Presentation on theme: "Ecstasy: and its prevalence among 18-25 year olds."— Presentation transcript:
Ecstasy: and its prevalence among 18-25 year olds
Dosage and Pills Doses range from 50-250mg but are most commonly taken between 100-150mg Drastic profit margin ( about 25 cents to create pill and sells for up to $40 ) However, often other substances get mixed with the MDMA while creating the pills such as ketamine and ephedrine One study showed that 36% of confiscated MDMA pills actually contained no traces of the MDMA itself
Background Information The FDA classified MDMA ( 3,4-methylenodioxy- methamphetamine ) as a Schedule I compound, making it illegal, in 1985 Ever since the 1990s it has become a global threat and has proven to be the most popular club drug in both the United States and Europe The NIDA ( National Institute on Drug Abuse ) has recorded its use to be growing exponentially at alarming rates in 18-25 year olds.
Under the Influence At 20 minutes after consuming the drug, the participant begins to feel a rush of increased activation and arousal. Physically, their heart rate, papillary diameter, oral temperature, and blood pressure will increase During the climax at around 3-4 hours, one would feel a heightened sense of awareness, a sense of euphoria, tranquility, perception alteration, increased sociability, and an intense sense of empathy towards others.
Physical Effects MDMA affects the serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and acetylcholine receptors, as well as the serotonin and dopamine transporters Neurodegeneration of serotonin binding sites correlates with repeated use, however, studies have revealed it can occur after taking MDMA only once Other common effects include nausea, blurred vision, palpitations, sweating, dry mouth, muscular tension, motor restlesness, and impaired sexual performance
Cognitive Effects Common effects are anxiety, agitation, depersonalization, flight of ideas At high doses, when the drug is being metabolized, effects such as panic attacks, hallucinations, and brief psychosis can occur When someone is coming down from the drug they may experience a sense of apathy, anhedonia, fatigue, depression, insomnia, and a reduced appetite.
Severe Cases Hyperthermia – elevated body temperature ( usually caused by extrinisic effects, e.g. dancing ) Hepatotoxicity – chemical-driven liver damage Cardiac arrythmias – disruption of hearts normal rhythmn Seizures Rhabdomyolysis – rapid breakdown of skeletal muscle Death These severe cases are usually caused by a condition known as serotonin syndrome, which is the dramatic increase of serotonin in the CNS
Severe Cases (contd) Due to the extrinsic effects usually experienced while taking ecstasy (raves/clubs) people try to compensate for the heat and consume too much water This results in: Cerebral Edema - an excess accumulation of water in the intracellular and/or extracellular spaces of the brain Hyponatremia - metabolic condition in which there is not enough sodium (salt) in the body fluids outside the cells.
Lasting Effects Further neurodegeneration of serotonin receptors Lack of serotonin in cerebrospinal fluid - Because of this users further experienced feelings of depression, compulsion, impulsivity, novelty-seeking behaviors, and a reduction of sleep, appetite, and libido Extrinsic difficulties included financial loss, interpersonal difficulties, and impaired occupational functioning
Conclusive Evidence While the high of the drug is pretty climactic with intense euphoria, empathy towards other and increased sexual desire, coming off the drug is a polar opposite resulting in paranoia, detachment, and brief psychosis Because of its popularity among 18-25 year olds, ecstasy can become a gateway drug to more harmful drugs later in life
Age at Onset of Other Drug Use Compared With Age at Onset of Ecstasy Use (in Percentages) Drug Younger Same age Older Alcohol 94.81 3.26 1.93 Marijuana 88.31 6.49 5.20 LSD 37.35 17.41 45.24 Cocaine 35.92 12.39 51.69 Crack 8.74 3.11 88.15 Heroin 4.51 2.86 92.63 Inhalants 34.41 7.65 57.94 Stimulants 24.67 8.63 67.00