2Aims To illustrate and apply basic critical methodology of film analysis:Signs: denotation, connotation, motivationCinematography (the shot): camera distance, angle, movement; their motivations and connotationsMise-en-scène analysis: lighting, objects, colour etc - everything in the frameEditing: types of edit; their motivations and connotations; continuity editingSoundExplicit and implicit meaning
3Signs: Denotation and Connotation Sign: any unit of meaning (graphic, aural, verbal)Denotation: the (literal) description of a signConnotation: the meaning associated with a sign
4NB A sign can connote and/or be motivated. Signs: MotivationMotivation: the reason a film element is included:RealismNarrativeIntertextuality (including “hommage”)ArtisticNB A sign can connote and/or be motivated.
5Key Elements of Film Language or the Poetics of CinemaMise en Scene and CinematographyEditingSoundHow they combine to create meaning
6Cinematography (The Shot) Camera DistanceExtreme Long Shot (ELS)Shows locationOften used as an initial establishing shot in a sequenceAlso called a master shot as whole scene is usually shot in LS before breaking down into MS and CUExample: Shot of Ethan near start of The Searchers (John Ford, 1956)
8The Shot: Camera Distance ELS/Establishing shot shows the location, setting or landscape of a scene; presents the action’s setting, with some characters. A mood or sense of drama may be presented with this shot
9The Shot: Camera Distance Long Shot (aka Full Shot) frames the entire body of one or more characters
10The Shot: Camera Distance Medium Long Shot: (also called “plan américain” or American shot) shows 1 to 3 characters from the thigh up. This shows characters and their roles without emphasising their emotions.
11The Shot: Camera Distance MLS shows location/ relationships- often used as an initial establishing shot in a sequence
12The Shot: Camera Distance Medium Shot (MS)Waist upFocus on character(s)
13The Shot: Camera Distance This MS shot allows other characters to be in view and so allows character interaction. This often makes for more sociable shots.
14The Shot: Camera Distance Medium shots put more emphasis on characters and their emotions.
15The Shot: Camera Distance Medium Close Up (MCU)Chest upFocus on character(s)
16The Shot: Camera Distance CLOSE UP:Generally any close up shot of an object gives the object meaning. If the close up is of the whole or part of the face then it shows emotion and reinforces spectator involvementBefore advent of widescreen in mid 1950s, only one character usually in a close up - character on their own and can seem isolated in this type of shot - but wider fram allows CU two-shot
17The Shot: Camera Distance Close Up (CU)Can be of peopleCan be of objects
18The Shot: Camera Distance Extreme Close Up (ECU)Part of faceOften used at climax of drama
19The Shot: Camera Distance An extreme close up is more magnified than close up, and will focus on one part (hand, eye, mouth, etc.)Insert: a detail shot magnifying a thing (letter, business card, etc.)
20The Shot: Camera Distance “Sergio Leone Shot” (ECU)Isolates eyesOften used at climax of drama, eg in Leone’s films in the lead-up to a shoot-outClip 1
21The Shot: Camera Angle Straight-on Angle Connotes equilibrium (normality) and makes spectator feel comfortable
22The Shot: Camera Angle Canted Angle (aka Dutch Angle) Connotes disequilibrium (physical or mental) and produces sense of unease in spectator“The world is out of joint”Clip 2
23The Shot: Camera Angle High Angle Shot Connotation - lack of power Motivation: can be point-of-view (POV) shotIn The Color of Paradise/Rang-e Khoda,1999) a blind son Mohammad and his elderly grandmother are ruled over by a dominant father and are often shot from a high angle, emphasizing their dependence and smallness.
