2Cinematography Cinematography: "writing in movement” Everything that has to do with cameras and lenses, with film/film stock (and its digital equivalents), exposure and processing of film/digital images.
3Cinematography Mise-en-scene Cinematography What is filmed Set Design ColorLightingActor’s PerformancesDiegetic SoundHow it is filmedFramingAspect RatioFilm StockCamera ElementsCamera AngleCamera MovementCamera PositionCamera LensExposure
4Cinematography Other Issues Digital Cinematography Computer Generated Imagery (CGI) has brought changes in Cinematography, which was traditionally based on chemical/photographic images and effects.Visual Special EffectsOften done in post-production (esp. digital effects).LightingSince it is part of “what is filmed,” it is often seen as part of a film’s mise-en-scene. However, the cinematographer has significant input into lighting decisions.FramingAs with lighting, framing involves the director and cinematographer.
5Framing Angle, level, and distance of framing each shot Offscreen space versus onsceen space
27Film Stock Other Types Film stock deteriorates over time Kodachrome KinemacolorCinecolor35mm70mmIMAXFilm stock deteriorates over time
28Camera Lens Focal Length The distance from the center of the lens to the point at which the light rays meet in sharp focus.This length determines perspective relations and depth cues on the flat screen surface.
40Camera LensZoom lensLens with a focal length that can be changed during a shot.Shift to telephoto range magnifies the image and flattens the spaceShift to wide-angle increases depth cues and demagnifies the background.
51Camera Movement Pan Tilt Dolly, tracking, or traveling shots Rotates horizontally, side to sideTiltVertical pivot, up and downDolly, tracking, or traveling shotsCrane (and boom or jib) shotsHand-held and steadicam shots
59Camera MovementDolly, Tracking, Traveling shots: all basically the same.“Tracking shot” came from the “tracks” that dollies moved on.Traveling shot is generally reserved for movements taken from a vehicle.
60Camera Movement Boom/jib shots Crane shots Camera mounted on counterweighted boom; some booms can also telescope in or out.Can use for combinations of pans & tilts, horizontal, vertical or diagonal moves.Crane shotsShots look the same as boom shot, but often motorized or with hydraulics for movement.
61Camera Movement Hand-held shots Steadicam Can pan or tilt or track Hand-held movement is obviously “unsteady”--which is how we know it’s a hand-held shot.SteadicamA device which dampens unsteadiness, producing a relatively smooth movement, even when walking or running.Steadicam first used in Rocky (1976)
62Cinematography Putting it all together with story boarding. Example: The Lord of the RingsAndrew Lesnie Oscar for LOTR