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G R A D E 9 V A C C I N A T I O N P R O G R A M

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Presentation on theme: "G R A D E 9 V A C C I N A T I O N P R O G R A M"— Presentation transcript:

1 G R A D E 9 V A C C I N A T I O N P R O G R A M
INTRODUCTION I am your School Nurse! Presentation is to give you all the information about your BOOSTER Vaccinations so you know what is AVAILABLE and what is GOING TO HAPPEN (*No surprises!) WHEN: February____ or March____

2 Diphtheria, Tetanus, & Pertussis Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
V a c c i n a t i o n s f o r : Diphtheria, Tetanus, & Pertussis Human Papillomavirus (HPV) C a t c h - u p p r o g r a m f o r : Measles, Mumps, Rubella Hepatitis B Polio Varicella Most students will only be getting the Diphtheria, Tetanus, & Pertussis vaccine. (This is 3 booster protections in ONE needle!) Most of you have had this vaccination as an infant and preschooler, and now need a BOOSTER dose. The immune system requires a boost around grade 9 then again in their adult years. Students who have not previously received the other vaccinations(MMR, Hep B & Polio) are given the opportunity to catch-up. Vaccinations are given FREE of chare. Up-to-date vaccinations are required for entry into (post-secondary institutions) College or University, for Employment (Jobs such as Nursing, etc..…), for Traveling outside of Canada, etc. (These discussion points may be used as an introduction or when discussing the immune response. What is a Communicable Disease? A disease such as a cold, flu, measles, or meningitis that can be SPREAD FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER BY GERMS such as bacteria or viruses. What is a non-Communicable Disease? A disease that CANNOT be spread from one person to another but happens because of certain factors such: you were born with it, an organ breaks down, or you may get it as a result of getting old. Some of these diseases are DIABETES, HEART DISEASE, or CANCER How does a Communicable Disease spread? Communicable disease can be spread through the AIR such as: SNEEZING, COUGHING, BREATHING, or by TOUCH such as: KISSING, SHARING LIPSTICK, NOT WASHING HANDS & EATING FOOD. Bacteria & viruses can be carried in tears,saliva, blood, etc., semen, vaginal secretions How does our body protect us? SKIN- covers our body & acts as a BARRIER to bacteria & viruses. Enzymes in our saliva help to kill bacteria & viruses. Cough or sneeze reflex helps to expel bacteria & viruses. How can we help protect ourselves??? *WASH HANDS- germs get on our hands & we touch our faces, eyes & mouth. EAT WELL- our bodies need energy & the right nutrients to function & fight off infection * SLEEP- our bodies need to renew their energy every day EXERCISE- keeps our lungs, heart, & muscles in good condition to help fight off infection. ***GET IMMUNIZED!!!- SOME DISEASES ARE VERY HARD FOR OUR BODIES TO FIGHT. If we get immunized, we’ll be protected by our own immune system and won’t have to face the risk of having those serious diseases.

3 1 in every 10 who gets diphtheria dies
WHAT IS IT? A disease caused by BACTERIA that infect the nose and throat. HOW DO YOU GET IT? Direct contact with DROPLETS from the infected person’s nose and throat. SYMPTOMS? Grey spots may appear on the tonsils Breathing becomes difficult Sore throat/headache The bacteria may produce a TOXIN that can cause Paralysis or heart damage Rarely, bacteria can be spread by contaminated household articles such as clothing or toys. Usually the bacteria multiply on or near the surface of the mucous membranes of the mouth or throat, where they cause inflammation (Source: WHO) Diphtheria is ALWAYS present in our throats but does not always cause disease. Many people are carriers of the disease! There has been a recent reoccurence of the disease in Russia (due to the breakdown of their medical system). Cases doubled from 1,500 in 1990 to 4,800 in 1994 with 1,700 DEATHS. Higher risk in Calgary as many workers in the oil patch travel to Russia to work! DEATH RATE 1 in every 10 who gets diphtheria dies

4 6 out of 10 people who get tetanus die
WHAT IS IT? (LOCKJAW) A disease that causes BACTERIA to grow at the site of an injury. HOW DO YOU GET IT? By stepping on a RUSTY NAIL By getting a CUT or LACERATION By getting a dog or cat BITE SYMPTOMS? The bacteria make a TOXIN, which is absorbed by the body’s muscles, causing spasms that make it difficult to breathe Another name for tetanus is LOCKJAW. The bacteria are present in the dirt or soil and gain entry through a break in the skin such as a cut or bite (***N.B. If you HIKE, CAMP, SPORTS, TRAVEL…) Even with modern medicine, six out of every ten people who get tetanus die. (Source: WHO) DEATH RATE 6 out of 10 people who get tetanus die

