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Social situation and system in Hungary. 93.036 km2=35.921 square mile 10.076.581 citizens.

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Presentation on theme: "Social situation and system in Hungary. 93.036 km2=35.921 square mile 10.076.581 citizens."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social situation and system in Hungary

2 km2= square mile citizens

3 Issues….. Population Population Settlement system Settlement system Employment Employment Wages Wages Social security system Social security system

4 YearPopulation

5 Problem and problem solving Birth rate Birth rate Death rate Death rate Steady decrease in population. Steady decrease in population. More elderly people in the nation: need for health and social services is growing and transforming! More elderly people in the nation: need for health and social services is growing and transforming!

6 Settlements 3167 towns and villages 3167 towns and villages Number of cities with more than inhabitants: 165 Number of cities with more than inhabitants: cities (functionally only 200 can be regarded as cities) 252 cities (functionally only 200 can be regarded as cities) More than 60 per cent of citizens live in middle-sized, or big settlements (number of inhabitantas over 10000) More than 60 per cent of citizens live in middle-sized, or big settlements (number of inhabitantas over 10000)

7 Settlement structure 2 million live in the capital. 2 million live in the capital. Further 2,6 million live in bigger cities. Further 2,6 million live in bigger cities. Special feature: high share of very small villages…crisis areas – rural development strategies. Special feature: high share of very small villages…crisis areas – rural development strategies.

8 Small villages No work - high unemployment rate. No work - high unemployment rate. Young people moving away – number of inhabitants decreasing, population getting old. Young people moving away – number of inhabitants decreasing, population getting old. Poor infrastucture, limited services (school, health care, shops). Poor infrastucture, limited services (school, health care, shops). Escape route: form alliences with other villages and towns and have common projects. Escape route: form alliences with other villages and towns and have common projects. Advantage: splendid surroundings. Advantage: splendid surroundings.

9 Number of active age-group people significantly decreasing.Number of active age-group people significantly decreasing. 2003: 7 million2003: 7 million 2050 (forecast): 5,2 million)2050 (forecast): 5,2 million) 1,1 million elderly (55-65 ys)people belong to the active- age group, but only 1/5th of them are employed.1,1 million elderly (55-65 ys)people belong to the active- age group, but only 1/5th of them are employed Number of inhabitants (million) 9,79,48, y. proportion, % 21,120,218, y. proportion, % 63,361,354,9 65-X y. proportion, % 15,618,526,2

10 Proportion of Romani people is growing. 20% of children will be Roma in a few decades. Proportion of Romani people is growing. 20% of children will be Roma in a few decades. Less then 10% of them live in the capital - (total population: 20%) Less then 10% of them live in the capital - (total population: 20%) 60 % live in small settlements – (total population: 38%) 60 % live in small settlements – (total population: 38%) Appr citizens are Roma, only 16% of them are economically active. Appr citizens are Roma, only 16% of them are economically active. Roma problem

11 Larger proportion of the less children are born into poor families. (almost one-third of the 2,9 million (0-24 years old) children and young people get regular financial support. Larger proportion of the less children are born into poor families. (almost one-third of the 2,9 million (0-24 years old) children and young people get regular financial support. Proportion of one-parent families is growing. Proportion of one-parent families is growing. Regional disparities increase the danger of exclusion (from goods, chances, rights, social processes), especially in small settlements, in North- Hungary and in South-Transdanubia. Regional disparities increase the danger of exclusion (from goods, chances, rights, social processes), especially in small settlements, in North- Hungary and in South-Transdanubia.

12 Death rate: the third highest in Central and Eastern Europe. Death rate: the third highest in Central and Eastern Europe. How can we solve the problem? How can we solve the problem? –More birth? –Immigration? – if there had not been any immigration to the country, the loss of population would be much higher! (Hungarians from neighboring countries, China program?)….

13 Education More and more young people go for higher education. More and more young people go for higher education. Lack of good blue-collar workers in the new generation. Lack of good blue-collar workers in the new generation. Battle for students by the schools and universities – quality education or mass education? Battle for students by the schools and universities – quality education or mass education? Battle against government actions (e.g. closing schools, decreasing support of education). Battle against government actions (e.g. closing schools, decreasing support of education).

