Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم 1. 1. Film Construction: X-ray film is constructed of four layers basically which are: 1. Base. 2. Adhesive layer. 3. Emulsion.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم 1. 1. Film Construction: X-ray film is constructed of four layers basically which are: 1. Base. 2. Adhesive layer. 3. Emulsion."— Presentation transcript:

1 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم 1

2 1. Film Construction: X-ray film is constructed of four layers basically which are: 1. Base. 2. Adhesive layer. 3. Emulsion. 4. Overcoat (protective) layer. 2 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

3 1. Film Construction: X-ray film is constructed of four layers basically which are: 3 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

4 1. Film Construction: X-ray film is constructed of four layers basically which are: 1. Base: 150 to 300 m thick. Semi-rigid. Lucent. Made of polyester. Blue in color result in less eye strain and fatigue. 4 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

5 1. Film Construction: X-ray film is constructed of four layers basically which are: 2. Emulsion: This is the active layer. Homogeneous mixture of gelatin and silver halide crystals. The gelatin acts as a suspension agent and prevents the crystals from adhering to one another. Two emulsion layers on each side of the film base (1/2000 in thickness). 5 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

6 1. Film Construction: X-ray film is constructed of four layers basically which are: 3. Adhesive layer: Very thin layer of solution of cellulose ester and gelatin in water and acetone, put on the base. Function of adhesive (substratum) layer to adhere the layers of emulsion to the base. 6 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

7 1. Film Construction: X-ray film is constructed of four layers basically which are: 4. Overcoat (protective) layer: The purpose of the overcoat of an x-ray film is to protect the emulsion layer. 7 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

8 2. Film Types (Clinical Usage): A. Direct Exposure Film: 8 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

9 2. Film Types (Clinical Usage): A. Direct Exposure Film: Used without intensifying screens. Used mainly for extremities, previously for mammography. 9 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

10 2. Film Types (Clinical Usage): A. Direct Exposure Film: Requires 10 – 100 times more the exposure dose. The emulsion is thicker than screen film. Renders excellent detail. 10 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

11 2. Film Types (Clinical Usage): B. Mammographic Film: 11 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

12 2. Film Types (Clinical Usage): B. Mammographic Film: Single emulsion. Fine grain (crystal shape). 12 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

13 2. Film Types (Clinical Usage): C. Video Film: 13 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

14 2. Film Types (Clinical Usage): C. Video Film: Exposes images displayed on a video monitor. 14 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

15 2. Film Type (Clinical Usage): D. Laser Film: 15 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

16 2. Film Type (Clinical Usage): D. Laser Film: Uses a laser printer. Provides excellent image quality. 16 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

17 2. Film Type (Clinical Usage): D. Laser Film: Sensitive to red light. Must be processed in complete darkness. 17 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

18 2. Film Type (Clinical Usage): E. Duplication film: 18 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

19 2. Film Type (Clinical Usage): E. Duplication film: Single emulsion film. Used for producing copies of radiographs. 19 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

20 2. Film Type (Clinical Usage): F. Subtraction Film: 20 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

21 2. Film Type (Clinical Usage): F. Subtraction Film: A type of single emulsion film used with angiography. 21 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

22 2. Film Type (Clinical Usage): F. Subtraction Film: One type prepares a positive copy of the image. The other type enhances subject contrast and detail. 22 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

23 2. Film Type (Clinical Usage): G. Cine Film: 23 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

24 2. Film Type (Clinical Usage): G. Cine Film: Used with cardiac catheterization. 24 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

25 2. Film Type (Clinical Usage): G. Cine Film: Produced in 16 and 35mm sizes. Also used for radiography of the esophagus. 25 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

26 2. Film Type (Clinical Usage): H. Spot Film: 26 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

27 2. Film Type (Clinical Usage): H. Spot Film Produced in 70 and 105mm sizes. Used in fluoroscopy with a spot film camera. 27 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

28 2. Film Type (Clinical Usage): I. Dental Film Periapical Dental Film Bite-wing Dental Film 28 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

29 2. Film Type (Clinical Usage): I. Dental Film Occlusal Dental Film Orthopantomographic (OPG) Dental Film 29 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

30 2. Film Type (Clinical Usage): I. Dental Film Exposed either intraorally or extraorally. Intraoral films are small, double-emulsion films. Extraoral films are large, single-emulsion films. 30 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

31 3. Film Type (Exposure): A. Screen Film: Films exposed to combination of X-ray and light (screen film). 31 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

32 3. Film Type (Exposure): B. Non Screen Film: Films exposed to x-ray only (non screen film). 32 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

33 3. Film Type (Exposure): C. Fluoroscopy and Copying Films: These Films are exposed to light only. Coated by the emulsion in one side and called single sided films. 33 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

34 34 To be continued..

35 4. Film Type (Spectral Sensitivity): Spectral sensitivity is the response of a photographic emulsion in the film to various colours of the light spectrum. 35 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

36 4. Film Type (Spectral Sensitivity): According to the response of a photographic emulsion in the film to various colours of the light spectrum, films can be divided to: 1. Blue sensitive film (non colour sensitive). 2. Orthochromatic film (sensitive to yellow colour). 36 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

37 4. Film Type (Spectral Sensitivity): According to the response of a photographic emulsion in the film to various colours of the light spectrum, films can be divided to: 3. Panchromatic film (sensitive to visible light). 4. Infrared film (sensitive up to infrared). 37 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

38 5. Film Handling and Storage: Each of the following can have a negative effect upon film contrast. 1. Improper handling. Causes artifacts. 38 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

39 5. Film Handling and Storage: Each of the following can have a negative effect upon film contrast. 2. Heat and humidity. Too much humidity can cause the emulsion to swell. 39 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

40 5. Film Handling and Storage: Each of the following can have a negative effect upon film contrast. 2. Heat and humidity. Too little humidity can cause static to develop the film. 40 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

41 5. Film Handling and Storage: Each of the following can have a negative effect upon film contrast. 2. Heat and humidity. Too much heat can fog film. 41 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud

42 5. Film Handling and Storage: Each of the following can have a negative effect upon film contrast. 3. Light and radiation. Exposure to each can fog film decreasing contrast. 42 Assistant Prof. Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud


Download ppt "بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم 1. 1. Film Construction: X-ray film is constructed of four layers basically which are: 1. Base. 2. Adhesive layer. 3. Emulsion."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google