2Negative to Positive Process 35mm Negative8 X 10 Print
3Negative to Positive-Workflow 1. Chose appropriate film and ISO setting2. Expose the film to ensure shadow detail3. Develop the film for optimal highlight detail4. Carefully process, wash, dry, and sleeve filmPOSITIVE (PRINTS)1. Contact negatives for a positive print reference2. Carefully select negatives that are in focus, have detail in shadows and highlights3. Enlarge negatives using exposure to control highlights,4. Use enlarger filtration to control shadows and contrast.
4The Negative: Step # 1 Choose a film speed Choice of sensitivity100 is daylight film800 more sensitive for very low lightRelationship to grain100 very little grain-fine detail800 lots of grain-less fine detailISO changes meter reading
5The Negative: Step #2 Expose for shadow detail To get good detail in your shadows, which is very desirable, we need to be sure we meter those shadows. That means the shadow would be medium gray. We want the shadows, so me can step down 1 or 2 stops. That is, if our meter shows shutter between 60 and 125 then take the This allows a little less light to the film and will darken However, to get the shadows looking like shadows,
6Exposure for the shadows Almost all detail in the darker, or shadow areas of the print, is controlled by the amount of exposure given to the negative.Detail in the highlights, although effected by exposure, can also be easily controlled by altering film development.This ability to control shadows and highlights allows tone and contrast control.
7ExposureTo get a rich image with realistic tones, dark but detailed shadows, and bright, delicate highlights, you need to expose your film correctly
8ExposureThe ability to produce a fine print is first determined by sufficient exposure to render detail in the shadow areas of the print.
10Overexposed Too much light has reached the film Highlights are blocked up by too much density and will print pure white after losing important detailsContrast level will be too high.
11Underexposed Not enough light has reached the film Shadow areas are void of detail because insufficient density was renderedPrint will be very low in contrast, visible grain will increase, shadows lifeless
12Correct Exposure Overexposed Underexposed Thumbnail Light Shutter too slow orf/stop too largeShutter too fast orf/stop too smallWhen the shutter is faster, less light hits the film and the negative is underexposed. When the shutter is open longer that 18% gray, theOverexposedThumbnail LightPrint need more timeUnderexposedThumbnail DarkPrint needs less timeCorrect
13When exposed correctly, contact sheet looks like this
15Reciprocity FailureFilms respond predictably to exposure through a wide range of shutter speeds.Long exposures or extremely short exposures cause the film to fail to respond as calculated.If the exposure is 1 second give it 2 or 4 or more!!!!
16The Zone System X IX VIII VII VI V IV III II I The zero here is middle or 18% gray.III
18How film responds to light Recording an image on film involves a reaction between light and silver halide crystals.A photo-chemical reaction is needed to reveal the latent image.
19The Negative: Step #3 Developing the film Highlight detail is controlled primarily by the development. (assuming correct exposure)Control is accomplished byTimeTemperatureAgitation (of the film during development)Dilution of the chemistry
20Black and white film layers SurfaceEmulsionAdhesiveFilm baseAnti-halation coating
21Silver Halide Crystals Crystal are spread through the gelatin of the film emulsion.They are a compound of silver plus a halogen such as bromine, iodine or chlorine.Charged silver ions are effected by light and combine with impurities within the crystal to build areas of density.
22Black and White Development Millions of the crystals are exposed converting the silver metal into areas of density where light strikes the film.In areas where no light strikes the film there is no silver density. In other areas there is a mixture of heavy and light density creating mid-tones.Development is the chemical process of building up this density.
24Processing Steps Pre wash Saturate film emulsion Development Converts latent imageStop Arrest the developmentFixer Dissolves silver halide crystalsClearing Washing aid to remove fixerWash Remove all residueWetting agent Prevent water spotsDry Clean dust free slow drying time
25Step 1 Look for a button on the bottom of your camera Remove the film from your cameraLook for a button on the bottom of your cameraHold button while winding until no tension in the winderPull the winder and back should pop upRemove filmEither replace the film or close the back of the camera
31What’s next Use bottle cap opener to open end of film cartridge In a bagUse bottle cap opener to open end of film cartridgeRemove film from cartridgeCut film leader and attach to inside of steel reelRoll onto reelPlace reel into steel containerPut on the plastic capRemove from bag
33Chemicals to process film The first thing is to check the time and temperature chart. That is essential to a good development.Developer½ developer and ½ waterStop bathWaterFixerFill with fixer only, don’t dilute10 minute washWetting agentBest to use distilled water
34Dry film20 minutes in dryer or 1 hour in boxCut film5 prints widePut into archive sleeve
35Developer D-76This is a time and temperature chart. They are on the wall in room 9.Arista 100 ISO 35mmfilmWater Temp65 degrees68 degrees70 degrees72 degrees75 degreesNormal9 1/2 min.8 1/2 min.7 1/2 min.7 min.6 min.
36What happens? Developer Free metallic silver from the emulsion’s exposed crystals to form an imageMetallic silver forms the dark part of the imageCalled silver halidesAt this point you can see the latent image on the film if you opened the canister. However, DON’T do that. It will ruin your negative.
37After stop bathFixerSilver halides will continue to turn dark if exposed to lightFixer stops this process by dissolving the crystals5 minutes to fixToo much longer and image will bleachToo short or weak fixer the image will get darker when exposed to light
38Develop too long Highlights become more dense. Increase in contrast. The imageHighlights become more dense. Increase in contrast.Later you can use this to create a different print.Temperature affects outcomeSee chartToo cold the developer works poorlyToo hot the gelatin can separate from the film
39AgitationGently agitation moves fresh chemicals over the film/emulsionToo little may cause chemicals to stop workingToo little or too strong can cause uneven developmentAgitate 5 out of every 30 secondsIn more than 1 direction.Put canister down in between agitations.
40After fixing Film must be thoroughly washed. Remaining silver will darken/stain the film
41Best Outcome When properly exposed and correctly developed, film… Makes printing/scanning much easierBegin by following the manufacturer’s recommendationsLater you can may adjust exposure and developing
42Exposure (more later)When there is no single subject and if you don’t have a gray card, expose for the shadows where you want detail. (develop for the highlights).In every case expose for the subject!Developing times have little effect on shadowsDeveloping times have a great effect on the highlightsFor us…take shadows into account when setting your exposure if you want detail in the shadowsFollow the directions (for now)when developing
43Last StepThe final step is making a contact sheet to see how your negatives look as thumbnailsIf you exposed each frame correctly, each thumbnail will appear clearly, without enhancement.First run a test strip on your archival sheet.Find the correct exposure time for your contact sheetDevelop your contact sheet
45Quiz review1st thing you need when you are going to develop you film is the time and temperature chart.You can first see an image when in the developer, even though you won’t see it until the whole process is done.You can look at your film AFTER the fixer step.
46More Quiz Review Density is a negative or print is The amount of silver built up on the surfaceThe overall lightness and darkness of either the print or negativeIs controlled by the exposure
47Review Write the full stop shutter speeds from 1 second to 1/1000 sec. Which end is more light? Less light?
48Next Step Today Watch video on film development Develop your own film-if you are ready.