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Movies and the Impact of Images

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1 Movies and the Impact of Images
Chapter 7

2 “. . . [W]e need to ask big-picture questions such as what purposes movies serve for us today, compared with their earlier intent; how strong an impact the U.S. film industry has on society and culture in our own country and in others; and where the film industry may be headed in the future.”

3 Early History of Movies: The Precursors of Film
The Magic Lantern projects images painted on glass plates. 1800s Thaumatrope “combines” images when twirled, 1824 Zoetrope makes images appear to move, 1834

4 Early History of Movies: Development Stage
Muybridge projects photographic images on wall for public viewing, 1880 Eastman develops roll film, 1884 Le Prince invents first motion-picture camera, 1888 Creates first motion picture, Roundhay Garden Scene Goodwin creates celluloid, 1889

5 Early History of Movies: Entrepreneurial Stage
Edison and Dickson Create kinetograph (camera) and kinetoscope (single-person viewing system) Create vitascope, which projected longer filmstrips without interruption Lumière brothers Develop cinematograph, combined camera, film development, and projection system

6 Early History of Movies: Mass-Medium Stage
Méliès (France) Introduces first narrative films Uses new filming and editing tricks Porter (U.S.) Adapts Méliès’s innovations to make America’s first narrative film Introduces first close-up, western, chase scene Nickelodeons Attract workers and immigrants to the movies

7 Evolution of Hollywood Studio System
Edison’s “Trust” Cartel of major U.S. and French producers Exclusive deal with Eastman Zukor and Fox Leave East Coast for Hollywood Bypass the Trust; file suit that breaks its hold Create Paramount, Fox Studio system Vertically integrated, creates film oligopoly

8 The Three Pillars of the Movie Business
Production Studios control all “talent” via exclusive contracts Distribution Early film exchange system Block booking distribution (Zukor) European markets Exhibition Studios purchase first-run theaters Develop movie palaces, mid-city theaters

9 Hollywood’s Golden Age
Narrative techniques developed Varied camera distances, multiple story lines, fast-paced editing, symbolic imagery New types of film develop including: Crime, horror, westerns, war, science fiction Introduction of sound Further establishes narrative style Sets new commercial standards in industry The Jazz Singer first talkie Fox introduces newsreels

10 Setting the Standard for Narrative Style
Hollywood narrative Recognizable characters Clear plot Special effects Hollywood Genres Action/Adventure, comedy, romance, drama, mystery, gangster, western, horror, fantasy, musicals, film noir Hollywood authors Movie directors develop specific style, interest George Lucas, Steven Spielberg

11 Breaking the Gender and Racial Barrier
Female directors struggle for recognition. Lina Wertmuller, Jane Campion, Sofia Coppola Minority groups, including African Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans also struggle for recognition Some have succeeded as directors: Spike Lee, Ang Lee, Chris Eyre, Wayne Wang

12 Alternatives to Hollywood
Foreign Films Small percent of films seen in U.S. Documentaries Noncommercial films usually require grants Cinema verité Tackle controversial subject matter Independent films Created on shoestring budgets Shown to smaller audiences

13 The Transformation of the Hollywood Studio System
Paramount decision Major studios forced to end vertical integration Opens up opportunities for new forms of exhibition, like drive-in theaters. Flight to suburbs Americans buy more consumer goods. Marriage age drops, fewer “movie dates” Television Keeps Americans home

14 Television Changes Hollywood
Movies feature more serious content Alcoholism: The Lost Weekend Sexuality: Peyton Place, Lolita MPPA launches ratings system Movies develop new technologies Technicolor, stereophonic sound

15 Home Entertainment More than 50% of domestic revenue for Hollywood studios comes from video/DVD rentals DVD sales declining Blu-ray has not helped improve video store sales. Internet video streaming is the future. Allows viewers to download videos through Netflix, Xbox, Apple TV devices, Hulu, Fancast Movie industry needs to adapt

16 Economics: Money In Box-office sales DVD/video sales and rentals
Studios get about 40% of the theater box-office take in first “window” for movie exhibition DVD/video sales and rentals 50% of all domestic-film income for major studios Cable and television outlets Pay-per-view, video-on-demand, premium cable, network and basic cable

17 Economics: Money In (cont.)
Foreign distribution International box-office gross revenues almost double U.S. and Canada box-office receipts. Independent-film distribution Indies pay studios 30–50% of box-office and video-rental money they make from their movies. Licensing and product placement Action figures, snacks, products “seen” in a movie Synergy, or promotion throughout subsidiaries of media conglomerate

18 Economics: Money Out Production Marketing, advertising, print costs
Fees paid to actors, directors, personnel, costs for special effects, set design, and so on Marketing, advertising, print costs Can add almost $36 million in costs per film Post-production Film editing, sound recording

19 Economics: Money Out (cont.)
Distribution Screening a movie for prospective buyers Exhibition Constructing theaters, purchasing projection equipment Acquisitions Buying up other media-related companies

20 Uncertainties in the Digital Age
Broadband Internet service More movie fans are likely to download movies from Web iTunes Store rentals, Netflix instant viewing, Hulu Challenge of digitizing movies More 3D films require new projection systems

21 Movies in a Democratic Society
Consensus narratives Provide shared experiences Bridge cultural differences, create “global village” Stifle voices of other, underrepresented cultures Impose mainstream, Western ideas about values, actions on others Watch movies with a critical eye Seek other cinematic voices

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