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Introduction to Film Cinematography.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Film Cinematography."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Film Cinematography

2 Cinematography Cinematography: "writing in movement”
Everything that has to do with cameras and lenses, with film/film stock (and its digital equivalents), exposure and processing of film/digital images.

3 Cinematography Mise-en-scene Cinematography What is filmed Set Design
Color Lighting Actor’s Performances Diegetic Sound How it is filmed Framing Aspect Ratio Film Stock Camera Elements Camera Angle Camera Movement Camera Position Camera Lens Exposure

4 Cinematography Other Issues Digital Cinematography
Computer Generated Imagery (CGI) has brought changes in Cinematography, which was traditionally based on chemical/photographic images and effects. Visual Special Effects Often done in post-production (esp. digital effects). Lighting Since it is part of “what is filmed,” it is often seen as part of a film’s mise-en-scene. However, the cinematographer has significant input into lighting decisions. Framing As with lighting, framing involves the director and cinematographer.

5 Framing Angle, level, and distance of framing each shot
Offscreen space versus onsceen space

6 Framing Extreme Wide Shot Very Wide Shot

7 Framing Wide Shot Mid Shot

8 Framing Medium Close Up Close Up

9 Framing Extreme Close Up Cut-In

10 Camera Angle The angle between the camera and the subject.

11 Straight-on (Eye-level) angle

12 High-angle

13 Low-angle

14 Low-angle

15 Bird’s Eye

16 Point of View

17 The Lady in the Lake 1947 Detective film Shot entirely from main character's point of view

18 Slanted or Canted angle (Dutch tilt)

19 Slanted or Canted angle (Dutch tilt)

20 Slanted or Canted angle (Dutch tilt)

21 Height of Camera Tokyo Story (1953) Yasujiro Ozu

22 Aspect Ratio Ratio of screen width to height
Classical Hollywood ratio (1.33:1) Widescreen ratios (1.85:1, 2.35:1) Video conversion Pan-and-scan Letterbox

23 Aspect Ratio Rules of the Game, Jean Renoir, 1939 1.33:1 (4 to 3)
Aliens, James Cameron, 1986 1.85:1 Rebel Without A Cause, Nicholas Ray, 1955 2.35:1 (Cinemascope)

24 Aspect Ratio Converting from film to TV. 2.2 to 1
Pan & Scan; 1.33 to 1

25 Film Stock Selection enables cinematographer to control:
Color reproduction Light sensitivity Contrast levels Sharpness Grain and resolution

26 Singin’ in the Rain Technicolor Film Stock

27 Film Stock Other Types Film stock deteriorates over time Kodachrome
Kinemacolor Cinecolor 35mm 70mm IMAX Film stock deteriorates over time

28 Camera Lens Focal Length
The distance from the center of the lens to the point at which the light rays meet in sharp focus. This length determines perspective relations and depth cues on the flat screen surface.

29 Normal lens: 35-50mm

30 Camera Lens Wide Angle Short focal length (35 mm or less) which produces a wider angle of view Effect: distorting straight lines, exaggerating depth





35 Camera Lens Telephoto Lens
Lens with a long focal length (75mm or more). Effect: collapse depth cues by enlarging distant planes and making them seem close to the foreground planes.





40 Camera Lens Zoom lens Lens with a focal length that can be changed during a shot. Shift to telephoto range magnifies the image and flattens the space Shift to wide-angle increases depth cues and demagnifies the background.




44 Depth of Field The range of distance within which objects can be photographed and remain in sharp focus. Short focal length has greater depth of field. Long focal length reduces depth of field.







51 Camera Movement Pan Tilt Dolly, tracking, or traveling shots
Rotates horizontally, side to side Tilt Vertical pivot, up and down Dolly, tracking, or traveling shots Crane (and boom or jib) shots Hand-held and steadicam shots








59 Camera Movement Dolly, Tracking, Traveling shots: all basically the same. “Tracking shot” came from the “tracks” that dollies moved on. Traveling shot is generally reserved for movements taken from a vehicle.

60 Camera Movement Boom/jib shots Crane shots
Camera mounted on counterweighted boom; some booms can also telescope in or out. Can use for combinations of pans & tilts, horizontal, vertical or diagonal moves. Crane shots Shots look the same as boom shot, but often motorized or with hydraulics for movement.

61 Camera Movement Hand-held shots Steadicam Can pan or tilt or track
Hand-held movement is obviously “unsteady”--which is how we know it’s a hand-held shot. Steadicam A device which dampens unsteadiness, producing a relatively smooth movement, even when walking or running. Steadicam first used in Rocky (1976)

62 Cinematography Putting it all together with story boarding.
Example: The Lord of the Rings Andrew Lesnie Oscar for LOTR

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