Presentation on theme: "Hierarchy and Descriptions"— Presentation transcript:
1Hierarchy and Descriptions Film Crew PositionsHierarchy and Descriptions
2Production Producer Director First Assistant Director (1st AD) Second Assistant Director (2nd AD)Script SupervisorProduction Assistant (PA)
3ProducerThe producer initiates, coordinates, supervises and controls matters such as raising funding, hiring key personnel, and arranging for distributors. The producer is involved throughout all phases of the filmmaking process from development to completion of a project.
4DirectorThe director is responsible for overseeing the creative aspects of a film, including controlling the content and flow of a film’s plot, directing the performances of actors, organizing and selecting the locations in which the film will be shot, and managing technical details such as the positioning of cameras, the use of lighting, and the timing and content of the film’s soundtrack. Though the director wields a great deal of power, he or she is ultimately subordinate to the film’s producer or producers. Some directors, especially more established ones, take on many of the roles of a producer, and the distinction between the two roles is sometimes blurred.
5First Assistant Director The first assistant director (1st AD) assists the producer and director. The ultimate aim of any 1st AD is to ensure the film comes in on schedule while maintaining a working environment in which the director, principal artists (actors) and crew can be focused on their work. He or she is in charge of overseeing the day-to-day management of the cast and crew scheduling, equipment, script, and set.
6Second Assistant Director The second assistant director (2nd AD) is the chief assistant of the 1st AD and helps carry out those tasks delegated to the 1st AD. The 2nd AD may also direct background action and extras in addition to helping the 1st AD with scheduling, booking, etc. the 2nd AD is responsible for creating Call Sheets that let the crew know the schedule and important details about the shooting day.
7Script SupervisorAlso known as the “continuity person,” the script supervisor keeps track of what parts of the script have been filmed and makes notes of any deviations between what was actually filmed and what appeared in the script. He or she makes notes on every shot, also keeping track of props, blocking, and other details to ensure that continuity is maintained from shot to shot, and from scene to scene. The Script Supervisor’s notes are given to the Editor to expedite the editing process. The script supervisor works very closely with the director on set.
8Production Assistant (PA) A production assistant assists the first assistant director with set operations. Production assistants, almost always referred to as PA’s, also assist in the production office with general tasks. Sometimes referred to as “Gofers,” i.e. “Go for this, go for that”
9Camera Gaffer (lighting technician) Director of Photography (DP) / (DoP) CinematographerCamera OperatorFirst Assistant Camera (1st AC)Second Assistant Camera (2nd AC)Gaffer(lighting technician)
10Director of Photography (DP) / Cinematographer The director of photography is the chief of the camera and lighting crew of the film. The DP makes decisions on lighting and framing of scenes in conjunction with the film’s director. Typically, the director tells the DP how he or she wants a shot to look, and the DP then chooses the correct aperture, filter, and lighting to achieve the desired effect.The term cinematographer is usually synonymous with “director of photographer”, though some professionals insist that it only apples when the director of photography and camera operator are the same person.
11Camera OperatorThe camera operator uses the camera at the direction of the cinematographer, director of photography, or the film director to capture the scenes on film. Generally, a director of photography does not operate the camera, but sometimes these jobs may be combined.
12First Assistant Camera (1st AC) The first assistant camera (1st AC) is responsible for keeping the camera in focus as it is shooting
13Second Assistant Camera (2nd AC) The second assistant camera (2nd AC) operates the clapboard at the beginning of each take and loads the raw stock into the camera, if there is no additional specifically designated film loader. Additionally, the 2nd AC oversees organization of camera equipment and transport of the equipment from one shooting location to another.
14Grip & Electric Department DP/ DoPGafferBest Boy (Electric)Lighting TechnicianKey Grip(Assistant Grip)Best BoyDolly Grip
15GafferThe gaffer is the head of the electrical department, responsible for the design and execution of the lighting plan for a production. Sometimes the gaffer is credited as “Chief Lighting Technician”
16Best Boy (Electric)The best boy electric is the chief assistant to the gaffer.
17Lighting TechnicianLighting technicians are involved with setting up and controlling lighting equipment. Also referred to as electricians.
18Key GripThe Key grip is the chief grip on a set, and is the head of the set operations department. The key grip works with the director of photography (DP) to help set up the set and to achieve the correct lighting and blocking.
19Best Boy (Grip)The best boy grip is the chief assistant to the key grip. They are also responsible for organizing the grip truck throughout the day.
20Dolly GripThe grip in charge of operating the camera dolly is called the dolly grip. He/she places, levels, and moves the dolly track, then pushes and pulls the dolly and usually a camera operator and camera assistant as riders.
