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TOPIC : LUBRICANTS & MECHANISM OF LUBRICATION Subject: APPLIED CHEMISTRY-II 2 ND SEM 1 B Y :M ANMOHAN K RISHAN L ecturer in Chemistry G OVT. POLYTECHNIC.

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Presentation on theme: "TOPIC : LUBRICANTS & MECHANISM OF LUBRICATION Subject: APPLIED CHEMISTRY-II 2 ND SEM 1 B Y :M ANMOHAN K RISHAN L ecturer in Chemistry G OVT. POLYTECHNIC."— Presentation transcript:

1 TOPIC : LUBRICANTS & MECHANISM OF LUBRICATION Subject: APPLIED CHEMISTRY-II 2 ND SEM 1 B Y :M ANMOHAN K RISHAN L ecturer in Chemistry G OVT. POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE G URU TEG BAHADUR GARH ( MOGA ) PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY

2 LUBRICANTS The substances which are used to decrease the force of friction between the moving parts of machine in contact are known as Lubricants and the process of decreasing the force of friction between the moving parts of machine in contact is known as Lubrication.

3 Introduction: When on surface of machinery moves over the another surface, resistance to relative motion of the surfaces arises. When we look at the solid surface it appears smooth to naked eye, but this smooth surface shows irregularities of projections and cavities when viewed under high power microscope. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY3

4 Projections and cavities in surfaces PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY4 When one such surface is placed over another, its projections fall into the cavities of the other and get interlocked.Due to this interlocking, there is resistance to the relative motion of the surfaces. This is called the frictional forces or frictional resistance of friction. In due course of motion, the old projections get broken and deformities arise.

5 Friction Friction may be defined as the opposing force that is set up between the surface of contact, when one body moves over the surface of another body. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY5

6 Friction The frictional forces oppose the relative motion between the moving parts of a machine. Therefore extra energy has to be spent to overcome the friction, which increases expenses of energy.The friction between the moving parts of machines also produces heat which causes damage to the machinery. Thus friction causes wear and tear of the moving parts of machinery in contact and due to this,the machines lose their efficiency and become useless. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY6

7 Functions of Lubricants i) Lubricants avoid the damage of the moving parts of machines by minimizing the production of heat. ii) Lubricants reduce the wear and tear of machinery by keeping the moving parts of machines apart. iii) Lubricants reduce the maintenance and running cost of machine. iv) Lubricants act as the coolant because it reduces the production of heat between the moving parts of machine in contact. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY7

8 Functions of Lubricants V. Lubricants increases the efficiency of machine by reducing the loss of energy. VI. By using the lubricants, the relative motion of the moving parts of machine becomes smooth and noise level of running machine reduces. VII. Lubricants also act as the corrosion preventers. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY8

9 VIII.Lubricants also act as a seal as in piston. Lubricant used between piston and walls of the container (cylinder) prevents the leakage of hot gases produced by the internal combustion i.e.it act as seal. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY9

10 Mechanism of Lubricants (TYPES OF LUBRICATION) In order to lubricate a machine we have to keep in mind the conditions under which the machine is working. There are 3 types of mechanisms by which lubrication is done. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY10

11 Hydrodynamic or Fluid Film or Thick Film Lubrication Boundary Lubrication or Thin Film Lubrication Extreme Pressure Lubrication PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY11 The 3 types are

12 Hydrodynamic or Fluid Film or Thick Film Lubrication This type of lubrication is done in those cases where liquid lubricants having minimum viscosity under working conditions are used and at the same time, it should remain in place and separate the moving or sliding parts of the machine. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY12

13 Hydrodynamic or Fluid Film or Thick Film Lubrication PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY13

14 In the fluid film lubrication, the liquid lubricant fills the grooves or irregularities of the sliding surfaces, and forms a thick layer in between them so that there is no direct contact between the sliding surfaces. In this way, the lubricant reduce the wear and tear by reducing the frictional resistance produced by the movement of sliding parts. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY14

15 Hydrodynamic or Fluid Film or Thick Film Lubrication Hydrodynamic or Fluid Film or Thick Film Lubrication The frictional resistance to the movement of the sliding parts is only due to the internal resistance between the particles of the lubricant. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY15

16 Hydrodynamic Lubrication The frictional resistance is independent of the load, But depends upon the area and relative velocity of the sliding parts and viscosity, thickness of the lubricants. Due to this reason, the light machines like watches, clocks, guns, scientific instruments etc. and delicate machines are provided with fluid film lubrications. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY16

