2Learning Targets I can…. Identify the most important milestones of growth & development during a baby’s first yearDescribe the structure of the brain & how it worksDescribe methods for handling & feeding an infantIndentify other skills involved in meeting aninfants physical needs
3As a Table…You are to sketch a outline of a “typical” baby at birth and at one year.Compare and discuss your sketches with the table next to youRead the story on page 249 about Jason and Brett.While reading, identify Jason’s needsthat Brett is meeting??
4Growth & Development Development – sequence (step-by-step) Three basic patternsHead to FootBegins long before birthBaby’s head takes lead in developmentHead – arms & hands – legs & feetNear to FarStarts close to body & moves outwardWaves arms, hand – finger controlSimple to ComplexLarge muscle – small muscleTorso – upper body
5Influences on Growth & Development Typically, babies follow the same pattern, they do so at their own rateTerms are used interchangeably, but they are not the same thingGrowth – changes in size, weight & lengthDevelopment – increases & changes in physical, social or intellectual skills
6Influences on Growth & Development Both heredity (nature) & environment (nurture)Developmental milestone – a key skill used to check a child’s progress
7Growth & Development during the 1st year Typically triple birth weightUsually increase length by about 50%Growth chart – shows the average weight & height of boys & girls at various agesFew match –remember they grow at own rateDr. watches for a steady pattern of growth
8Weight Weight gains – one of the best signs of good health Most lose about 10% of their birth weight in the first five daysAfter they begin to gain weight rapidly1st 6 months = gain 1 – 2 lbs/month2nd 6 months = 1 lbAverage weight 1 year old = 20 – 22 lbsBoys typically weight more than girls
9Length Length rather than height b/c they are measured lying down Steadily grow in length due to bone growth is rapidAverage newborn – 20 in” – 30”Heredity – strong influenceBoys slightly longer than girls
10Body ShapeTend to hold themselves in a tightly curled position w/fist clenched, legs bent, & feet curved inwardHead may have a elongated shape (child birth)Arms & legs skinnyAbdomen – largeUmbilical cord stump – dries up & drops off in 3 weeks revealing navelLegs & feet straighten out 6 months
11ProportionRefers to the size relationship between the parts of the bodyCompared to body – head & abdomen – largeLegs & arms – short and smallBaby’s head grows rapidly to accommodate (make room for) the swiftly developing brainskull – spaces called “fontanels”
12Sight/Vision Patterns & colors High contrast –alternating stripes, bull’s eye or facesColor red or blueHand-eye coordination – ability to move their hands & fingers precisely in relation to what is seenReach for objects 3 mo – important milestoneImproves rapidly, 1st blurryWithin week – focus on objects that are in” away1 mo. – three feet6 mos – eyesight reaches the clarity & sharpness of the adult levelAt 1st, babies see world in 2 dimensionsDepth perception – ability to perceive objects that are three-dimensional 2nd mo
13On a Sheet of Paper ..Draw what would be best for an infant
14QUESTIONS??? By age 1, infants _____________ their weight. By age 1, infants increase their length by __________.Describe the body shape of an infant.What is a developmental milestone?What do infants like to look at?Don’t forget about your mobiles on Monday
15Hearing Develops before birth Full term baby – tell general direction Newborns respond to tone of voice, not words7 mos – recognize parents & caregivers by voiceLanguage development begins with hearing words first, then imitating – understandingPremature & infections = hearing problems – language development delay
16Smell & TasteSurrounded by amniotic fluid before arrival – sense of smell does not develop until after birthDevelops quickly10 days – know mommy by smellTaste – quickly2 weeks – can taste the differenceLearn by using their mouthsPut everything in there!!Clean, not sharp, not too small
17Reading!!!! Little Developing Child Book Page 255 – 257 Complete Questions 1-7 on page 257Big Developing Child BookPage 232—236Complete Questions 1-7 page 237
18Complete Worksheet Quiz in on the table Both worksheets will go into your notebookAfter the worksheet we will go over the answers to quiz 8.1We will go over the answers to quiz 8.3 tomorrow!
19Handling & Feeding Infants I can…Explain how to hold and feed a babyIdentify an infant’s nutritional needs
20Handling a Baby Infants need to be moved & held for different reasons Remember when you hold an infant, you have the chance to strengthen your bond & to help the baby feel secure & happy!!!Require greatest care – neck muscles cannot support their headMust keep your hand/arm under neck & head at all times.
21Lifting a NewbornSlide one hand under the baby’s buttocks and the other under the shoulders & head. Use your forearm to support the neck & head as you raise your hands together to lift the new born.
22Holding a newborn in your arm Hold the baby upright, cradled in the curve of your arm. Your arms supports the baby’s head & neck, and you can easily maintain eye contact w/the baby
23Holding a newborn against your chest Hold the baby against your chest , so that the baby faces – or peeks over – your shoulder. Use your hand to support the baby’s neck & hand.
