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ETE444/544 Introduction to Micro Fabrication Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology Chapter 5

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1 ETE444/544 Introduction to Micro Fabrication Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology Chapter 5

2 Introduction Recent innovations in the area of micro fabrication have created a unique opportunity for manufacturing structures in the nanometer– millimeter range. We can fabricate novel electronic, optical, magnetic, mechanical, and chemical/biological devices with applications ranging from sensors to computation and control.

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4 Nanofabrication Basic Microfabrication Techniques –Lithography –Thin Film Deposition and Doping –Etching and Substrate Removal –Substrate Bonding

5 Moores Law and Transistor Count Moore's law describes a long- term trend in the history of computing hardware whereby the number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years. The period often quoted as "18 months" is due to David House, an Intel executive, who predicted that period for a doubling in chip performance (being a combination of the effect of more transistors and them being faster). [1] he law is named after Intel co-founder Gordon E. Moore, who described the trend in his 1965 paper. [6][7][8] The paper noted that the number of components in integrated circuits had doubled every year from the invention of the integrated circuit in 1958 until 1965 and predicted that the trend would continue "for at least ten years"history of computing hardwaretransistors integrated circuit [1] IntelGordon E. Moore [6][7][8]

6 Fabrication Top-down: Chisel away material to make nanoscale objects Bottom-up: Assemble nanoscale objects out of even smaller units (e.g., atoms and molecules) Ultimate Goal: Dial in the properties that you want by designing and building at the scale of nature (i.e., the nanoscale)

7 Top Down vs. Bottom Up

8 Top-Down: Photolithography Mark C. Hersam: Northwestern University

9 Top-Down: Nanoimprint Lithography Mark C. Hersam: Northwestern University

10 Top-Down: Nanosphere Lithography Mark C. Hersam: Northwestern University

11 Bottom-Up: Carbon Nanotube Synthesis

12 Bottom-Up: Molecular Self Assembly Spontaneous organization of molecules into stable, structurally well-defined aggregates (nanometer length scale). Molecules can be transported to surfaces through liquids to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs).

13 Merging of two approaches: Top-down and bottom-up machining methodologies Most human manufacturing methods of small devices involve top-down approaches. Starting from larger blocks of material we make smaller and smaller things. Nature works the other way, i.e., from the bottom-up. All living things are made atom by atom, molecule by molecule; from the small to the large. As manufacturing of very small things with top-down techniques (NEMS or nano mechanical devices) become too expensive or hit other barriers we are looking at nature for guidance (biomimetics). Further miniaturization might be inspired by biology but will most likely be different again from nature -- the drivers for human and natural manufacturing techniques are very different.

14 Seeman Eigler Daunert - Madou Montemagno Merging of two approaches: Top-down and bottom-up machining methodologies --NEMS MEMS little brother is NEMS, the top-down approach to nano devices. This biomimetic approach to nano devices I like to call nanochemistry. To succeed in the latter we will need : –self-assembly and directed assembly (e.,g, using electrical fields -see next viewgraph) –massive parallelism –understanding of molecular mechanisms-- chemomechanics –engineers/scientists who understand wet and dry disciplines Example nano chemistry approaches: –Natural polymers: e.g., NAs and proteins not only as sensors but also as actuators and building blocks (Genetic engineer NAs and proteins-rely on extremophiles for guidance) –Mechanosynthesis –NEMS/biology hybrids --to learn only

15 Lithography Lithography is the technique used to transfer a computer generated pattern onto a substrate (silicon, glass, GaAs, etc.). This pattern is subsequently used to etch an underlying thin film (oxide, nitride, etc.) for various purposes (doping, etching, etc.). Although photolithography, i. e., the lithography using a UV light source, is by far the most widely used lithography technique in microelectronic fabrication, electron- beam (e-beam) and X-ray lithography are two other alternatives that have attracted considerable attention in theMEMSand nanofabrication areas.

16 Exposure Systems Depending on the separation between the mask and the wafer, three different exposure systems are available: 1.Contact : gives better resolution than proximity. 2.Proximity 3.Projection – uses a dual lens optical system to project the mask image onto the wafer. – Widely used system in microfabrication and can yield superior resolutions compared to contact and proximity methods

17 Thin Film Deposition and Doping Exposed area Unexposed area / blocked area

18 Step Coverage and Conformality

19 Oxidation Oxidation of silicon is a process used to obtain a thin film of SiO2 of excellent quality (very low density of defects) and thickness homogeneity.

20 The oxidation of silicon also occurs at room temperature, however, a layer of about 20Å (native oxide) is enough to passivate the surface and prevent further oxidation. Oxidation Furnace

21 Doping The introduction of certain impurities in a semiconductor can change its electrical, chemical, and even mechanical properties. Typical impurities, or dopants, used in silicon include boron (to form p-type regions) and phosphorous or arsenic (to form n-type regions). Doping is the main process used in the microelectronic industry to fabricate major components such as diodes and transistors.

