2What is Profit & Loss all about? The profit and loss account is actually 3 different things all rolled into one! The names of these 3 sections are:Trading AccountProfit and Loss AccountAppropriation Account
3To keep things simple, the Profit & Loss Account looks at all of the things that you have bought and sold across a year and takes away all of the costs you had to pay during that year.
4If you make more money than you have to pay out you are in profit if you pay out more than you make then you are in loss.
5Ok so what is a Trading Account? The Trading Account is used to calculate the amount of GROSS PROFIT that a business makes.
6let’s show you what this actually means using Sidney the Dodgy Salesman to help us out. I have made £35,000 in sales during this year.Sidney has enjoyed a good year but we now need to work out how much these items cost him to buy to help us calculate his profit.
7Remember that this is Sidney’s Sales Revenue and it is NOT his profit!
8OPENING STOCKAt the start of the year, Sidney’s warehouse was almost empty. He only had £1,000 worth of goods left.
9Blimey I need to buy more stock and quickly! PURCHASESSidney bought £12,000 worth of new goods during the year which he intended to sell to the general public.
11CLOSING STOCKAt the end of the year I have got only £2,000 worth of stock left in my warehouse.Closing stock is the value of the stock left in the business at the end of the year. It is the amount of stock that is UNSOLD!
12COST OF GOODS SOLD IMPORTANT FORMULA OPENING STOCK + PURCHASES The Cost of Goods Sold figure helps us to work out how much money Sidney has made from the buying and selling of stock during the year.IMPORTANT FORMULAOPENING STOCK+ PURCHASES- CLOSING STOCK= COST OF GOODS SOLD
13Do you think that I made a profit this year? Well we can help Sidney to find out by taking away the Cost of Goods Sold from Sales Revenue. This tells us how much Gross Profit (or loss) was made.
14Bob the Blob’s Question Time Can you work out Sidney’s Cost of Goods Sold?What was Sidney’s Gross Profit figure for this year?
15Well did you get the right answers? You should have got the following answers:COST OF GOODS SOLDOpening Stock = £1, Purchases = £12, Closing Stock =£2,000 = £11,000Cost of Goods Sold = £11,000GROSS PROFITSidney had Sales Revenue of £35,000.We take away the Cost of Goods Sold =£11,000This means £35,000 - £11,000 = £24,000Gross Profit = £24,000
16Bob the Blob’s Question Time Explain TWO ways in which Sidney could have increased his levels of Gross Profit?(Hint. Think about changing his suppliers and maybe changing the prices he charges his customers!)Write down the correct formula for calculating Gross ProfitSales revenue – cost of goods soldWrite down the correct formula for calculating Cost of Goods SoldOpening stock + purchases – closing stock = cost of goods sold
17THE PROFIT & LOSS ACCOUNT Ok so what is the Profit and Loss Account all about?THE PROFIT & LOSS ACCOUNT
18Ahh actually sorry Sidney but you do not have £24,000 to spend. Cool I’m rich I’ve got £24,000 of profit to spend!Ahh actually sorry Sidney but you do not have £24,000 to spend.This figure is only your GROSS PROFIT figure....we still need to take away all of Sidney’s expenses.
19Can you think of what some of these expenses might be?
20Hmm what exactly are expenses? Well expenses are extra costs that you have to pay for things that help you to operate as a business.
21I had to pay my electric and gas bills, staff wages, rent for the warehouse and van hire. So you see when we add all of these extra expenses together they suddenly bring down the amount of profit that Sidney earned.
22We take away all of the expenses from his Gross Profit to work out his OPERATING PROFIT. OPERATING PROFIT = GROSS PROFIT – TOTAL EXPENSES
23Work out Sidney’s Operating Profit using these figures. Electricity Bill = £1,500 Gas Bill = £1,450Telephone Bill = £325 Petrol for Van = £500Gross Profit = £24,000 Rent of Warehouse = £5,500
24OPERATING PROFIT = £14,725Did you remember to show ALL of your working out!
25Right so I’ve made £14,725. Can I spend all of this? NET PROFITUnfortunately not Sidney.....you still owe money to the bank and the Government in the form of Taxes!
26You always pay the Banks back first! You owe the bank £2,500 in interest payments on your loan.You always pay the Banks back first!
27Sole Traders & Partnerships pay Income Tax And you owe the Government £3,000 in tax please!Sole Traders & Partnerships pay Income TaxCompanies pay Corporation Tax
28Operating Profit = £14725 Interest Charges = £2,500 Tax Bill = £3,000 Can you work out Sidney’s Net Profit using these figures?Operating Profit = £14725Interest Charges = £2,500Tax Bill = £3,000NET PROFIT =£9,225
29What is the name of the tax that Sole Traders and Partnerships must pay upon their profits? Answer: Income taxWhat is taken away from Operating Profit first: Interest or Taxes?Answer: interest
30Ok I’ve made £9,225 Net Profit can I spend this now? YES!!!! Once you have taken away interest and tax payments, what is left as Net Profit is entirely your own money to spend as you want to.
31I’m going to save £2,000, and take out £7,225 as my wages (called DRAWINGS). When a business saves some money this is called RETAINED PROFIT. This can be used for future investment and means that they will need to borrow LESS from a bank! If Sidney was a company he might have to pay DIVIDENDS
32APPROPRIATION ACCOUNT The Appropriation Account is the final section that we need to learn. This shows us what Sidney decided to do with his £9,225 of Net Profit.
33What does a proper Trading, Profit & Loss Account look like?