A BACTERIAL disease that infects the lining of the airways. HOW DO YOU GET IT? Direct contact with DROPLETS from the infected person’s nose and throat. SYMPTOMS? Attacks of VIOLENT coughing develop, often lasting weeks or more. Children may cough so long and hard that they can’t breathe. Babies with whooping cough may have fits (seizures) and go into a coma due to lack of oxygen to their brain. Between 10% to 25% of adolescents & adults in Canada are SUSCEPTIBLE to Pertussis and are an important RESERVOIR for this infectious disease. Teenagers catch this disease from YOUNGER SCHOOL-aged and PRESCHOOL-aged children and then the teenager passes it on to BABIES! Over the past several years, the number of cases of Pertussis remains fairly high (336 to 826 cases ANNUALLY) Health Canada, Canadian Immunization Guide, 6th Edition, 2002 Halperin SA, Pertussis Immunization for Adolescents: What are we waiting for? Can I. Infect. Dis. 2001; 12(2): 74-76 1 out of 400 babies under 1 year of age with whooping cough will end up with brain damage

6 Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
WHAT IS IT? The most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) Chances are most people will become infected with HPV and not have any signs or symptoms HOW DO YOU GET IT? Anyone who has ever taken part in sexual activity can contract HPV At least 70% of sexually active women and men will get HPV infection over their lifetime HPV is easily passed through sexual touching and intercourse. WHAT ARE THE RISKS? Over 40 types of the HPV virus infect the genital area “High risk” types can cause pre-cancerous lesions and can lead to cancer of the cervix and other genital areas “Low risk” types can cause genital warts In Alberta, 180 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer every year. 40 women die each year of the disease.

7 Who should get the vaccine?
In Canada: Vaccine approved for girls and women 9 to 26 years of age In Alberta: All girls in grade 5 starting in 2008/2009 All girls in grade 9 starting in 2009/2010 (3 years only) Parental/guardian consent is required before the vaccine can be given The HPV vaccine costs $ per dose. The vaccine requires 3 doses to be given within one year (total cost $450). The HPV vaccine is free to all grade 5 and 9 girls in Alberta.

8 How Do You Know You Have HPV?
HPV & Cervical Cancer “High risk” types of the HPV cause cervical cancer as well other more rare genital cancers Pre-cancerous cells can be found in the cervix by a Pap test. Cervical cancer takes many years to develop How Do You Know You Have HPV? Most people who get HPV have no symptoms and it goes away by itself. Sometimes the virus does not go away and can cause pre-cancerous lesions and cervical cancer May have visible genital warts


10 How Can HPV Be Prevented? (Continued)
Regular Pap testing What is a Pap Test ? A Pap test finds abnormal cells in the cervix that could develop into cancer Women, including those who have had HPV immunization, should have regular Pap tests Discuss Pap testing with your family doctor

11 How Can HPV Be Prevented?
Immunization with HPV vaccine helps prevent cervical cancer GARDASIL® vaccine – licensed in Canada June, 2006 HPV types in the vaccine: 6 & 11 (causes 90% of genital warts), 16 & 18 (causes 70% of cervical cancer) Administration: injection of three doses over six month time period Schedule: Dose 1 – on start date Dose 2 – one to two months after Dose 1 Dose 3 – six months after Dose 1 Highly protective More than 98% of individuals develop protection following immunization Safe In Canada, each new vaccine undergoes laboratory and field-testing and must pass licensing procedure before being introduced to the public. HPV vaccine contains no live virus, therefore can not cause HPV infection Duration of Protection Protection lasts at least 5 years and probably longer

12 1 person dies in every 3000 who gets measles
WHAT IS IT? A highly contagious viral disease. HOW DO YOU GET IT? Direct contact with droplets from the infected person’s nose and throat. SYMPTOMS? A red blotchy rash/high fever. Watery sore eyes. May cause pneumonia and inflammation of the brain leading to convulsions. May result in permanent vision and hearing problems. Red measles kills up to 1 million children worldwide. (Source: WHO) In Canada in 1940, there were about 700 cases/100,000 by 1998, there were 12 cases and 5 of those had been traveling outside of Canada before the onset of the disease. It is now recommended that people have 2 doses of measles vaccine before travelling because the rates are starting to rise again. It is so contagious that a person sitting in a room breathing or coughing could pass the disease on to other people in the room (particularly babies that are not immunized). DEATH RATE 1 person dies in every 3000 who gets measles