24The Shot: Camera AngleIn this high angle shot, the angle - combined with mise en scene (prop) - the wheelchair - can make the character seem small and vulnerable.Gattaca, Andrew Noble, 1997)
25The Shot: Camera Angle LOW ANGLE SHOT A shot taken from below an character, as if he/she is looking down on us. This may make us feel small and vulnerable and the character seem powerful and authoritativeGladiator, Ridley Scott, 2000
26The Shot: Camera Angle LOW ANGLE SHOT This shot from The Magnificent Seven bestows authority on the Yul Bryner character. Although the Steve McQueen character is also shot from a low angle, he has less authority because of his position vis a vis the Yul Bryner character - see Mise en Scene (later)
27The Shot: Camera Angle Low Angle Often connotes power but motivation can simply be POV shotIn The Color of Paradise/Rang-e Khoda,1999) a dominant father is frequently shotFrom a low angle
28The Shot: Camera AngleIn this clip from Citizen Kane, there is not much difference in height (seated) between Kane and his about-to-be mistress andfuture wife, Susan Alexander.However, as the shots cuts between the two, we have a high angle on Susan and a low angle on Kane, perhaps connoting that he will be dominant in the relationshipClip 3
29The Shot: Camera AngleNeed to avoid a mechanical interpretation of camera angle - context needs to be taken into account - high angle hardly connotes lack of power but visual indication as to what’s about to happen to “traitor”eg North by North West (Alfred Hitchcock, USA, )Clip 4
30The Shot: Camera Movement Pan: (panorama)Camera swivels left or right on axis.Used for:Showing sceneFollowing movementShow POV as head turnsGuiding attentioneg Traffic (Stephen Sodeberg)Clip 5
31The Shot: Camera Movement Whip Panie very rapid pan.Used for:Rapid head-turn POVStyleEg Fists of Fury/Tang Shan Da Xiong, Wei Lo, Honk Kong, 1971).Clip 6
32The Shot: Camera Movement TiltCamera swivels up or down.Used for:Showing scene on different levelsFollowing movementShow POV as head moves up/downEstablishing shot e.g. ext: tilt up high building CUT int: room in buildingeg In Leon (Luc Besson, 1994 ) tilt up used to reveal character of Matilda. Audience asked to notice contradictions in her clothing, starting with boots, her comic-book leotards, past her teenage jewellery and her cigarette to gentle, vulnerable face hidden behind ornate railing. Tilt-up allows audience to take in each item separately and notice contradictions central to her character.Clip 7
33The Shot: Camera Movement Track (dolly) (tracking shot)- camera on wheels, usually on a little cart called a dolly (so sometimes known as a “dolly shot”; or the verb “to dolly” is used.- can track in/out, left/right, slow/fast.
34The Shot: Camera Movement Tracking inLateraltrack(ing shot)
35The Shot: Camera Movement Tracking ShotLateral track(ing shot)Examples:Central do Brasil/Central StationLes 400 coups/ The 400 BlowsClip 8
36The Shot: Camera Movement Reverse Tracking Shot In this example from Les Parapluies de Cherbourg/The Umbrellas of Cherbourg (Jacques Demy, 1964, France) note the effect of the reverse tracking shot in combination with the moving trainClip 9
37The Shot: Camera Movement Overhead Tracking ShotIn this example from 1984 (Michael Radford, 1984), the overhead tracking shot of Winston Smith in his workplace has connotations of surveillance, spying, oppression.Clip 10
38The Shot: Camera Movement Crane shotCrane: camera on crane so can move in/out, up/down spaceGreat potential from dramatic and aesthetically pleasing shotsCamera on crane so can move in/out, up/down spaceVery flexible - can produce dramatic/aesthetic effectsExamples from The Player (Robert Altman), Once Upon a Time in the West, Young and Innocent (where it combines with a zoom)Clip 11
39The Shot: Camera Movement Handheld:Portable camera so get jiggling image.Used for:Realist documentary lookConvey dynamism of actionEg Dancer in the Dark (Lars von Trier, 2000)Clip 12
40The Shot: Camera Movement SteadicamPortable camera with weights which is ‘worn’ by camera operator. Used to:Steady imageFilm scene without multiple takesFilm on terrain where tracks difficult (or where the director wants to show the floor)Eg The Shining (Stanley Kubrick, 1980)Clip 13
41The Shot: Camera Movement SteadicamUse of Steadicam in Goodfellas (Martin Scorsese, 1990)In five-minute shot, audience follows gangster Henry Hill (Ray Liotta) in the back door, through the kitchen and up to the bar, stopping to meet patrons all the wayShows how gangsters don’t have to wait in queues like everyone elseClip 14
42Zoom The Shot: Camera Movement Use of zoom lens to create illusion of camera moving in/out. Can zoom in/out (forward zoom/reverse zoom)Examples:The Stendhal Syndrome (Dario Argento, 1996)The Godfather Part 2 (Francis Ford Coppola, 1974)Clip 15
