Presentation on theme: "By: Mandi Kunkle. Apartheids effect on Film: --White/ Afrikaans films recognized almost exclusively -White films avoided political critiques -subsidies."— Presentation transcript:
By: Mandi Kunkle
Apartheids effect on Film: --White/ Afrikaans films recognized almost exclusively -White films avoided political critiques -subsidies favored such movies Films reflecting Apartheid negativley: -shot out of country/shut down -this led to clandestine shooting of such films Hay
Many movies during this time illustrated: Apartheid was good for everyone Everyone was happy with segregation movies reinforce social roles created at this time -Whites had God given superiority -films forced ideology of dominant (White) group onto media Hay Thomaselli, 1980
White South Africans dominated movie industry Control of Industry= media imperialism? Media Imperialism functions to: distort recorded history in favor of dominant group (White South Africans) -could be used to diffuse black consciousness/ unity imperialistic movies justifies their actions -by perpetuating stereotypes previously discussed Create cultural myths to reinforce reality -again, by perpetuating the stereotypes Tomaselli, 1980
T omaseli argues that three genres existed during this time that were approved by government: 1. Back to the Homelands -reflects governments stance that Homeland policy (the segregation of neighborhoods) needed to allow non-whites to outgrow their ignorance in their own time, place and manner. -black man as unsophisicated -films include: Isiviko (79), Ngomopho (74), Moloyi (78) and Yuma (78) Tomaseli, 1980
2.Coopted Movie -black filmmakers controlled by Nationalist capital -films include: Tigers Dont Cry (76) and Escape from Angola (77) Tomaselli, 1980
3. Conditional Urban Movies -tried to gain support of growing black middle class (note that it only includes middle class) -Films include: Utosti (78), Phindesela (79) and Umzingeli (79) Tomaselli, 1980
Starting in 1980s and continuing through end of Apartheid: shift in focus on audience Industry recognized need for non-white cinema to boost industry -these films were shown in isolated cinemas -these films were juvenile and cheap Hay
Black Empowerment Act: -minimum number of non-whites -these employees had to act in creative roles and have production power African Film Library -archive black African culture on film Government and Film --new focus on reflecting the socio-political environment Growth, Employment and redistribution (GEAR) policy: -develop film industry that reflects and represents the nation -sustains commercial capability -allows creative talents of South Africa to become internationally recognized Hay Treffy-Goatly, 2010
Jamie Uys: the Gods Must Be Crazy (1980s) - and Afrikaan film director -successful in box office -perpetuated uncivilized other Ross Devenish: (1970s) -unsuccessful due to content :based on political commentary Darrell Roodt: (1980s-present) -focused on showing negative side of Apartheid -gained international success Hood (2000s) -post-modernist look at effects of Apartheid on African townships -Academy Award winning film Tsotsi was big international hit Hay
International Scale: -South Africa provides technical and logistical support for foreign productions -Apartheid greatly weakened economy- including film industry Local Scale: -Geo-politcal effects of Apartheid still present -racially segregated film culture -many non-white South Africans cant access theaters -this causes distribution problems -currently working on creating diverse audience Treffry-Goatly, 2010
News Coverage: -late 1980s coverage of violent conflicts in South Africa hit US news -Americans started using white South Africans as villains -the most famous example is Lethal Weapon 2 African American audiences interested in South African films -African American middle class especially -want something more complex than U.S. films targeted at them -culture struggle is key to liberation of South African films Pan African Film Festival -Tsotsi leads way introducing U.S. to South African Films - Other South African directors/ films earned nods at festival -South Africa has been prolific in film making-Griffin Griffin, 2006 Jowett, 1992
Yesterday Directed By: Darrell Roodt famous South African Director Starring: Leleti Khumalo South African Actress, Tony Award Nominee Nominated for Academy Award in 2004 Production & Distribution: International Roodt, Darrell, Dir. Yesterday. Dir. Darrell Roodt." HBO Films: 2004, Film.
Synopsis: Yesterday is a young woman who discovers she is HIV positive Yesterday struggles with disease, family, and ostracism from the village Yesterdays cinemotography: Long shots of South African landscapes Scenes are brightly colored Traditional African music sets the tone Roodt, Darrell, Dir. Yesterday. Dir. Darrell Roodt." HBO Films: 2004, Film.
