Presentation on theme: "Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) It is the first month of the Islamic calendar. Instead of joyous celebration, Muslims mark."— Presentation transcript:
Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) It is the first month of the Islamic calendar. Instead of joyous celebration, Muslims mark the beginning of the New Year by taking up the black attire of sorrow and participate in mourning gatherings in which the sacrifices of Imam Husayn (P) and his companions are commemorated. It is one of the four months of the year in which fighting is prohibited. Since the Islamic calendar is lunar, Muharram moves from year to year when compared with the Gregorian calendar.ArabicIslamic calendarHusaynIslamic Gregorian calendar
Muharram is so called because it was unlawful to fight during this month; the word is derived from the word haram meaning forbidden. It is held to be the most sacred of all the months, excluding Ramadan.It is the same month when Husein, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, was brutally massacred in Karbala alongside his family and friends in the year 680 CE/61 AH. This was the biggest terrorist attack against ISLAM, HUMANITY & JUSTICERamadanKarbala
Their martyrdom of all is a sad day for all Muslims, especially the Shia, who hold mourning ceremonies to recall the righteous virtues for which the valiant martyrs stood and the grave calamities that they thus had to bear. The commemoration of this brutal massacre (Battle of Karbala) begins on the first day of Muharram and reaches its climax on the 10th of Muharram, the day of the battle, known as Ashurah and continues for 40 days or 69 days.Muharram Ashurah
Ashura ( عاشوراء transliteration: Āshūrā, Ashura, Ashoura, and other spellings). It is also called Yaumu-l Ashurah (Day of Ashura), or simply Ashura meaning, The Tenth Day Normally a public holiday is declared for this day. It is the 10 th day of Muharram in Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram as it is on this day, the Battle of Kerbala was fought and I.Husein (P), the grandson of the H.Prophet Muhammad (P), was brutally massacred in Karbala alongside his family and friendsIslamic calendarKarbala
It is well-known because of historical significance and mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala in the year 61 AH (AD 680). It is a day of speeches, public processions, and great grief. Men and women chant and weep, mourning Husayn, his family, and his followers. Speeches emphasize the importance of the values for which Husayn sacrificed himself, his family, and his followers. For centuries Shia pilgrims flocked here during Muharram, a practice which was severely limited under the regime of Saddam HusseinmartyrdomHusayn ibn AliIslamic prophetMuhammad Battle of KarbalaAHAD 680
Karbala (Arabic: كربلاء ; BGN: Al-Karbalā; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km (60 mi) southwest of Baghdad at 32.61°N, 44.08°E. IraqBaghdad In the time of Husayn ibn Alis life, the place was also known as al-Ghadiriyah, Naynawa, and Shathiul- Furaat.The citys association with Shī ˤ a Islām have made it a centre of religious instruction as well as worship; it has more than 100 mosques and 23 religious schools, of which possibly the most famous is that of Ibn Fahid, constructed some 440 years ago.Husayn ibn Ali
Karbalas prominence in Shī ˤ ī is the result of the Battle of Karbala, fought on the site of the modern city on October 10, 680.Both Husayn and his half-brother ˤ Abbās ibn ˤ Alī were buried by the local Banī Asad tribe at what later became known as the Mashhad Al-Husayn. Later on city grew up around the tombs. Husayns tomb (View Larger Map) is a place of pilgrimage for many Shī ˤ a Muslims, especially on the anniversary of the battle, the Day of ĀshūrāView Larger Map
Battle of Karbala (Truth V/s Falsehood) DateOctober 10October 10, 680 (Muharram 10, 61 AH) LocationKarbalaKarbala, The battlefield was a desert region located beside one of the branches of the Euphrates River, landscape about 100 kilometers south of the Iraqi capital Baghdad,Euphrates River ReasonYazid l.a demanded allegiance from Husain – he knew too well that the acceptance of the entire Muslim community was of no value without Hussains acceptance. In reply to this unacceptable demand, Hussain majestically replied: a person like me can never pledge allegiance to a person like him, thereby highlighting the universality of the principles from which his stand stemmed from. Hussain rose to restore freedom, peace, equality and justice; qualities which the Divine Message had perfected but were constantly undermined by those who hijacked religion and acted in its name. In a will which he wrote before leaving Medina, Hussain wrote; I have risen as I seek to reform the community of my grandfather. I wish to bid the good and forbid the evil.