43The Shot: Camera Movement Rack or Pull FocusChange focus during scene to new point of interestIn this clip from 1984, note the way that Julia (Joanna Hamilton) is in focus and then there is a rack focus and she comes out of focus while O’Brian (Richard Burton) comes into focus.This has narrative significance as it shows that a member of the inner party is noticing her, perhaps suspicion that her zeal is attacking the image of arch-traitor Goldstein in hiding some deviant thoughts.Clip 16
44aka “dolly zoom” or “transtrav” “trombone shot” The Shot: Camera MovementVertigo effectaka “dolly zoom” or “transtrav” “trombone shot”Unsettling in-camera special effect that appears to undermine normal visual perception in filmEffect achieved by using setting of zoom lens to adjust field of view while camera dollies (or tracks) towards or away from subject in such a way as to keep subject same size in frame throughout.From Vertigo (Alfred Hitchcock, 1958)Scotty - former policeman: fear of heights ends his careerThe effect gives an insight into his state of mind as he is going up spiral staircase near climax of filmClip 17
45The Shot: Camera Movement This effect used expressively in a variety of films to show characters’ state of mind:Jaws (Spielberg, USA, 1973) - shows Chief Brodie’s dread when he realises the killer shark has returnedGoodfellas (Scorsese, USA, 1980) - here used very slowly to indicate that the world is closing in on Henry Hall as former comrades plotting to kill himThe Quick and the Dead (Sam Raimi, USA, 19) - here used to show unnatural state of affairs in which a son Leonardo di Capprio) fights a gun duel with his father (Gene Hackman). Note way in which young woman seems literally to recoil in fear. Combined with a canted/Dutch frame: the world really is out of jointClip 18
46The Shot Freeze FrameAchieved by repeating the same frame again and again so thatit gives the screen the appearance of a still photographCan have the effect of leaving us uncertain about the final consequences of the action (ie prevents “narrative closure”Most famous use of this technique: Les 400 coups/The 400 Blows (Francois Truffaut, 1959) but much imitated in later filmsAt the end of the film, its protagonist turns to camera - direct address - as the frame freezes - ambiguous: happiness? hope? uncertainty? disillusionment?Clip 19
47Mise en scène(pronounced “meez on sen” with second syllable nasalised)Term from French theatre - literally, what has been put on the stage.In film refers to everything we see on the screen:Main elements of mise en scene are:setting, objects (props), people, make up, costumes, figure arrangement and movement (aka blocking), colour, lighting, gesture, acting styles etcAnalysis of mise-en-scène can reveal how themes are symbolised
48Lighting Mise en scène Three point system of lighting Key light: main source of lightBacklight: adds highlights and differentiates actor from backgroundFill light: softens shadowsfrom key light
49Mise en scèneLightingClassical use of three-point lighting - all three elements are in balance. Connotes normality. Here, the actors are made to look glamorous by the balanced lighting.Written On The Wind (Douglas Sirk, 1956)
50Peking Opera Blues /Do Ma Daan, Tsui Hark (Honk Kong, 1986) Mise en scèneHigh Key Lighting- lighting scheme in which fill light is raised to almost the same level as key light - produces images that are usually very bright, few shadows on principal subjects. This bright image is characteristic of entertainment genres such as musicals (eg classic MGM style)Peking Opera Blues /Do Ma Daan, Tsui Hark (Honk Kong, 1986)
51Low Key Lighting Mise en scène Key light dimmed (may be moved – kick light), very little fill light, creating strong contrasts between the brightest and darkest parts of an image and often creating strong shadows that obscure parts of the principal subjects.Shadows - connote unease, sense of evil - feature of horror and ‘film noir’ (style or genre of filmmaking prominent in 1940s)Touch of Evil (Orson Welles, 1957)
52Props and Objects Mise en scène Costumes are important props. In film, any portion of a costume may become a prop. When Hildy Johnson switches from her role of aspiring housewife to that of reporter, her stylish hat with its low-dipping brim is replaced by a “masculine” hat with its brim pushed up, reporter-styleHis Girl Friday (Howard Hawkes, 1940)
53Props and Objects Mise en scène This staircase is a signifier. Notice how structure is so similar to shape of DNA (our genetic blue print).Gattaca, Andrew Noble, 1997)(Note: the DVD cover even placed a model image of DNA next to the staircase.
