Presentation on theme: "Aerial Photography and Photogrammetry Interpretation and Measurement."— Presentation transcript:
Aerial Photography and Photogrammetry Interpretation and Measurement
Aerial Photographs Photographs taken from a platform, usually an airplane, flying above the earths surface. Can be taken from space (by astronauts) but usually taken from within the atmosphere
Types of aerial photos Vertical air photos Vertical (on nadir) or nearly vertical angle to the local ground surface (90° ± 3 °) Oblique air photos Tilted away from vertical –High-oblique Shows the surface, the horizon, and a portion of sky –Low-oblique Shows only the surface
Information on air photos Date Mission details Roll + film number Altitude (not always) Fiducial marks
Analog vs. Digital Analog: Film –Emulsions react with light –B&W, Color, Color infrared –Prints, negatives Digital: Electronic storing device –Calibrated sensors –Digital values
Film vs. Digital Film uses grains of silver chloride embedded in gel rather than pixels. –Silver chloride turns to silver (opaque) when exposed to light. Creates a negative. –Must pass light through negative to create a positive (print). Typical B&W film sensitive to UV through red wavelengths (panchromatic) Some films sensitive to infrared (IR film)
Characteristic Curve Film records radiance as tone – the more light (radiance) that hits the film, the more grains of silver chloride are converted to silver The relationship between radiance and tone is captured in the characteristic curve of the film.
Image courtesy Sprawls Educational Foundation The Characteristic Curve
Products Film-based cameras Type –B&W, color, color infrared, panchromatic Format –9 x 9, 9 x 18, … Media –Negative, positive (transparent or opaque) prints
Photo Geometry Because airplanes are subject to turbulence, photo geometry can be less predictable than for satellite data
Flight characteristics that affect air photo geometry Flight line orientation (overlap, etc.) Airplane movement caused by turbulence Height, air speed, etc.
Flight paths Side overlapFore and aft overlap
Types of Distortion Caused by Aircraft Roll Pitch Yaw
Distortion caused by roll, pitch and yaw
Photointerpretation Identifying features on the ground by using information depicted in air photos or satellite data –Shape –Size –Pattern –Shadow –Tone, color (or gray shade) –Texture –Context (Association)
Association or Context
Photointerpretation Keys can be used to standardize interp. Photointerpretation is both a science and an art
Photogrammetry Technique of obtaining reliable measurements of objects from their photographic images –Heights of objects –Areas –Lengths –Density –Etc.
Photographic scale Relationship between the linear distance on a vertical photograph and the corresponding actual distance on the ground Scale is expressed as representative fraction (RF) between linear measurements on photo (the numerator) and corresponding distance on the ground (the denominator)
Photo scale –> ground distance Example 1/24,000 or 1:24,000 1 unit on photo = 24,000 units on ground 1 cm = 24,000 cm 1 mm = 24,000 mm 1 inch = 24,000 inches 1 inch = 24,000 in / 12 in/ft = 2,000 ft
Scale Scale is the ratio of the measured length of an object on an image to its real length on the ground –Always expressed as a ratio (e.g. 1:24,000) Small scale photo covers large area on ground Small scale photo has less detail Large scale photo cover small area on ground Large scale photo has considerable detail
Scale: Photo-Ground distance Scale (RF) when given a photo measurement (PD) and the corresponding ground measurement (GD)
Scale: Photo-Ground distance Distance between two points –On the ground = 1200 m –In the photo = 5 cm
Important facts Scale is not uniform within a photo –Pitch, roll, yaw –Terrain –Used for vertical airphotos only Average or Nominal scale
Photogrammetry Summary You can calculate many characteristics of ground properties (e.g., building heights, shrub density) from aerial photographs if you know the scale and can use simple geometry and logic.