13 M U M P S A communicable viral disease WHAT IS IT? HOW DO YOU GET IT?
Direct contact with droplets from the infected persons nose and throat SYMPTOMS? Pain/soreness in the jaw/neck Swelling of the salivary glands (under the jaw) May cause permanent loss of hearing May cause inflammation of the testicles Can cause sterility in men. 1 in 10 people with mumps can get meningitis. Today, most outbreaks occur in adolescents/young adults.

14 R U B E L L A WHAT IS IT? A mild viral disease, except during pregnancy when there is a high risk to the unborn fetus HOW DO YOU GET IT? Direct contact with droplets from the infected persons nose and throat SYMPTOMS? Rash of small pink spots all over the body Fever/sore achy joints Swollen lymph nodes in the back of the neck If a women develops rubella during pregnancy the baby has a high risk of being born deformed The risk to the fetus is highest during the first trimester (first three months) when many women may be unaware that they are pregnant. If infection occurs during the first 16 weeks of pregnancy, the women has a 40 to 60 percent chance of having a miscarriage or baby born with birth defects such as heart end eye defects and deafness. (Congenital Rubella Syndrome) When a woman gets Rubella within the first 20 week of pregnancy, there is a >80% chance that she will miscarry or the baby will be born with a serious disability.

15 H E P A T I T I S B WHAT IS IT? A viral disease that infects the liver
HOW DO YOU GET IT? Transmitted through blood and body fluids Sharing personal items (i.e. razors, toothbrushes) Using non-sterile needles when getting a tattoo or body piercing Sharing needles when injecting drugs, steroids etc. SYMPTOMS? Jaundice (yellowing of the skin) Abdominal pain Nausea & Vomiting Liver Cancer The vaccine does not contain any blood products or live viruses. It is not spread by coughing, sneezing, hugging or using the same dishes or cutlery. Hepatitis B is a disease that infects the liver. The liver acts as a “filter” and if you have problems with your filter it can result in a lifetime of health problems. The risk of disease significantly increases after the age of 15 years. World Stats - More than 2 billion individuals alive today have been infected with the Hepatitis B virus. It is 100 times more infectious than HIV. 1 person out of 100 can die from the disease. Carriers may be symptom free and spread the disease without knowing it. Explain why three doses of vaccine are required. Differentiate between the three types of Hepatitis (i.e., Hepatitis A, B and C). If they ask about “body fluids”. Sexual contact with an infected person. Contact with the blood, semen, vaginal secretions or saliva with blood. An infected mother can pass Hepatitis to her baby through her blood. Required for entry into medical professions, dentistry, paramedics, firefighters, for travel. What happens if I get Hep. B? 1% die within weeks of infection. 9% carry virus forever and may infect others. Half die eventually of liver cancer or cirrhosis. 90% recover by may be ill for weeks or hospitalized. Almost everyone develops antibodies to fight the virus. Some don’t, and very few don’t survive the first attack. How can I get it? You can get Hepatitis B from: 1. Contact with the blood, semen, vaginal secretions or saliva with blood of an infected person or items contaminated by these body fluids. 2. Sharing razors, toothbrushes or needles. 3. Sexual contact with an infected person. 4. An infected mother can pass Hepatitis B to her baby through the blood. 5. Using not-sterile needles when getting a tattoo or body piercing. 5-10% of cases become chronic carriers and can spread Hepatitis B without knowing it. DEATH RATE Each year, approximately 1,000,000 people worldwide, die from the Hepatitis B virus.