54Props and Objects Mise en scène This sequence from North by North-West (Alfred Hitchcock, 1959) seems at first simply to be economical transition from previous scene but metaphorical information in dissolve: CIA imposes itself on UN; Capitol is reflection of CIA - ie intelligence agency imposes over seat of governmentClip 20
55Mise en scèneProps and ObjectsWhat might these signifiers represent?
57Mise en scèneColourLike light colour has a symbolic and subconscious affect on us. We passively accept colour more than lines (light and dark), but it too has a profound affect on us as viewers.Colour is strongly linked to emotions (though the specifics are very cultural)Cool colours (blue, green, violet) suggest calm, tranquility, aloofness, and tend to recede in images (go to the back)Warm colours (red, yellow, orange) suggest aggression, violence, stimulation, and come forward in images (stand out)
58Mise en scèneColourIn Three Colours: Blue (1993), Krzysztof Kieslowski used a number of different connotations of the colour blue. It is one of the colours of the French tricolour, it perhaps represents freedom, but it also stands for sadness: “the blues”.Julie (Juliette Binoche) loses her husband and daughter in a car crash in the opening sequence. She decides to block herself off by attempting to “free” herself from all the associations of her past lifeThroughout the film Kieslowski uses blue motifs as in the brief montage which followsClip 21
59Mise en scèneColourConnotations of colours culturally determined - don’t necessarily carry exclusive meanings.Compare the use of red Zhang Yimou's Ju Dou (1990), for example with Ingmar Bergman's Cries and Whispers (Viskingar Och Rop, 1972), Zhang exploits red as signifier of unrestrained passion - fairly typical connotationHowever, Ingmar Bergman associates the color with stagnation and contaminated blood.Clips 22, 23
60Mise en scèneColourIn Traffic (2000), Steven Soderbergh decided to shoot all the sequences in the Northern Mexico desert overexposed. Resulting images give impression of barren, desolated land being mercilessly burnt by sun, no-man's land over which police and customs have no control.
61Proxemic Patterns and Gestures Mise en scèneProxemic Patterns and GesturesThe relationships between the organisms in a space are called Proxemic Patterns.The proxemic pattern is determined by distance and may be Intimate (touching – ½ m away), Personal (½ m – 1m) , Social (1m – 4m), or Public (greater than 4m distance).These patterns can be manipulated using camera shots and anglesFor example this big close up brings us into intimate proximity with the character.
62Sometimes two people in close proximity form a heart shape. Mise en scèneProxemic Patterns and GesturesSometimes two people in close proximity form a heart shape.