Yesterday illustrates the devastating affects of AIDS in South Africa AIDS is more prevalent in South Africa than any other country This film depicts the spread of the virus from townships to villages Yesterdays husband spends many months in Johannesburg where he is infected Yesterday represents the hardships that black South Africans suffer: Working: finding work is difficult and separates families for long periods of time Medical help: Yesterday had to walk for hours to see the doctor, who was only available once a week Education: many are ignorant about the disease / information isnt readily available Hay Roodt, Darrell, Dir. Yesterday. Dir. Darrell Roodt." HBO Films: 2004, Film.
Skin First time Director: Anthony Fabian Stars: Sophie Okonedo (United Kingdom) Sam Neill (United Kingdom) Alice Krige (South Africa) Production and Distribtion: International Awards: Pan African Film Festival Audience Award Fabian, Anthony (Writer). (2008). Skin [DVD]. Skin. (2008). Retrieved from
Amazing true story set in Apartheid South Africa A black girl, Sandra, born to white Afrikaans Film focuses on struggles of classification Sandra is forced to choose which race she belongs to and the repercussions of this choice Fabian, Anthony (Writer). (2008). Skin [DVD]. Skin. (2008). Retrieved from
Cinematography: The film uses filters to make everything look slightly washed out Long shots of African landscapes Close ups allow viewer to connect emotionally with the characters Fabian: I didnt want to impose myself as a director, but make the story the star - no use of fancy camera angles -this allowed for focus on characters -racism is a tough subject to do subtly- Fabian Fabian, Anthony (Writer). (2008). Skin [DVD]. indieWire
Fabian, Okonedo and Neill are UK born/raised Filmed in South Africa, though filmed in English (Zulu is also used) Set in South Africa Critique of South African political structure No South African distribution companies used South African Production companies were used Anthony Fabian Fabian, Anthony (Writer). (2008). Skin [DVD]. Skin. (2008). Retrieved from 6http://www.imdb.com/title/tt
Two Afrikaans birth black child (Sandra Laing) both parents contain enough black genes to produce a black child they work to classify her as white parents love Sandra, but are victims of system themselves -they accept Sandra, but consider blacks as lesser beings -Do you know how those people live?- Abraham Laing in reference to the black population -warning: personal plug: This movie was an incredibly moving depiction of Apartheid Illustrates Apartheids injustices focusing on humanity, not politics Gooch states: Fabian brilliantly unfolds the horrors of the apartheid system and the cost that the system protracted on families and human dignity Fabian, Anthony (Writer). (2008). Skin [DVD]. Gooch,2009
These films, along with Tsotsi, are post-modernism films These films can be viewed as a critique of Apartheid Each film represents a different aspect of the affects of Apartheid: Yesterday: AIDS- the lack of education/ protection/ medical help is caused by the economic aftershock of Apartheid that many South African face Tsotsi: (not discussed in power point due to class discussion) Violence- again the result of the economic Skin: Family- many families were torn apart by laws that were instituted during Apartheid after hundreds of years of crossing the color line.
Fabian, Anthony (Writer). (2008). Skin [DVD]. Gooch, William. (2009, November 8). Skin movie review. A Simple Woman's Story of Courage, Retrieved from Griffin, Gil. (2006, May/June). South african film comes of age. Crisis Forum, Hay, Rod. A new horizon: a short history of south african films. Metro Magazine 150, IndieWire, (2008, October 30). Interview with anthony fabian: "skins' anthony fabian: "for days afterward, i had a lump in my throat". Retrieved from Jowett, G.S. Hollywod discovers Apartheid. Journal of Popular Film and Television 19.4 (1992): 172. Communications & Mass Media Complete Ebsco.web. 8 Mar Roodt, Darrell, Dir. Yesterday. Dir. Darrell Roodt." HBO Films: 2004, Film. Skin. (2008). Retrieved from Tomasellie, Keyan. (1980). Class and ideology reflections in south african cinema. Critical Arts: South African Cinema, i(i), Treffry-Goatly, Astrid. (2010). Post-apartheid film industry: representation, creativity and commercialism in the post-apartheid film industry. Retrieved from Yesterday. (2004). Retrieved from