14 Employment - unemployment In employment: (2007 March). In employment: (2007 March). Unemployment rate: 7,5%. Unemployment rate: 7,5%. Number of officially unemployed: Number of officially unemployed: Unemployment rate of the Youth: 18%. Unemployment rate of the Youth: 18%.

15 3,5 million women belong to the active age group, but only half of them are employed. 400 thousand raise her children alone. 3,5 million women belong to the active age group, but only half of them are employed. 400 thousand raise her children alone.

16 Average Wages (2006) Differences in the average Differences in the average ~11000 $/year EU-25 ~ $/year Hungary ~ $/year USA Source: OECD

17 Purchasing Power Index: Annual Purchasing Power/head, on Euro parity (2004) EU and EFTA coutries 100= average of 29 countries

18 Minimum wage Nearly three-quarters of EU Member States have some form of statutory national minimum wage, with sectoral collective agreements playing the main role in setting minimum pay rates in the remainder of the countries. Nearly three-quarters of EU Member States have some form of statutory national minimum wage, with sectoral collective agreements playing the main role in setting minimum pay rates in the remainder of the countries. Hungary: 2 $/ hour, above 55 years: 2,4 $/hour Hungary: 2 $/ hour, above 55 years: 2,4 $/hour

19 Who earns more in Hungary? Those who work in the financial sector: $/ year. Those who work in the financial sector: $/ year. Those who work in Budapest: / year, especially if they are white- collar workers ( $ /year). Those who work in Budapest: / year, especially if they are white- collar workers ( $ /year). Those who work in the administration: $/ year. Those who work in the administration: $/ year. AVERAGES! AVERAGES!

20 Who earns less in Hungary? (Averages) Those who work in the agriculture: 5800 $/year. Those who work in the agriculture: 5800 $/year. Those who work in the textile industry: 5100 $/ year. Those who work in the textile industry: 5100 $/ year. Education: $/year Education: $/year Health: 8300 $/year Health: 8300 $/year

21 Pension Retirement age: 62 years (Both men and women) Retirement age: 62 years (Both men and women) Planned: 65 years (starting form 2009) Planned: 65 years (starting form 2009)

22 Pension No redistribution, no security net – the amount of the pension depends on the money you and your employer paid into the system. No redistribution, no security net – the amount of the pension depends on the money you and your employer paid into the system. The total amount of the minimum old-age pension is very low… Ft/month ( ~141 $/month). The total amount of the minimum old-age pension is very low… Ft/month ( ~141 $/month). The average of the old-age pension is 360 $/month (= 4320 $/year). The average of the old-age pension is 360 $/month (= 4320 $/year).

23 Persons entitled to pension and pension-like state support

24 What else provided? + 1 month pension; + 1 month pension; Public transportation for reduced fee, or for free of charge; Public transportation for reduced fee, or for free of charge; Life-annuity for agricultural land; Life-annuity for agricultural land; Support of medicine prices; Support of medicine prices; Other kind of price supports based on the amount of monthly income. Other kind of price supports based on the amount of monthly income.

25 Health issues Life expectancy among the worst ones in Europe. Life expectancy among the worst ones in Europe. –Men: 68 years (EU average: 75 years) –Women: 78 years (EU average: 81 years) Leading death causes: heart and circulation diseases, cancer.. Leading death causes: heart and circulation diseases, cancer.. Cancer became leading death cause in the case of middle aged – y. - males and females! Cancer became leading death cause in the case of middle aged – y. - males and females!

26 Heavy burden on the health sector – transition period! Heavy burden on the health sector – transition period! –All covered – meaning service for free (?) for many. –Coverage upon payment - service for charge – who pays?

27 National Healt Service – Private health insurance together? Under discussion yet. National Healt Service – Private health insurance together? Under discussion yet. Pay for the service; 300 Ft/visit (appr. 1,66 $) now. You pay for 20 visits, the others are for free. Pay for the service; 300 Ft/visit (appr. 1,66 $) now. You pay for 20 visits, the others are for free. Not everyone has to pay! Not everyone has to pay!

28 Suicides

29 RankCountryYearMalesFemalesTotal1. Russia Russia200269,311,938,7 2. Lithuania Lithuania Belarus Belarus Kazakhstan Slovenia Slovenia Hungary Hungary Estonia Estonia Ukraine Ukraine Latvia Latvia Japan Japan Source: WHO


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