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INF 385T Advanced Digital Imaging Creating Sustainable Collections March 31, 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "INF 385T Advanced Digital Imaging Creating Sustainable Collections March 31, 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 INF 385T Advanced Digital Imaging Creating Sustainable Collections March 31, 2008

2 Film unit 1: What is film? Any moving image record (syn. with movie) A specific, analog motion picture medium that conforms to international technical standards in its proportions, features, and playback A physical substance or composite that has inherent vices, as well as advantages and affordancessome of which can be translated into other media, and some of which cannot

3 Major players in films early history: Lumiere brothers, Edison, Eastman

4 Video = The fall of film? AMPEX introduces the first VTR in 1956 Betamax introduced in 1976 – first consumer video formatfollowed quickly by VHS No film can be adequately represented by its video version. (Society for Cinema Studies Task Force on Film Integrity, Statement on use of video in the classroom) – Do we agree with this? Why or why not? – What constitutes adequate representation?

5 Films obsolescence Not in common use as a consumer medium Now exists in conjunction with digital media (for capture, intermediates, and sound) in most, if not all, commercial productions Digital cinema is encroaching on film as mode for commercial exhibition Film is still the medium of choice for film preservation (but see above re: intermediates) As a product, film is threatened in the market

6 Film anatomy (see also p. 10 of NFPF Guide)

7 Evolution of film standards Smaller formats for consumer/amateur use – Safety stocks – Reversal processing reduces cost – Each new format is a refinement of the last Color is refined over the years – Hand-painted or stenciled spot color processes – Multi-strip and lenticular processes – Full color emulsion in 1935 (Kodachrome)



10 The lenticular process (sort of) explained…

11 Evolution of film standards (contd) Sound – Separate track and picture recording formats ? When did this first start??

12 Dickson Experimental Sound Film (1894-5)

13 Evolution of film standards (contd) Sound – Live accompaniment for exhibitions – Separate track and picture recording formats – Synchronized sound on film technologies Optical (variable area) tracks Variable density tracks Magnetic tracks Stereo, digital, etc. – All sound-on-film advances required a land grab, or renegotiation of the film territory – Each of these standards/techniques presents special challenges for digitization and preservation

14 Early sound technologies Lauste optical track film, ca. 1911 Edison wax cylinder recordings (earliest, 1887; shown, 1904)

15 Sprockets and edge code Variable area optical Magnetic Variable Density

16 Features of film Sprocket holes (advancement mechanism) Frames and framelines – picture area, aspect Soundtracks and synchronization cues Edge codes and processing information Emulsion side/base side Leader, other head/tail elements, splices Condition – wear and tear, sprocket damage Others that you see??

17 How do we define sustainability for digitized film collections?

18 Defining sustainability Is it different for film? Sustainability as an environmental issue – Kodaks discontinuation of Kodachrome – Toxic impact of film manufacture and processing – Animal and mineral components of film Sustainability as an economic issue – Digital collections more visible/usable/marketable Does digitization solve (or just replace) sustainability issues for obsolete formats?

19 Comparing digitized versions: The Dickson Experimental Sound Film Internet Archive: o o YouTube (1): EZz7Y EZz7Y YouTube (2): EZz7Y EZz7Y

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