24Questions Name the 3 patterns of physical development Define: Hand-eye coordinationDepth perceptionNever __________ a baby.True or false: Brain developments begins at birthTrue or false: Weight is most influenced by heredity
25Putting a Newborn DownContinue to support both the neck and head and the body. Bend over, keeping the baby close to your body until the baby’s body is resting on a surface that can support his or her body. Then remove your arms.
26Gentle Handling Never shake or jiggle Thousands of babies each year suffer from shaken baby syndrome - caused when someone severely shakes the baby (stop crying)Damage to brain, learning problems, mental retardation, blindness, deafness, death
27When a baby cries = frustration Put the baby down in safe place – go to a different room – calm down before returningAsk friend/relative to take care of the babyTake deep breaths – look at the windowCall someone and talk about problem until you calm down
28Feeding a Baby More than physical nourishment Contact w/others Learn more about the world
29Feeding SchedulesNewborn’s feeding & sleeping schedule unpredictable at firstNewborns need to eat as much as they want & as oftenFeedings are necessary b/c a newborns stomach can hold only small amountsBreast fed babies eat more often2nd – 3rd month – regular pattern emergesAbout 12 lbs – babies can sleep thru night
30Feeding Methods 1st year – breast milk or formula Not cow’s milk – too hard for them to digest, contains minerals their kidneys cannot processFormula w/cow’s milk acceptable
31Feeding from the Bottle Hold the baby close in a semi-upright positionNeck & head supportedHead well above the stomachHold bottle at angleBaby can suck comfortably & less airWarm bottle – not necessaryWarm it – place in pan of water on stove until lukewarm
32Feeding Check temperature on wrist – lukewarm Never heat in the microwaveFormula left in bottle – throw it awayBacteria can grow quicklyFeeding bottle should be sterilizedNever lead a bottle propped up so baby drinks aloneHealthy babies usually eat the amount they need
33Burping the BabyNo matter the method, burp the baby as least twice – once during feeding & once when the feeding is overBreast feeding – burp during the switch from one breast to the otherWhy must you burp the baby?They swallow air along with the liquidDiscomfortDon’t be surprise if the baby doesn’t burp
34Small Group Activity (Group of 2) You are to prepare a cartoon strip titled “Things to Do When Bottle-Feeding Your Baby”Content of stripHow to prepare formulaHow to hold the baby during feedingHow & why to burp the babyBe creative!!
35Introducing New Foods Around 6 months other foods will be added Pediatrician will recommend when to introduce “solid” foodsMost babies = no rushChoose a time when baby is happy, content and well
36Introducing New FoodsB/c the food the unfamiliar – spit back the first spoonfulsIntroduce it later or combine it with a favoritePATIENCE
37Introducing New Foods Tips Hold baby in an upright positionIf baby is used to lukewarm formula – heat solid foods to lukewarmNEVER use the microwaveBe prepared for messy feedingsCereal – running, dilute with formula or breast milk – NEVER put in bottle = chokeDo not feed baby from the jar. (Bacteria) Put small amount in bowl and refrigerate leftover immediately
38Read page 273 – Ask the Expert Answer questions 1 & 2At your table, decide on ways to prepare homemade baby food.Be prepared to share group findings.
39Think about.. Your reactions to food (cereals, vegetables, fruits) Do you think babies would have the same response??? Why or why not?List types of fruits and vegetables that could be mashed and served as one of a baby’s first solid foods
40WeaningChanging from drinking from the bottle or breast to a drinking from a cupImportant sign of the baby’s increasing independenceNo precise age, 9 months – commonUsually baby will show signsPlaying or looking around, pushing away, likes to eat from a spoonDo not force – other feeding & behavior problems
41Self-feeding Sit up steadily (8 – 10 months) baby will show signs eat with fingers & reach for spoon1st – fun more baby, but not much eating will take placeyou – help out – separate spoons, placing food in baby’s mouthPATIENCE & humorEncourage
42What do you think Mashed bananas Hot dogs Grapes Peanuts Small cereal piecesWhich foods do you think areappropriate for a baby to self feed
44Nutritional ConcernsYour responsibility = making sure baby’s nutritional needs are being metProblems = too much food, too little food or the wrong kinds of foods
45Overfeeding As they gain weight – they may look fat Most will slim down by age threeBottle fed more likely to be overfedWorried talk to pediatricianHealthy eating habits – established early in lifeSmall nutritious foods – smaller portionsMyPlate
46Inadequate Nutrition Infants = very specific nutritional needs Enough calories = rapid growthNutrient rich foodsFood that is easy to digestAdequate amounts of liquid
48Inadequate Nutrition Can cause lasting physical problems Linked to poor brain development & learning problemsMany government & community programs help to eliminate malnutrionWIC – Women, Infants & Children program
49Do you know the signs Growth = below average Nervous or irritable behaviorWounds that are slow to healHair = thin, dull, lifeless, easy to pull outSwollen eyelidsPoor posturePoor coordinationDiarrhea
50TomorrowYou are to research commercial baby food.