whys of persuasionAccording to the elaboration likelihood model, our thoughts about a persuasive message are most important in determining whether attitudes will change.Messages can be perceived either through a peripheral route (not mindful processing) or central route (mindful processing). (See Figure 7.13.)
32Figure 7. 13. The peripheral and central routes to persuasion Figure The peripheral and central routes to persuasion. Persuasion can occur via two different routes. The central route, which results in high elaboration, tends to produce longer-lasting attitude change and stronger attitudes.
33The Power of Persuasion, continued Peripheral versus central routes, continuedMessages perceived through central routes are usually more effective, longer-lasting, and a better predictor of behavior.For the central route to override the peripheral route,The receiver must be motivated to process the persuasive message.Receivers must be able to grasp the persuasive message.
34The Power of Social Pressure, continued Conformity and compliance pressuresConformity – “occurs when people yield to real or imagined social pressure.”The dynamics of conformitySolomon Asch’s (1955) classic study demonstrated that people conformed easily to wrong answers given by others in a mock perception test (see Figure 7.14).Conformity also increased, to a point, as group size increased, peaking at seven members.
36The Power of Social Pressure, continued Conformity, continuedConformity versus complianceConformity – “occurs when people yield to real or imagined social pressure.”Compliance – “occurs when people yield to social pressure in their public behavior, even though their private beliefs have not changed”.
37The Power of Social Pressure, continued Conformity, continuedThe whys of conformityNormative influence – “operates when people conform to social norms for fear of negative social consequences”.Informational influence – “operates when people look to others for how to behave in ambiguous situations”.
38The Power of Social Pressure, continued Conformity, continuedResisting conformity pressuresPressure can come from normative and informational influences.The bystander effect, or “the tendency for individuals to be less likely to provide help when others are present than when they are alone”, is an example of the problem of informational influence.
39The Power of Social Pressure, continued Conformity, continuedTips for resisting conformity pressuresPay more attention to social forces operating on you.Identify someone in the group whose views match yours.Bring along a friend with similar views if you know that you will confront pressure.
40The Power of Social Pressure, continued Pressure from authority figuresObedience – “is a form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority”.The dynamics of obedienceStanley Milgram’s classic study (1963) demonstrated that people’s tendency to obey is strong, even if they are asked to harm another person (see Figure 7.16).
41Figure 7. 16. Milgram’s (1963) experiment on obedience Figure Milgram’s (1963) experiment on obedience. The photos show the fake shock generator and the “learner” being connected to the shock generator during an experimental session. The results of the study are summarized in the bar graph. The vast majority of subjects (65%) delivered the entire series of shocks to the learner.Photos copyright 1965 by Stanley Milgram. From the film Obedience, distributed by The Pennsylvania State University. Reprinted by permission of Alexandra Milgram.
42The Power of Social Pressure, continued Obedience, continuedThe causes of obedienceObedience is strongest whenDemands increase graduallyOthers take responsibility for your actionsWe are motivated to meet the authority figure’s expectationsThus, human behavior is determined more by the power of the situation than by the character of the person.
43Application: Compliance Tactics, continued The consistency principle states that “once people agree to something, they will tend to stick with it”. Two common techniques areThe foot-in-the-door technique – “getting people to agree to a small request so that they agree to a larger request later” (see Figure 7.17a).The lowball technique – “getting someone to commit to an attractive proposition before its hidden costs are revealed”.
44Application: Compliance Tactics, continued The reciprocity principle exploits the tendency for people to think they should pay back in kind what they receive from others.The door-in-the-face technique “involves making a large request that is likely to be turned down in order to increase the changes that people will agree to a smaller request later” (see Figure 7.17b).
45Figure 7. 17. The foot-in-the-door and door-in-the-face techniques Figure The foot-in-the-door and door-in-the-face techniques. These two influence techniques are essentially the reverse of each other, but both can work. (a) In the foot-in-the-door technique, you begin with a small request and work up to a larger one. (b) In the door-in-the-face technique, you begin with a large request and work down to a smaller one.
46Application: Compliance Tactics, continued The scarcity principlePeople believe that if something is scarce, it must be good, and they are more likely to buy it.This can be exploited by ads claiming“Limited supply available”.“For a limited time only”.Order “while they last”.“Time is running out”.