Presentation on theme: "The Babys First Year Physical Development. Learning Targets I can…. –Identify the most important milestones of growth & development during a babys first."— Presentation transcript:
The Babys First Year Physical Development
Learning Targets I can…. –Identify the most important milestones of growth & development during a babys first year –Describe the structure of the brain & how it works –Describe methods for handling & feeding an infant –Indentify other skills involved in meeting an infants physical needs
As a Table… You are to sketch a outline of a typical baby at birth and at one year. Compare and discuss your sketches with the table next to you Read the story on page 249 about Jason and Brett. While reading, identify Jasons needs that Brett is meeting??
Growth & Development Development – sequence (step-by-step) Three basic patterns –Head to Foot Begins long before birth Babys head takes lead in development Head – arms & hands – legs & feet –Near to Far Starts close to body & moves outward Waves arms, hand – finger control –Simple to Complex Large muscle – small muscle Torso – upper body
Influences on Growth & Development Typically, babies follow the same pattern, they do so at their own rate Terms are used interchangeably, but they are not the same thing Growth – changes in size, weight & length Development – increases & changes in physical, social or intellectual skills
Influences on Growth & Development Both heredity (nature) & environment (nurture) Developmental milestone – a key skill used to check a childs progress
Growth & Development during the 1 st year Typically triple birth weight Usually increase length by about 50% Growth chart – shows the average weight & height of boys & girls at various ages –Few match –remember they grow at own rate –Dr. watches for a steady pattern of growth
Weight Weight gains – one of the best signs of good health Most lose about 10% of their birth weight in the first five days After they begin to gain weight rapidly 1 st 6 months = gain 1 – 2 lbs/month 2 nd 6 months = 1 lb Average weight 1 year old = 20 – 22 lbs Boys typically weight more than girls
Length Length rather than height b/c they are measured lying down Steadily grow in length due to bone growth is rapid Average newborn – 20 in – 30 Heredity – strong influence Boys slightly longer than girls
Body Shape Tend to hold themselves in a tightly curled position w/fist clenched, legs bent, & feet curved inward Head may have a elongated shape (child birth) Arms & legs skinny Abdomen – large Umbilical cord stump – dries up & drops off in 3 weeks revealing navel Legs & feet straighten out 6 months
Proportion Refers to the size relationship between the parts of the body Compared to body – head & abdomen – large Legs & arms – short and small Babys head grows rapidly to accommodate (make room for) the swiftly developing brain skull – spaces called fontanels
Sight/Vision Improves rapidly, 1 st blurry Within week – focus on objects that are in away –1 mo. – three feet –6 mos – eyesight reaches the clarity & sharpness of the adult level At 1 st, babies see world in 2 dimensions Depth perception – ability to perceive objects that are three- dimensional 2 nd mo Patterns & colors High contrast –alternating stripes, bulls eye or faces –Color red or blue Hand-eye coordination – ability to move their hands & fingers precisely in relation to what is seen –Reach for objects 3 mo – important milestone
On a Sheet of Paper.. Draw what would be best for an infant
QUESTIONS??? By age 1, infants _____________ their weight. By age 1, infants increase their length by __________. Describe the body shape of an infant. What is a developmental milestone? What do infants like to look at? Dont forget about your mobiles on Monday
Hearing Develops before birth Full term baby – tell general direction Newborns respond to tone of voice, not words 7 mos – recognize parents & caregivers by voice Language development begins with hearing words first, then imitating – understanding Premature & infections = hearing problems – language development delay
Smell & Taste Surrounded by amniotic fluid before arrival – sense of smell does not develop until after birth Develops quickly –10 days – know mommy by smell Taste – quickly –2 weeks – can taste the difference –Learn by using their mouths –Put everything in there!! Clean, not sharp, not too small
Reading!!!! Little Developing Child Book Page 255 – 257 Complete Questions 1-7 on page 257 Big Developing Child Book Page Complete Questions 1-7 page 237
Complete Worksheet Quiz in on the table Both worksheets will go into your notebook After the worksheet we will go over the answers to quiz 8.1 We will go over the answers to quiz 8.3 tomorrow!
Handling & Feeding Infants I can… –Explain how to hold and feed a baby –Identify an infants nutritional needs
Handling a Baby Infants need to be moved & held for different reasons Remember when you hold an infant, you have the chance to strengthen your bond & to help the baby feel secure & happy!!! Require greatest care – neck muscles cannot support their head Must keep your hand/arm under neck & head at all times.
Lifting a Newborn Slide one hand under the babys buttocks and the other under the shoulders & head. Use your forearm to support the neck & head as you raise your hands together to lift the new born.
Holding a newborn in your arm Hold the baby upright, cradled in the curve of your arm. Your arms supports the babys head & neck, and you can easily maintain eye contact w/the baby
Holding a newborn against your chest Hold the baby against your chest, so that the baby faces – or peeks over – your shoulder. Use your hand to support the babys neck & hand.