63Proxemic Patterns and Gestures Mise en scèneProxemic Patterns and GesturesExpansive outward movements generally associated with explosive emotions such as joy or terror. Look at example of The French Connection, William Friedkin, 1971)Scene occurs at climax of chase sequence in which protagonist Popye Doyle (Gene Hackman) finally triumphs over vicious killer by shooting him - just as he seems on verge of eluding him once againKinetic outburst symbolises not only bullet exploding in victim’s body, but joyous climax for protagonist after humiliating and dangerous pursuitKinetic “ecstasy of death” also releases dramatic tension built up in audience during chase sequence: in effect we are seduced into sharing protagonist’s joy in the killClip 24
64Proxemic Patterns and Gestures Mise en scèneProxemic Patterns and GesturesFrom “Understanding Movies”, Louis Giannetti
65Mise en scèneGestureCapturing of gesture or look just as or more importantthan objects or colour, as in this shot of a confrontation inAmerican History X (Tony Kaye, 1998)
66Editing How the shots are arranged in sequence Involves choice of length of each shot and of the kind of transition between each shotPrimitive film: no editing - just filming from fixed position till the reel ran outeg The Workers Leaving the FactoryThe Little Rascal (or The Hoser Hosed)and The Arrival of a train at La Ciotat (Auguste and Louis Lumiere, 1895, 1896)Clip 25
67EditingMontage is the French term for editing; but also generally used to mean a succession of shots that clash to create new meaning (aka “Soviet Montage”)Emphasises dynamic, often discontinuous, relationships between shots and the juxtaposition of images to create ideas not present in either shot by itself.egOctober (1925) and Battleship Potemkin (Sergei Eisenstein, 1927)Clip26
68Editing: Types of EditWhy did Eisenstein edit these shots of the lion statues in this way?2 most obvious answers:To suggest that a stone lion would be shocked by the massacre on the Odessa stepsThe lion could represent the workers and peasants rising up against their oppressors
69Editing: Types of Edit “American Montage” Succession of shots to indicate compressed time (frequently linked by dissolves)Example:The Godfather (Francis Ford Coppola, 1972)Clip 27
70Editing: Types of Edit Cut: Shot A followed by shot B. Used for: Sequence in real timeParallel editing: cutting between related actionsMost common transition - there will be hundreds of cuts in an average film (ASL =“average shot length”)1930s s: ASL = between 8 and 11 seconds1960s ASL = between 6 and 8 seconds1970s ASL = between 5 and 8 seconds1970s ASL = between 5 and secondsFrom mid-1990s, many films as low as 3-4 seconds
71Editing: Types of Edit Cut: Tension built by way scene is cut - cf this sequence from The Birds (Hitchcock, 1963)Average shot length short but rate of cutting faster at highest point of tensionClip 28
72Editing: Types of EditParallel edits/cross cutting: a way of showing two actions taking place simultaneously; originally used for excitement; later more sophisticated effects, eg Godfather: cross-cuts between baptism of Michael’s nephew (connotations of innocence) and the preparation and execution of the murder of rival gang leaders - ordered by Michael - ironyClip 29
73Editing: Types of Edit Fade Fade In: shot lightens from black. Used to:Signify start of scene/new dayFade Out: shot darkens to black. Used to:Signify end of scene/dayFade Out/Fade In:Signifies time has passedeg The Searchers (shadow of chief on girl)Clip 30
74Editing: Types of Edit Fade Fades not always to black - sometimes to coloureg red dominant colour in Bergman’s Cries and Whispers and Bergman fades to red rather than blackClip 31
75Editing: Types of Edit Dissolve: Shot A overlaps with shot B. Used for:Jump in time/space (e.g. flashback, dream)eg North by North-West (Alfred Hitchcock, 1959)Clip 32
76Editing: Types of Edit Wipe: Shoot A peels off to reveal shot B. Horizontal/vertical /digital wipe. Used to:Move to new settingStyle (eg in modern films to give a sense of nostalgia for old films)eg The Seven Samurai (KurosawaClip 33
77Editing: Types of Edit Iris A round moving mask that can close down to end a scene (iris-out)Or can open to begin a scene (iris in) or reveal more space round a detail.A common device in early cinema. When used post 1930, usually hasconnotations of nostalgia (eg Tirez sur le pianiste/Shoot the Piano Player - Francois Truffaut, 1960) or a self-conscious referencing in films about film.In this scene from Neighbours (Buster Keaton, 1920) the iris is used for the comic effect as that the female protagonist is getting ready for her weddingClip 34
