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Developing a Negative CHAPTER 5 1. Negative to Positive Process 2 35mm Negative 8 X 10 Print.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing a Negative CHAPTER 5 1. Negative to Positive Process 2 35mm Negative 8 X 10 Print."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing a Negative CHAPTER 5 1

2 Negative to Positive Process 2 35mm Negative 8 X 10 Print

3 Negative to Positive-Workflow NEGATIVE 1. Chose appropriate film and ISO setting 2. Expose the film to ensure shadow detail 3. Develop the film for optimal highlight detail 4. Carefully process, wash, dry, and sleeve film POSITIVE (PRINTS) 1. Contact negatives for a positive print reference 2. Carefully select negatives that are in focus, have detail in shadows and highlights 3. Enlarge negatives using exposure to control highlights, 4. Use enlarger filtration to control shadows and contrast. 3

4 4 The Negative: Step # 1 Choose a film speed Choice of sensitivity 100 is daylight film 800 more sensitive for very low light Relationship to grain 100 very little grain-fine detail 800 lots of grain-less fine detail ISO changes meter reading

5 The Negative: Step #2 Expose for shadow detail 5

6 Exposure for the shadows Almost all detail in the darker, or shadow areas of the print, is controlled by the amount of exposure given to the negative. Detail in the highlights, although effected by exposure, can also be easily controlled by altering film development. This ability to control shadows and highlights allows tone and contrast control. 6

7 Exposure To get a rich image with realistic tones, dark but detailed shadows, and bright, delicate highlights, you need to expose your film correctly 7

8 Exposure The ability to produce a fine print is first determined by sufficient exposure to render detail in the shadow areas of the print. 8

9 A correct exposure on negative film 9

10 Overexposed Too much light has reached the film Highlights are blocked up by too much density and will print pure white after losing important details Contrast level will be too high. 10

11 Underexposed Not enough light has reached the film Shadow areas are void of detail because insufficient density was rendered Print will be very low in contrast, visible grain will increase, shadows lifeless 11

12 Exposure Correct Underexposed Thumbnail Dark Print needs less time Overexposed Thumbnail Light Print need more time 12 Shutter too fast or f/stop too small Shutter too slow or f/stop too large

13 13 When exposed correctly, contact sheet looks like this

14 Film Curve - reciprocity 14

15 Reciprocity Failure Films respond predictably to exposure through a wide range of shutter speeds. Long exposures or extremely short exposures cause the film to fail to respond as calculated. If the exposure is 1 second give it 2 or 4 or more!!!! 15

16 The Zone System 16 X IX VIII VII VI V IV III II I 0

17 Zone System Exposure 17

18 How film responds to light Recording an image on film involves a reaction between light and silver halide crystals. A photo-chemical reaction is needed to reveal the latent image. 18

19 The Negative: Step #3 Developing the film Highlight detail is controlled primarily by the development. (assuming correct exposure) Control is accomplished by Time Temperature Agitation (of the film during development) Dilution of the chemistry 19

20 Black and white film layers Surface Emulsion Adhesive Film base Anti-halation coating 20

21 Silver Halide Crystals Crystal are spread through the gelatin of the film emulsion. They are a compound of silver plus a halogen such as bromine, iodine or chlorine. Charged silver ions are effected by light and combine with impurities within the crystal to build areas of density. 21

22 Black and White Development Millions of the crystals are exposed converting the silver metal into areas of density where light strikes the film. In areas where no light strikes the film there is no silver density. In other areas there is a mixture of heavy and light density creating mid-tones. Development is the chemical process of building up this density. 22

23 Processing 23

24 Processing Steps Pre washSaturate film emulsion DevelopmentConverts latent image StopArrest the development FixerDissolves silver halide crystals Clearing Washing aid to remove fixer WashRemove all residue Wetting agentPrevent water spots DryClean dust free slow drying time 24

25 Step 1 Remove the film from your camera Look for a button on the bottom of your camera Hold button while winding until no tension in the winder Pull the winder and back should pop up Remove film Either replace the film or close the back of the camera 25

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28 Loading the film You will need Light proof bag Under shelf along wall with refrigerator Silver on the outside Double zipper Bottle opener Scissors Tank and reel Film cartridge 28

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31 Whats next In a bag Use bottle cap opener to open end of film cartridge Remove film from cartridge Cut film leader and attach to inside of steel reel Roll onto reel Place reel into steel container Put on the plastic cap Remove from bag 31

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33 Chemicals to process film The first thing is to check the time and temperature chart. That is essential to a good development. Developer ½ developer and ½ water Stop bath Water Fixer Fill with fixer only, dont dilute 10 minute wash Wetting agent Best to use distilled water 33

34 Dry film 20 minutes in dryer or 1 hour in box Cut film 5 prints wide Put into archive sleeve 34

35 Developer D-76 Arista 100 ISO 35mm film Water Temp 65 degrees 68 degrees 70 degrees 72 degrees 75 degrees Normal9 1/2 min.8 1/2 min.7 1/2 min.7 min.6 min. This is a time and temperature chart. They are on the wall in room 9. 35

36 What happens? Developer Free metallic silver from the emulsions exposed crystals to form an image Metallic silver forms the dark part of the image Called silver halides At this point you can see the latent image on the film if you opened the canister. However, DONT do that. It will ruin your negative. 36

37 After stop bath Fixer Silver halides will continue to turn dark if exposed to light Fixer stops this process by dissolving the crystals 5 minutes to fix Too much longer and image will bleach Too short or weak fixer the image will get darker when exposed to light 37

38 Develop too long The image Highlights become more dense. Increase in contrast. Later you can use this to create a different print. Temperature affects outcome See chart Too cold the developer works poorly Too hot the gelatin can separate from the film 38

39 Agitation Gently agitation moves fresh chemicals over the film/emulsion Too little may cause chemicals to stop working Too little or too strong can cause uneven development Agitate 5 out of every 30 seconds In more than 1 direction. Put canister down in between agitations. 39

40 After fixing Film must be thoroughly washed. Remaining silver will darken/stain the film 40

41 Best Outcome When properly exposed and correctly developed, film… Makes printing/scanning much easier Begin by following the manufacturers recommendations Later you can may adjust exposure and developing 41

42 Exposure (more later) When there is no single subject and if you dont have a gray card, expose for the shadows where you want detail. (develop for the highlights). In every case expose for the subject! Developing times have little effect on shadows Developing times have a great effect on the highlights For us…take shadows into account when setting your exposure if you want detail in the shadows Follow the directions (for now)when developing 42

43 43 Last Step The final step is making a contact sheet to see how your negatives look as thumbnails If you exposed each frame correctly, each thumbnail will appear clearly, without enhancement. First run a test strip on your archival sheet. Find the correct exposure time for your contact sheet Develop your contact sheet

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45 Quiz review 1 st thing you need when you are going to develop you film is the time and temperature chart. You can first see an image when in the developer, even though you wont see it until the whole process is done. You can look at your film AFTER the fixer step. 45

46 More Quiz Review Density is a negative or print is The amount of silver built up on the surface The overall lightness and darkness of either the print or negative Is controlled by the exposure 46

47 Review Write the full stop shutter speeds from 1 second to 1/1000 sec. 1 2 4 8 15 30 60 125 250 500 1000 Which end is more light? Less light? 47

48 Next Step Today Watch video on film development Develop your own film-if you are ready. 48

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