ResultVICTORY OF TRUTH The tyrant dies and his rule ends, the martyr dies and his rule begins. Soren Kierkegard UmayyadUmayyad military gain victory physically but with in 3 years Yazid died and after a few decades the rule of Banu Umayya crumbled and came to an end. Being such a big king (of that time) there is no mark of his grave & not a single follower. Husayn ibn AliHusayn ibn Ali is still alive in the hearts of Humanity millions of devotees who pay homage to them and renew, through their message, their eternal struggle against humiliation and oppression by visiting the Imam Hussein Shrine regularly & especially in Muharram on the Day of Ashura, the anniversary of Husayn ibn Alis death. Imam Hussein ShrineDay of Ashura You can check out this right away from live link The best lesson which we get from the tragedy of Karbala is that Hussayn and his Companions were the rigid believers of God. They illustrated that numerical superiority does not count when it comes to truth and falsehood. The victory of Hussayn despite his minority marvels me. Thomas Carlye
Combatants Husayn ibn AliHusayn ibn Ali (The Grandson of the Last prophet Mohammad [P.B.U.H]) Yazid ibn Muawiya (la)He was not physically present in the battle as he send the troops under the command of Umar ibn SaadUmar ibn Saad Commanders Abbas ibn AliUmar ibn Saad Strength Hussein ibn Alis group consisted of notable members of Muhammads close relatives, around 72 men (Which were 18 family members and 54 supporters including a 6 month old baby and elderly persons) and their womens and childrens On the other side were the armed forces of Yazid I, about ,000+ men led by Umar ibn Saad. Yazid IUmar ibn Saad Casualties 123 (72 Men and 51 children) (according to Shia tradition)
Duration Despite the figures of 72 men against thousands, it is recorded that the battle went on from dawn to dusk. Just Imagine the courage that 72 stood in front of thousands for such a long time. Summary It intrigues historians that Hurr, one of the highest ranked commanders of Yazids army, who was the man responsible for stopping Hussein at Karbala, left the overwhelming force of thousands of soldiers and joined Hussein with his son and a slave.At the 10th of Muharram he died by Husains side in the battle killing 41 soldiers. Hurr According to Arab culture, anyone accompanying women and children with him is a sign of peace. It was here that Hussain, his family and Shia (Partisans) were confronted by the army of Yazeed. Hussain refused to pledge allegiance to the tyrant and Yazeed declared war on him.
Hussain was forced to battle the army of Yazeed, but not before the army had cut off their food and water supply for three days. For three whole days and nights, enduring temperatures around 55°C without food or water, the males of the camp, totaling 72 (including the elderly and children) fought valiantly and were all brutally slaughtered Hussain was forced to witness the savage mutilation of Abbas – his brother, the callous murder of his nephew Qasim, the torture and execution of his innocent son Ali Akbar and finally the depraved murder of his six month old baby boy – Ali Asghar. Left alone finally Hussain was also attacked, his body was showered with arrows, his head was severed and the hooves of the horses of Yazeeds cavalry trampled on his body. Husain and their supporters were decapitated; their bodies were mutilated and trampled by horses.
The aftermath of the battle led to the humiliation of the women of Hussains camp. Their tents were looted and burnt, leaving the women to the mercy of Yazeeds soldiers. The aggrieved children who had lost their fathers were beaten. The captives were made to travel from Karbala to Syria – Damascus, a journey of approximately 750 miles. Their Headscarves were snatched off and they were made to trek barefoot, chained, shackled, and taken on camels without saddles, due to which many of the children fell off the camels and the women were not allowed to even stop and help their children. The graves of these children can still be seen in the desert between Karbala and Kufa. Distance between Medina and Karbala about 1,100 miles. Distance between Ibn Ziyad in Kufa & Yazid in Damascus about 750 miles. Average travel by camel per day: miles.
The heads of all the males including that of Hussains six - month old son were impaled on spikes (as war trophies) and paraded through the streets. On arriving at Damascus, they were paraded in the town, for all to see and shun. A barrage of stones, rubbish and verbal abuse bombarded them. They were kept in prison for over a year It is to be noted that people who did this with the family of Mohammad were themselves Muslims. The insidious whisper comes: Truth after all can never die.
The battle of Karbala finds great similarity with the one at Badr – Islams first battle. It was the holy Prophet [PBUH] at Badr who fought with 313 die-hard supporters against a formidable army of some 1000 men. That day against all odds the small group won a decisive victory, and paved the way for a future Muslim empire. 56 years later it was his grandson with just 72 loyal men, who fought against an impossible opposition of several thousands to save Islam from the clutches of tyranny. Karbala was a battle of truth against falsehood, humanity against villainy, righteousness against evil, justice against corruption. The much loved grandson of the Prophet [PBUH] stood in the scorching heat of Karbala along with his companions, devoid of water but determined. His loved ones, including his six month old son, fell martyr one after the other. In spite of this he repeatedly invited the other party towards righteousness and forbade them from evil and immorality, but it all fell on deaf ears. When the time arrived for him to march ahead all alone, he did it in a fashion which was reminiscent of his illustrious father Ali
Husain fell in the desert of Karbala on that fateful Friday, the 10th of Moharram 61H. Worse was to follow. The bodies of the martyrs including the Imam were not only refused a proper burial but were trampled under the horses hooves and were left for the birds. The Kufan army looted the belongings of Husain. Imams family including his women-folk and tender children were humiliated and taken captives after burning down their camps. The women were paraded with uncovered heads. It wasnt ISLAM!!! If Hussain fought to quench his worldly desires, then I do not understand why his sisters, wives and children accompanied him. It stands to reason therefore that he sacrificed purely for Islam. Charles Dickens The severed heads of the martyrs including Husain were raised on spears. How Yazid played with Husains head and the emotions of Imams family is a well documented fact. Karbala to this day remains a heart-wrenching story of exemplary courage and bravery to uphold the real principles of Islam. In a distant age and climate, the tragic scene of the death of Husain will awaken the sympathy of the coldest reader. Edward Gibbon
Check out Movies on KarbalaMovies on Karbala For more details on this Subject refer to below links 1.What is Muharram ?What is Muharram ? 2.Lesson from Kerbala 1Lesson from Kerbala 1 3.Lessons from Kerbala 2Lessons from Kerbala 2 4.Lessons from Kerbala 3Lessons from Kerbala 3 5.Ashura, an eternal saga of conviction and courageAshura, an eternal saga of conviction and courage 6.Hussein (A): The End of a Tragedy or the Beginning of an Uprising?Hussein (A): The End of a Tragedy or the Beginning of an Uprising?