17 Boundary Lubrication or Thin Film Lubrication Where thick film lubrication fails, thin film lubrication is done. Thin film or boundary Lubrication is done for those cases in which the continuous film of lubrication cannot persist and direct metal to metal contact is possible. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY17

18 Boundary Lubrication PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY18

19 This happens when i) a Shaft starts moving from rest ii) the speed is very low iii) load is very high and iv) viscosity of lubricating oil is very low. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY19

20 In boundary lubrication, the oily lubricant is filled in between the sliding or moving metallic surfaces, which is adsorbed on both the metallic surfaces by any physical or chemical means and cannot be removed easily.The adsorbed lubricant from two thin layers between the sliding metallic surfaces and avoid the direct metal to metal contact. As a result of this,the frictional resistance between the sliding metallic surfaces is reduced PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY20

21 A thin lubricant should have high viscosity index, good resistance to heat and oxidation, good oiliness and low pour point. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY21 Velocity

22 Vegetable and animal oils and their soaps possess great property of adsorption and are used for thin film lubrication. Graphite and molybdenum disulphide in oil are also used for boundary lubrication. These lubricants form a thin film on the metallic surfaces, which reduces the friction and can bear compression as well as high temperature. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY22

23 For the boundary lubrication, the lubricant molecules should possess these properties They should have long hydrocarbon chains and the lateral attraction between the chains. They should have the active polar groups or atoms to promote spreading and to form the linkage with the metallic surfaces at high pressure PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY23

24 Extreme Pressure Lubrication The fast moving or sliding metallic surfaces under very high pressure produce a large amount of heat and temperature becomes very high. At high temperature the ordinary liquid lubricants decompose or even vapourises at such a high temperature and fail to stick over the metallic surfaces.To face such conditions Extreme pressure Additives are added to the mineral oils. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY24

25 Extreme Pressure Lubrication The Extreme pressure Additives are the organic compounds possessing the active radicals or groups such as chlorine, sulphur, phosphorus etc. These compounds react with metallic surfaces at high temperature to form metallic chlorides, PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY25

26 Extreme Pressure Lubrication sulphides or phosphides which can form surface layers on the moving or sliding metallic surfaces and act as good lubricants. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY26

27 Summary Lubricants –Definition, Introduction Functions of Lubricant Mechanism of Lubricant(Types of Lubrication) PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY27 Hydrodynamic or Fluid Film or Thick Film Lubrication Boundary Lubrication or Thin Film Lubrication Extreme Pressure Lubrication

28 Multiple Choice Questions A Lubricant is used with the object to a)increase frictional heat b)increase resistance c)decreasing frictional resistances d)Providing direct contact between rubbing surfaces Boundary lubrication is used for a)watches b) calculators c) light machines. d) when Load is very high c d PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY28

29 MCQ Lubricant does not act as a a) seal b)resistant c)corrosion resistant d)coolant Which is not mechanism of lubrication a)thin film b)thick film c)temperature lubrication d) extreme pressure lubrication Vegetable oils are used for a)thin film b)thick film c)temperature lubrication d) extreme pressure lubrication b c a PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY29

30 MCQ For Fast moving machines which produce large amount of heat, the lubricating mechanism is a)thin film b)thick film c)temperature lubrication d) extreme pressure lubrication They should have the active polar groups. This is true for….......lubrication a)thin film b)thick film c)Normal d) extreme pressure d a PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY30

31 State True or False The lubricants for boundary lubricants should have Long Hydrocarbon chains. Lubricant act as a corrosion preventer. Lubricant does not act as a seal. Lubricants increase the efficiency of machine. Lubricants increase the running cost of Machine. Thick film lubricants have polar groups. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY31

32 True/False Graphite and molybdenum disulphide in oil are used for boundary lubrication. Vegetable and animal oils possess great property of adsorption. A thick lubricant should have high viscosity index. A thin lubricant should have low pour point. PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY32

33 Fill in the Blanks Boundary lubrication is also called…… Lubrication. Thick film lubrication is also called…… Lubrication. In Pistons,Lubricant act as a ……… Lubricants increase the ……….of machine. Lubricant used for watches is ………. At high temperature where normal lubricant vaporise ……………lubricant is used. Thin, fluid film,seal,efficiency Thick film, extm PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY33

34 Thank You PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY34


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