Presentation on theme: "Ocular Surface Diseases The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of CMU Eye Centre."— Presentation transcript:
Ocular Surface Diseases The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of CMU Eye Centre
Roles and Characteristics of the eyelids Eye protection Regular blink: protection and stability of the tear film Rich of glands Adequate blood supply No venous valve
Conception Corneal epithelium Conjunctival epithelium Tear film Clinical ocular surface consist of conjunctiva cornea eyelids lacrimal gland lacrimal passages
Tear and the Tear Film Function : 1.Cleaning 2.Wetting ocular surface 3.Bacteriostasis 4.Supporting the cornea (oxygen supply)
Origin of Epithelium Stem cells, SC Corneal epithelium derived from the Limbal stem cells. Conjunctival epithelium derived from forniceal and palpebral regions.
Ocular Surface Disease
Conception The ocular surface is a complex biological continuum responsible for the maintenance of corneal clarity, elaboration of a stable tear film for clear vision, as well as protection of the eye against microbial and mechanical insults. Comprising a variety of disorders on cornea, eyelid, conjunctiva, lacrimal apparatus and tear film.
Classification Corneal, conjunctival lesion Squamous epithelization type Limbal stem cell deficiency type Tear film disorders Aqueous tear deficiency Lipid tear deficiency Mucoprotein deficiency Kinetic disorders of lacrimal fluid
Treatment Reconstruction Epithelium, limbal stem cells Lacrimal secretion, tear film Innervation (nerve restore) Structure and function of eyelid Surgical operation To re-establish conjunctiva, cornea, tear film and eyelid.
Dry Eye Healthy tear filmDry eye
Conception Dry eye (known by doctors as keratoconjunctivitis sicca) is a chronic lack of sufficient lubrication and moisture in the eye. Its consequences range from subtle but constant irritation to ocular inflammation of the anterior (front) tissues of the eye.
Tear Secretion Lacrimal gland Producing the watery part of the tear film called the aqueous. Meibomian glands Producing lipids which keep the tear film from evaporating. Goblet cells of the conjunctiva Producing mucin which allows the wetting of the ocular surface as well as stabilizes the tear film.
Clinical Manifestation Dry eye symptoms asthenopia irritation, grittiness dryness burning ophthalmalgia light sensitivity pink-eye Do you regularly experience one or several symptoms above? Some diseases and conditions (like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and Sjögrens Syndrome) also cause chronic Dry Eye in many patients. On the other hand, activities like reading, Wearing contact lenses or working at the computer may cause Dry Eye.
Diagnostic Tests for Dry Eye Dry Eye questionnaire Lacrimal river width Schirmer test – uses paper strips under eyelid to measure the wetness that collects over a specific period of time. Break-up time of tear film (BUT) Staining – uses special dyes to highlight areas of possible damage to the eye surface. Tear ferning test Lactoferrin contents Tear penetration pressure test Corneal tonographic map Impression cytology
Diagnosing Schirmer test, BUT, Staining Foundation Symptom Instability of tear film Damage on epithelium Tear penetration pressure increasing
Treatment According to the clinical category For tear deficiency: Maintain moisture in the eyes; reducing the evaporation; increasing the secretion; controlling inflammation & immunoreaction. For over-evaporation: Therapy the Meibomian gland dysfunction; controlling inflammation; cleaning eyelid; decreasing the evaporation; lipid replacement. According to the eye conditions For intermittent symptoms: Artificial tears add volume to the tear film as long as they remain in contact with the surface of the eye. For midrange dry eye: Artificial tears and punctal occlusion. For Severe dry eye: Appending cyclosporin, surgery.
Summary Eliminating the etiological factors Tears replacement therapy Maintain moisture in the eyes Increasing the tear secretion Immune inhibition therapy Re-establish the tear film Other supporting treatment
Meibomian Gland Dysfunction
Etiological Factor Failure of the glands to produce or secrete lipids. Wax ester declining and cholesterol increasing make the symptoms worse. Lack of tears and tear penetration pressure increasing. Lupus, brandy nose etc.
Clinical Manifestation Common in aged people and who lived in cold region. No specific symptoms. Lid-margin mostly thickening; abnormal secretion while pressurizing. Disorder in Meibomian gland, eyelid, conjunctiva. Figure: Notching of the lid caused by loss of meibomian glands.
Diagnosing Absence of Meibomian gland. The gland orifices are often compromised due to stenosis or closure. A declining quality and quantity of lipid secretion. Anyone of the physical signs can make the diagnosis of Meibomian gland dysfunction if the patient has clinical symptoms. Figure: No visible meibomian gland orifices: Eversion of the lower lids in both eyes showed atresic meibomian glands.
Treatment Clearing Hot fomentation on eyelids for 5~10mins. Massaging the eyelids. Swabbing the lid-margin with mild cleaning solution.