16 1 out of 10 people who get Polio die from the disease
WHAT IS IT? A viral infection. HOW DO YOU GET IT? From throat secretions and through contaminated feces SYMPTOMS? Fever Headache Stiffness of the back Paralysis may occur May be interesting to ask how many grandparents/great grandparents had polio. WHO (World Health Organization) is attempting to eradicate polio as smallpox has been eradicated. People would be quarantined and a sign put up on their house and they were not allowed to leave. Until the 1950’s, polio crippled thousands of children every year. ,755 cases in Canada ,878 cases in Canada SALK Vaccine Licensed ,021cases in Canada cases in Canada Sabin Vaccine Licensed cases in Canada Some people that had polio in the 50’s and had recovered are finding their symptoms coming back - post polio syndrome. THE IMMUNE RESPONSE The Immune System is made up of white blood cells. It is their job to identify and destroy substances that are not part of the human body and can cause disease. These substances could be bacteria, viruses or in some cases, cells that have changed in our body such as cancer cells. These white blood cells fall into three groups. The phagocytes or “cell eaters” are one group and macrophages make up part of that group. The other two groups are the T cells and the B cells. Both of these cells are lymphocytes. All of the white blood cells start out or are born in the bone marrow. When a virus enters the body, macrophages are sent out to engulf it. The macrophage then displays information from that virus on its surface. This is a signal for the T and B cells to multiply and fight the infection. Once there is an increase in B cells and the T cells signal them to start producing “Antibodies”. Antibodies are made in the spleen or lymph nodes. They are T and B cells that are made to target a specific invader and can be rushed to the infection site where in can neutralize the invading bacteria or virus. These are also called memory T or B cells and can circulate in the blood or remain in the lymph nodes for years, ready to move quickly should the same virus or bacteria invade the body again. It is the memory T and B cells that we are trying to produce in the body when we give the vaccination. DEATH RATE 1 out of 10 people who get Polio die from the disease

17 Varicella (Chicken Pox)
WHAT IS IT? Common childhood disease caused by the Varicella virus. However, a number of people can develop further complications. HOW DO YOU GET IT? Easily spread from person to person through the air or direct contact with fluid from the blisters. It can be spread before the rash appears. WHAT HAPPENS? Infected blisters can leave scars. Can lead to pneumonia or problems with other organs (i.e. brain, liver, heart) DEATH RATE Chicken pox causes an average of 5.8 deaths per year in Canada. Over 90% of deaths occurred in previously healthy persons.

18 What to expect after vaccination…
P O S S I B L E S I D E E F F E C T S Slight fever, decreased energy, headache, or general body ache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness Some redness, swelling or tenderness at the needle site, lasting up to 48 hours C O M F O R T M E A S U R E S Drink LOTS of FLUIDS and get some extra rest if you develop side effects The more you MOVE your arm, the sooner it feels better! Does NOT preclude any physical activities, i.e., swimming, hockey, gymnastics, soccer You may use Tylenol for fever or discomfort Apply a cold cloth to the injection site Move your arm frequently to relieve stiffness

Discuss any questions or concerns with the vaccinating nurse. Wear a short sleeved shirt. Eat breakfast or at least have a glass of 100% fruit juice before you come to school. A team of Nurses will come to the school. Your nurse will ask you some questions prior to your vaccination: Any allergies, previous reactions you’ve experienced with vaccinations, health status that day- sick? fever? Stress the importance of BREAKFAST!!! If the school will provide juice/snack for vaccine day, it helps the students who do not have breakfast Stress the importance of RELAXING THE ARM MUSCLE to minimize the pain of injection (1’’ needle). ***Use a student to DEMONSTRATE the site and explain how to RELAX THE DELTOID MUSCLE*** (Breathe in & drop your shoulder) Reinforce that each student receives a sterile disposable needle If the student wants to receive the vaccine but is extremely nervous, encourage him/her to see the school nurse ad discuss OPTIONS

20 CONSENT The consent: will indicate which vaccinations you require
must be signed by parent or guardian must be returned as soon as possible to your TA or Home Room Teacher Discuss who should not get the vaccine (Those who have received a TETANUS vaccine in the last five years, or those presenting with an acute febrile illness (those who might be or are pregnant). Stress the IMPORTANCE of vaccination and the RESPONSIBILITY of getting vaccinated not just for the person but FOR EVERYONE. Give a short deadline for return of consents. If you are able to offer rewards, this will usually increase the return rate. Discuss the importance of informed consent. Include a sample of consent The lack of a returned consent results in a telephone call to the parent. **** If you are not receiving the vaccine you must still return the consent WITH SIGNATURE indicating the REASON FOR REFUSAL.******* This also lets the nurse know that you and your parent have received the vaccination information.

21 THANK YOU T H A N K Y O U I know needles can be a little scary for some of you, but remember, getting a vaccination is faster than putting on your socks! …AND it gives you a BOOST of PROTECTION! School Nurses are your link to wellness : ) If you have any questions, just ask myself (Sheree) or Angie (your School Nurse). Edited by: Amy Beck, Carla Ferreira, Carrie Sauve (Public Health Nurses from Village Square Community Health Centre)

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