78EditingTypes of EditBazz Luhrman combines wipes, irises (sort of - they are square!) and freeze-frames in his postmodernist version Romeo and Juliet.Postmodernist style mixes different elements eclectically - filmic technique often draws attention to itself, unlike in continuity (“invisible”) editing - see belowClip 35
79Editing: Continuity Editing Classic Hollywood style is a set of techniques which are designed to make the technical construction of the film ‘invisible’ i.e. to make the inherent discontinuity of film appear ‘continuous’In Classic Hollywood the plot is more important than the style i.e. its prime motive is storytelling
80Editing: Continuity Editing The main techniques are:Establishing shot: shows the setting and 180° line (the camera will stay on one side of this line)Shot/reverse shot: cutting back and forth between characters (sometimes using over-the-shoulder shots)Eyeline match: shot A: someone looking; shot B what is looked at with direction of look maintainedMatch on action: where a cut occurs at a point when the actor is moving - makes cut “invisible”
81Editing: Continuity Editing Establishing Shotshows the setting and 180° line (the camera will stay on one side of this line)
82Editing: Continuity Editing Bordwell and Thomson
83Editing: Continuity Editing Bordwell and Thomson
84Editing: Continuity Editing Shot/reverse shotCutting back and forth between characters in conversation, each shot being followed by one from a more or less equivalent position from the other side;(sometimes using over-the-shoulder shots)example:Hush (Joss Whedon, 2000)On the Waterfront (Elia Kazan, 1947)Clip 36, 37
85Editing: Continuity Editing Eyeline matchBased on premise that audience will want to see what the character on-screen is seeing. Begins with character looking at something off-screen, then a cut to the object or person that they are looking at.If the person looks left, the following shot should imply that the looker is off-screen right.
86Editing: Continuity Editing Eyeline matchFollowing shots from The Stendhal Syndrome /La Sindrome di Stendhal (Dario Argento, Italy, 1996), depict Anna looking a painting - Brueghel's The Fall of Icarus. Scene takes place inside Florence’s's most famous museum, the Uffizi Gallery.As her interest grows, the eyeline match is stressed with matching close-ups of Anna's face and Icarus's falling into the ocean in the painting.Clip 38
87Editing: Continuity Editing Match on actionMatch on action: action carried on across two shotsHelps to mask the cut - viewer paying attention to action rather than editConnecting sounds: same sound carried across cutExamples from Orphans of the Storm (DW Griffiths, 1921)Les Parapluies de Cherbourg (Jacques Demy, 1964)Traffic (Steven Soderbergh, 2000)Clip 39
88Editing: Continuity Editing Graphic March (Match Cut)When 2 successive shots joined so as to create strong similarity of shape (and/or colour)Used to smooth the transition between shotseg clip from Women on the Edge of a Nervous Breakdown (Pedro Almodovar, 1988) [traffic light-sun]But also capable of startling transitions such as one from ‘Dawn of Man’ sequence of 2001: a Space Odyssey (Stanley Kubrick, 1968) where a bone used as a weapon is thrown into air in prehuman times and cut to a graphic match to a spaceship floating in space in imaginary futureClip 40
89Editing: Continuity Editing Sudden shift from longshot to close-up can be veryeffective techniqueIn this clip from The Searchers (John Ford, 1956),we go from:a long shot of Ethan preparing a raid: we seethe landscape, including the Comanche camp whereDebbie being heldTo a close-up to Ethan’s face, conveying his anxietyClip 41
90Editing: Continuity Editing Rules of continuity editing long established and very powerful. Even used by interviewers on TV news using single camera to interview. Then camera position reversed - interviewee may no longer be present - and questions repeated and edited in. Interviewer even fakes a reaction in longer takes by nodding, hence “the noddies”Standard way of editing scene: LS as an establishing shot, followed by closer shots until close-up (including shot/reverse shot in conversation); then re-establishing shot to remind audience where they are.Whole scene shot in long shot - “mastershot” - then closer shots edited in)
91Editing: Continuity Editing Mastershot and closer shotsIn initial sequence from Peking Opera Blues/Do Ma Daan (Honk Kong,1986), director Tsui Hark uses long shots to establish the locale before moving in.Three musicians shown against a fireplace in what looks like a luxurious room.Our suspicions confirmed by the second establishing shot, which shows us other half of the ample room (shot/reverse-shot) and reveals a party going on.After this introduction, the camera moves forward with several close-ups of both musicians and spectators.At the end of the sequence, Hark shows us the entire room in a larger shot. This final establishing shot is called a reestablishing shot, for it shows us once again spatial relationships introduced with establishing shots.Clip 42