Questions Name the 3 patterns of physical development Define: –Hand-eye coordination –Depth perception Never __________ a baby. True or false: Brain developments begins at birth True or false: Weight is most influenced by heredity
Putting a Newborn Down Continue to support both the neck and head and the body. Bend over, keeping the baby close to your body until the babys body is resting on a surface that can support his or her body. Then remove your arms.
Gentle Handling Never shake or jiggle Thousands of babies each year suffer from shaken baby syndrome - caused when someone severely shakes the baby (stop crying) Damage to brain, learning problems, mental retardation, blindness, deafness, death
When a baby cries = frustration Put the baby down in safe place – go to a different room – calm down before returning Ask friend/relative to take care of the baby Take deep breaths – look at the window Call someone and talk about problem until you calm down
Feeding a Baby More than physical nourishment Contact w/others Learn more about the world
Feeding Schedules Newborns feeding & sleeping schedule unpredictable at first –Newborns need to eat as much as they want & as often Feedings are necessary b/c a newborns stomach can hold only small amounts Breast fed babies eat more often 2 nd – 3rd month – regular pattern emerges About 12 lbs – babies can sleep thru night
Feeding Methods 1 st year – breast milk or formula Not cows milk – too hard for them to digest, contains minerals their kidneys cannot process Formula w/cows milk acceptable
Feeding from the Bottle Hold the baby close in a semi-upright position Neck & head supported Head well above the stomach Hold bottle at angle –Baby can suck comfortably & less air Warm bottle – not necessary Warm it – place in pan of water on stove until lukewarm
Feeding Check temperature on wrist – lukewarm Never heat in the microwave Formula left in bottle – throw it away Bacteria can grow quickly Feeding bottle should be sterilized Never lead a bottle propped up so baby drinks alone Healthy babies usually eat the amount they need
Burping the Baby No matter the method, burp the baby as least twice – once during feeding & once when the feeding is over Breast feeding – burp during the switch from one breast to the other Why must you burp the baby? –They swallow air along with the liquid Discomfort –Dont be surprise if the baby doesnt burp
Small Group Activity (Group of 2) You are to prepare a cartoon strip titled Things to Do When Bottle-Feeding Your Baby Content of strip –How to prepare formula –How to hold the baby during feeding –How & why to burp the baby –Be creative!!
Introducing New Foods Around 6 months other foods will be added Pediatrician will recommend when to introduce solid foods Most babies = no rush Choose a time when baby is happy, content and well
Introducing New Foods B/c the food the unfamiliar – spit back the first spoonfuls Introduce it later or combine it with a favorite PATIENCE
Introducing New Foods Tips Hold baby in an upright position If baby is used to lukewarm formula – heat solid foods to lukewarm –NEVER use the microwave Be prepared for messy feedings Cereal – running, dilute with formula or breast milk – NEVER put in bottle = choke Do not feed baby from the jar. (Bacteria) Put small amount in bowl and refrigerate leftover immediately
Read page 273 – Ask the Expert Answer questions 1 & 2 At your table, decide on ways to prepare homemade baby food. Be prepared to share group findings.
Think about.. Your reactions to food (cereals, vegetables, fruits) Do you think babies would have the same response??? Why or why not? List types of fruits and vegetables that could be mashed and served as one of a babys first solid foods
Weaning Changing from drinking from the bottle or breast to a drinking from a cup Important sign of the babys increasing independence No precise age, 9 months – common Usually baby will show signs –Playing or looking around, pushing away, likes to eat from a spoon Do not force – other feeding & behavior problems
Self-feeding Sit up steadily (8 – 10 months) baby will show signs –eat with fingers & reach for spoon 1 st – fun more baby, but not much eating will take place you – help out – separate spoons, placing food in babys mouth PATIENCE & humor Encourage
What do you think Mashed bananas Hot dogs Grapes Peanuts Small cereal pieces Which foods do you think are appropriate for a baby to self feed
Nutritional Concerns Your responsibility = making sure babys nutritional needs are being met Problems = too much food, too little food or the wrong kinds of foods
Overfeeding As they gain weight – they may look fat Most will slim down by age three Bottle fed more likely to be overfed Worried talk to pediatrician Healthy eating habits – established early in life Small nutritious foods – smaller portions MyPlate
Inadequate Nutrition Infants = very specific nutritional needs Enough calories = rapid growth Nutrient rich foods Food that is easy to digest Adequate amounts of liquid
What are some causes of inadequate nutrition?
Inadequate Nutrition Can cause lasting physical problems Linked to poor brain development & learning problems Many government & community programs help to eliminate malnutrion WIC – Women, Infants & Children program
Do you know the signs Growth = below average Nervous or irritable behavior Wounds that are slow to heal Hair = thin, dull, lifeless, easy to pull out Swollen eyelids Poor posture Poor coordination Diarrhea
Tomorrow You are to research commercial baby food.