22 N-Type / P-Type Junction

23 Chemical Vapor Deposition and Epitaxy Reaction of chemicals in a gas phase to form the deposited thin film –LPCVD (Low Pressure CVD) –PECVD (Plasma Enhanced CVD) MO-CVD tutorial on epitaxial deposition at

24 Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy Metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE), also known as organometallic vapour phase epitaxy (OMVPE) or metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), is a chemical vapour deposition method of epitaxial growth of materials, especially compound semiconductors, from the surface reaction of organic compounds or metalorganics and metal hydrides containing the required chemical elements. For example, indium phosphide could be grown in a reactor on a substrate by introducing Trimethylindium ((CH 3 ) 3 In) and phosphine (PH 3 ). Formation of the epitaxial layer occurs by final pyrolysis of the constituent chemicals at the substrate surface. In contrast to molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) the growth of crystals is by chemical reaction and not physical deposition. This takes place not in a vacuum, but from the gas phase at moderate pressures (2 to 100 kPa). As such, this technique is preferred for the formation of devices incorporating thermodynamically metastable alloys, and it has become a major process in the manufacture of optoelectronics.organometallicchemical vapour depositionepitaxial growthcompound semiconductorsorganic compoundsmetalorganics chemical elementsindium phosphideTrimethylindiumphosphine pyrolysismolecular beam epitaxycrystals vacuumgaspressuresPametastableoptoelectronics

25 LPCVD LPCVD process is typically carried out in electrically heated tubes, similar to the oxidation tubes, equipped with pumping capabilities to achieve the needed low pressures (0.1 to 1.0 torr). A large number of wafers can be processed simultaneously, and the material is deposited in both sides of the wafers. The process temperatures depend on the material to be deposited, but generally are in the range of 550 to 900 C. As in the oxidation, high temperatures and contamination issues can restrict the type of processes used prior to the LPCVD. Typical materials deposited by LPCVD include silicon oxide (e.g., SiCl2H2 + 2N2O SiO2+2N2+2HCl at 900 C)

26 PECVD The PECVD process is performed in plasma systems such as the one represented in Fig. The use of RF energy to create highly reactive species in the plasma allows for the use of lower temperatures at the substrates (150 to 350 C). Parallel-plate plasma reactors normally used in microfabrication can only process a limited number of wafers per batch. The wafers are positioned horizontally on top of the lower electrode, so only one side gets deposited. Typical materials deposited with PECVD include silicon oxide, nitride, and amorphous silicon. Conformality is good for low-aspect-ratio structures, but becomes very poor for deep trenches (20% of the surface thickness inside through-wafer holes with aspect ratio of ten).


28 Epitaxial Growth In this process, a single crystalline material is grown as an extension of the crystal structure of the substrate. It is possible to grow dissimilar materials if the crystal structures are somehow similar (lattice-matched). Silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) substrates and some heterostructures are fabricated in this way.

29 Molecular Beam Epitaxy The molecular beam epitaxy technique (MBE) was developed initially for the crystalline growth of the semiconductors. It is an ultra-high vacuum (P < 10-6 mbar) technology based on the sequential evaporation of the elementary components placed in Knudsen effusion cells. One of the advantages of this method rests on the control of the growth in real time thanks to the in situ use of the high energy electron diffraction in grazing incidence (RHEED).

30 Complex Oxide Molecular Beam Epitaxy--5 This technology allows pure complex oxides films to be grown epitaxially; of special interest are films that are ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, or superconducting. Alternating layers can be deposited to allow the observation of novel properties at the boundary or interface.

31 Physical Vapor Deposition In physical deposition systems the material to be deposited is transported from a source to the wafers, both being in the same chamber. Two physical principles are used to do so: –Evaporation –Sputtering

32 Electron Beam Deposition

33 Sputtering In sputtering, a target of the material to be deposited is bombarded with high-energy inert ions (usually argon). The outcome of the bombardment is that individual atoms or clusters are removed from the surface and ejected toward the wafer. The physical nature of this process allows its use with virtually any existing material: metals, dielectrics, alloys, and all kinds of compounds (for example, piezoelectric PZT). The inert ions bombarding the target are produced in DC or RF plasma.

34 Sputter Deposition

35 Etching / Substrate Removal Very often the substrate (silicon, glass, GaAs, etc.) also needs to be removed in order to create various mechanical micro- /nanostructures (beams, plates, etc.). Two important figures of merit for any etching process are selectivity and directionality. –Wet Etching –Dry Etching

36 Wet Etching Due to the lateral undercut, the minimum feature achievable with wet etchants is limited to > 3μm. Silicon dioxide is commonly etched in a dilute (6:1, 10:1, or 20:1 by volume) or buffered HF (BHF, HF+NH4F) solutions (etch rate of 1,000Å/min in BHF). Photoresist and silicon nitride are the two most common masking materials for the wet oxide etch.


38 Isotropic etching Isotropic etching of silicon using HF/HNO 3 /CH 3 COOH. Silicon anisotropic wet etch constitutes an important technique in bulk micromachining. The three most important silicon etchants in this category are potassium hydroxide (KOH), ethylene diamine pyrochatechol (EDP), and tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH).

39 Dry Etching Most dry etching techniques are plasma-based. They have several advantages compared with wet etching. These include smaller undercut (allowing smaller lines to be patterned) and higher anisotropicity (allowing high-aspect-ratio vertical structures). The three basic dry etching techniques: – high-pressure plasma etching – Reactive ion etching (RIE) – ion milling

40 Other Materials and Processes GaAs, InP, and Ga, In, Al, mixtures CIGS semiconductor technology Silicon photovoltaic modules Silicon cantilever technology Carbon nanotube, graphene electronics Biological systems / junctions


42 MOCVD / Epitaxial Deposition

43 Contamination Control

44 Particle Control


46 Summary 50 years of Semiconductor processing technology. Moores Law still holds true! Lithography is the workhorse technology Thin film deposition (epitaxial layers) Oxidation (oxide layer growth) Doping (n and p type junctions) Etching (dry and wet etch) Extreme particle / contamination control

47 References 5microfabricationpdf microfabricationpdf ETE444/544 Introduction to Micro Fabrication Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology Chapter 5 III lithography

48 Vocabulary Review Moores Law Top down Bottom up Self assembly Lithography Masking Etching Oxidation Doping CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) MO- CVD, PE-CVD Epitaxial Growth MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy)

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