21Location (the films location department) Location ManagerAssistant Location ManagerLocation ScoutLocation Assistant
22Location Manager Location Manager Oversees the Locations Department and its staff, typically reporting directly to the Production Manager and/or Assistant Director (or even Director and/or Executive Producer). Location Manager is responsible for final clearing (or guaranteeing permission to use) a location for filming and must often assist Production/Finance Dept(s) in maintaining budget management regarding actual location/permit fees as well as labor costs to production for himself and the Locations Department .
23Assistant Location Manager Assistant Location Manager works with the Location Manager and the various departments in arranging technical scouts for the essential staff (grips, electric, camera, etc.) to see options which the Location Manager has selected for filming. The Assistant Location Manager will be onset during the filming process to oversee the operation, whereas the Location Manager continues preproduction from elsewhere (generally an office) on the upcoming locations. (Note: On most location-based television shows, there will be two Assistant Location Managers that alternate episodes, allowing one to prep an upcoming episode while the other is on-set with the current one.)
24Location Scout Location Scout Does much of the actual research, footwork and photography to document location possibilities. Often the Location Manager will do some scouting himself, as well as the Assistant Location Manager.Location AssistantHired by the Location Manager to be on-set before, during, and after the filming process. General responsibilities include arriving first at the location to allow the Set Dressers into the set for preparation; maintaining the cleanliness of the location areas during filming; fielding complaints from neighbors; and ultimately, at the end of the filming, making sure it seems as though the film crew was never there. There is generally one to three assistants on a shoot at any given time.
25Location AssistantLocation Assistant Hired by the Location Manager to be on-set before, during, and after the filming process. General responsibilities include arriving first at the location to allow the Set Dressers into the set for preparation; maintaining the cleanliness of the location areas during filming; fielding complaints from neighbors; and ultimately, at the end of the filming, making sure it seems as though the film crew was never there. There is generally one to three assistants on a shoot at any given time.
26Production Sound Production Sound Mixer Boom Operator Utility Sound Technician
27Production Sound Mixer The production sound mixer is head of the sound department on set, responsible for recording all sound during filming. This involves the choice and deployment of microphones, operation of a sound recording device, and frequently the mixing of audio signals in real time.
28Boom OperatorThe boom operator is an assistant to the production sound mixer, responsible for microphone placement and movement during filming. The boom operator uses a boom pole, a long, special piece of equipment made from light aluminum or carbon fiber, that allows precise positioning of the microphone above or below the actors, just out of the camera’s frame. As well as the Placement of Radio Mics and other Microphones ‘Hidden’ on set
29Utility Sound Technician The utility sound technician has a dynamic role in the sound department, most typically pulling cables, but often acting as an additional boom operator or mixer when required by complex filming circumstances. Not all films employ a utility sound technician, but the increasing complexities of location sound recording in modern film have made the job more prevalent. This role is sometimes credited as “cable man” or “python wrangler”.
30Art Department Production Designer Hair & Make-up Art Director Props MasterSet DecoratorWardrobe
32Shooting Shouting! The Making The Movie Movie – collection of scenes Scene - is a part of the movieTake – the recording of a sceneRetake - Repeat a sceneSound / Music – is the glue to keep the scenes together
33“Lock it Up” (Director) Signal the AD to tell the PA’s to hold all traffic, camera is about to roll. Everyone should take this signal to be quiet.If people don’t get it, the AD can shout…
34“Quiet on the Set” (First Assistant Director) Or “Quiet All Around”This can be combined with the question, “Is anybody NOT ready?” If no one answers, it’s time to “Roll” a take.
35“Speed” (Production Sound Mixer) Signals that the sound equipment is working and that he/she is recording.
36“Rolling” (Camera Operator) Signals that the camera is working and the tape is rolling. We’re filming!“Speed” can also be shouted instead of “Rolling.”10 seconds roll in/out is called – (pre-roll)
37“Action!” (Director)Signals the actors that it’s time to do their stuff.
38“Cut!” (Director)Signals everyone that the shot is finished.
39“Back to One!” (Director) Signals everyone to go back to their first positions at the beginning of the shot. We’re going again. Time for another take.
40“Moving on!” (First Assistant Director) Signals that the director got the shot and it’s time to move on to the next one.The AD will then announce what the next shot is.
41“That’s a Location Wrap!” (First Assistant Director) The AD signals everyone that it’s time to move on to the next location.Before leaving the location, the AD calls for a “Dummy Check,” to make sure no dummies left any equipment behind because you will not be returning to that location.
42“That’s a Wrap!” (First Assistant Director) The AD lets everyone know that’s it for the day.
43It’s important that these signals are only given by the people listed previously If anyone other than the director yells, “Cut,” real confusion and problems can arise.Everyone should stick to their lines, and make the routine consistent. Once the crew gets used to the routine, the probability of a mistake drops if you do it the same way every time.