92Editing: Continuity Editing But rules are made to be broken, as in this early sequence from Leon (Luc Besson, 1994) where the director dispenses with establishing shot altogether.Clip 43
93Sound Sound can be: Diegetic: coming from the story space Non-diegetic: coming from outside the story space e.g. soundtrack music, voiceover.Another distinction to be made: external diegetic - when other characters can hear the sound;internal diegetic: what character ‘hears’ inside headeg clip from Women on the Edge of a Nervous Breakdown (Almodovar) = external diegeticeg clip from Stendhall Syndrome - internal diegetic - what the character can “hear” inside her head but no-one else canClip 44
94SoundMost important form of non-diegetic sound is music (also known as source music) - change of music can change whole mood of sceneScene from Citizen Kane where editing combineswith non-diegetic music to show Kane’s gradual estrangement from first wife, EmilyBreakfast montage representing several years, with only a few lines of dialogue. Each section joined by a whip pan as years are compressed into a few minutes as Kane and his wife become more hostileThe music also reinforces the sequence’s development
95Sound Citizen Kane breakfast montage contd initial late supper/early breakfast accompanied by lilting waltza comic variation of the waltz follows initialstatement, then tense one; then horns and trumpetsrestate the Kane themefinal portion of scene accompanies stony silencebetween couple - slow , eerie variation on initial themeDissolution of of marriage stressed by theme-and variation accompanimentClip 45
96SoundStinger chordA strongly accented chord used to register shock or. surprise.Developed by composers such as Max Steiner (eg John Ford’s The Searchers (1956) and Bernard Herrmann (eg Alfred Hitchcock’s North by North West)Clip 46
97SoundMickey MousingTerm which arose from the animated films of Walt Disney in the 1930s. Mickey Mouse an the other Disney characters often move in exact synchronization with music, even when they are not dancing.Can be applied to non-animated film when the music is closely syncronised with the action.In King Kong (Merian C Cooper, 1933), the music follows the steps of the tribal chief, suggesting power.In Les Parapluies de Cherbourg/The Umbrellas of Cherbourg, the music ‘falls’ as the character faintsClip 47
98Sound Overlapping Sound A technique where the sound from one scene overlaps into the next - usually by the sound in the second of two adjacent scenes beginning a second or two before the end of the first.Overlapping sound creates an aural association in a thematically linked sequence.Walter Murch, sound designer in Apocalypse Now and the English Patient used it oftenOne of first films used extensively was Citizen Kane.
99Sound Overlapping Sound In this scene, Kane is in the flat of the woman who becomes his mistress, then his wife, for the first time. Then there is a dissolve to some time later where the characters are in same position but clearly time has moved on (suggesting Kane has ‘set her up’ in another flat.The same music bridges both scenesClip 48
100Sound Overlapping Sound Kane’s applause at the end of the scene also bridges to the next scene, a political street meeting.The speech of Jed, Kane’s friend and ally, bridges to the next scene where Kane seems to carry on the same speech at a political rally in a hallClip 49
101Sound and Image Sound can: Parallel the images: say the same thing e.g. expressive music which reflects characters’ emotionsCounterpoint the images: say different things e.g. ironic commentative music
102ReferencesBordwell, David and Thompson, Kristin (2004) Film Art: an Introduction (7th edition). New York: McGraw-Hill.Giannetti, Louis Understanding MoviesMonaco, James (1990) How to Read a Film (5th edition), New Jersey, Prentice HallO’Shaughnessy, Michael (1999) Media and Society: an Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Thompson, Kristin (1999) Storytelling in the New Hollywood: Understanding Classical Narrative Technique. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press)Van Sijll, Jennifer (2005) Cinematic Storytelling: the 100 Most Powerful Film Conventions Every Filmmaker Must Know. Studio City CA: Michael Wiese.Vogler, Christopher (1996) The Writer’s Journey: Mythic Structure for Storytellers and Screenwriters. London:Boxtree.