Some basic facts Hollywood movies rule the home market in the US They rule norwegian cinemas They rule the other european cinemas –With the possible exception of France They rule in cinemas in Asia, Africa, Latin America and Oceania –With quite a few interesting exceptions Despite this: They rule the world –The only true global cinema is made in Hollywood, USA
It has not always been like this Historical background: –The Dominance of Europan Cinema –World War 1 –Emigration –The Establishment of Classical Hollywood –The sound film (1927-30) –The System and its Crises (60s etc)
Now All other systems are Other systems Hollywood as standard system The Others: Deviations, alternatives, art cinema, National cinemas, Other commercial cinamas
Basic features The economical system The production-distribution system The star system The narrative system
The economical system Free market capitalism –Good for making commercial films… –Investments, not subsidies Global free markets –WTO, GATT, MPAA Intellectual property protection –MPAA, US Government Remember: the entertainment economy is big for US exports!
The production – distribution system Financing –Investments, presales, own capital Production –Production company (Sales) –Sales company, festivals, markets Distribution –Distribution and marketing –Home and abroad Exhibition –Multiple windows: cinema, DVD, TV, Internet –Home and abroad
Hollywood advantage Good access to investments Dominates large home market Global marketing plans Global distribution system (UIP etc.) Availability in all windows
The Star System Central to marketing Global brands Free press –Lindsay Lohan Scandals etc Why do you decide to watch a movie?
The narrative system Developed 1910-1920 Globally accepted Content over form Causality Transparency Analytical editing/ montage Pesonification of conflicts Double plot structure Hollywood dramaturgy
Hollywood advantage The globally known star brand names The globally accepted narrative mode
The system and the Others Economical systems –Mixed economies, small home markets Production-distribution systems –Local, isolated entities Star systems –Locally known Narrative systems –Art film narration, Other modes
Other cinemas The French example –Heavy subsidies, good (40-50%) national market share, some int. stars, art film narration standard The Norwegian example –Heavy subsidies, 15% national market share, no int. stars, no narrational standard The Indian example –Commercial cinema, dominates home market, export, regionally known stars, song-and dance narrational standard The Iranian example –Art cinema (++), import restrictions, export on festival market, auteurs, art cinema narration standard
So Hollywood is really The Global Cinema Other cinemas have restrictions Will it always be like this? Probably Not