Production Major Film Production is a multi-million dollar business, some films having budgets approaching hundred(s) of millions of dollars. –Costs of Book Copyrights, Scripts, Actors, Film Crew, Director, Editors, Sound, Music, Mixing, Special Effects, Costumes, Locations, Advertising, Business and Legal Advisors –Importance of securing financial successa capitalist venture. Investors are involved. Indie Films have brought a new found freshness to the industry. Use low cost technologies, unknown actors, walk-ons, improvised or found sets and locations, minimal costs (sort of).
One Film Production Company: Time/Warner Studios: Warner Bros, CastleRock, New Line, Fine Line Theaters: Cinamerica (50% with Vicaom) Broadcast: CNN, HBO, WBTV, TNT, TCM, Cartoon Network Publishing: Little, Brown, Warner Books, Time, Life, Sports Illustrated, People Music: Warner Music, Atlantic, Electra Other: Six Flags, Atlanta Braves, Atlanta Hawks
Exhibition/Distribution Theatrical vs. Non-theatrical –Theatrical presentations involve: a) a large screen; b) a public venue with strangers; c) immersion in darkness. –Non Theatrical presentations involve: a) a small screen; b) a private, more intimate venue; c) the kitchen, pets and front door are nearby. –Web Sites: Blair Witch Process actually reversed the processthe film was an extension of an interactive and popular website. –Each of these possibilities for presentation has its own distinct phenomenological shape.
Video or DVD vs. FilmFilm negative images are more detailed HDWill bring video imaging to the brink of film negatives Shape of Picture. Most Videos, DVDs use either cut or compressed images to fit on the television screen. Letterbox is often closer to theatrical viewing conditions.
Film Style Mis-en-Scene Cinematography Editing: Relating Shot to Shot Sound
Mis-en-Scene Setting –Interiors –Exteriors Costume and Make-up Lighting Staging: Movement and Acting
Cinematography: The Photographic Image Tonality: Color/BW, Intensities of Hues, Graininess, Contrast Film to video often alters colors to a lighter, brighter color range. Speed of motion: freeze frame, slow and fast motion, time lapse Focal Length: wide angle, middle focal, telephoto, zoom Close-ups, Long Shots, Deep Focus, Shallow Focus
Cinematography: Framing Dimensions and Shapes of the Frame Onscreen and Offscreen Space Angle, Level, Height and Distance of Framing Overhead, Point of View Shot Mobile FrameCrane, Pan, Glide, Tilt, Track, Subjective (Hand Held), Animation, Tracking Shot Camera Movements on screen affect our perception of space and timebuild up into a style of being in time and space.
Cinematography: Duration The Long Takeoften uses mobile framing. Not to be confused with the long shot. A Long Take is temporal. A Long Shot is spatial.
Editing: Moving from Shot A to Shot B Graphic Relations Rhythmic Relations Spatial Relations Temporal Relations Continuity vs. Discontinuous Editing –Continuity180 degree system around axis of action: right to left stays the same –Crosscutting –Discontinuous Cut (Flashback or Spatial Juxtaposition), Jump Cutting, Cut to a Metaphor (Nondiegetoc Insert)
Sound Perceptual Properties: Loudness, Pitch, Timbre Sound Editing and Mixing: Selection, Alteration, Combination RhythmVery powerful aspect of sound in films FidelityThe sound fits the source Spacespatial insofar as from a source; onscreen and offscreen Timematching sound with image or not, simultaneous or non-simultaneous (sound flashback) Diagetic vs. Nondiegetic SoundDiagetic sound has its source in the story world; Nondiagetic includes music enhancement, other sound effect (e.g. playing a football game reportage as the sound drop to a love scene)