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The Baby’s First Year Physical Development.

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Presentation on theme: "The Baby’s First Year Physical Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Baby’s First Year Physical Development

2 Learning Targets I can….
Identify the most important milestones of growth & development during a baby’s first year Describe the structure of the brain & how it works Describe methods for handling & feeding an infant Indentify other skills involved in meeting an infants physical needs

3 As a Table… You are to sketch a outline of a “typical” baby at birth and at one year. Compare and discuss your sketches with the table next to you Read the story on page 249 about Jason and Brett. While reading, identify Jason’s needs that Brett is meeting??

4 Growth & Development Development – sequence (step-by-step)
Three basic patterns Head to Foot Begins long before birth Baby’s head takes lead in development Head – arms & hands – legs & feet Near to Far Starts close to body & moves outward Waves arms, hand – finger control Simple to Complex Large muscle – small muscle Torso – upper body

5 Influences on Growth & Development
Typically, babies follow the same pattern, they do so at their own rate Terms are used interchangeably, but they are not the same thing Growth – changes in size, weight & length Development – increases & changes in physical, social or intellectual skills

6 Influences on Growth & Development
Both heredity (nature) & environment (nurture) Developmental milestone – a key skill used to check a child’s progress

7 Growth & Development during the 1st year
Typically triple birth weight Usually increase length by about 50% Growth chart – shows the average weight & height of boys & girls at various ages Few match –remember they grow at own rate Dr. watches for a steady pattern of growth

8 Weight Weight gains – one of the best signs of good health
Most lose about 10% of their birth weight in the first five days After they begin to gain weight rapidly 1st 6 months = gain 1 – 2 lbs/month 2nd 6 months = 1 lb Average weight 1 year old = 20 – 22 lbs Boys typically weight more than girls

9 Length Length rather than height b/c they are measured lying down
Steadily grow in length due to bone growth is rapid Average newborn – 20 in” – 30” Heredity – strong influence Boys slightly longer than girls

10 Body Shape Tend to hold themselves in a tightly curled position w/fist clenched, legs bent, & feet curved inward Head may have a elongated shape (child birth) Arms & legs skinny Abdomen – large Umbilical cord stump – dries up & drops off in 3 weeks revealing navel Legs & feet straighten out 6 months

11 Proportion Refers to the size relationship between the parts of the body Compared to body – head & abdomen – large Legs & arms – short and small Baby’s head grows rapidly to accommodate (make room for) the swiftly developing brain skull – spaces called “fontanels”

12 Sight/Vision Patterns & colors
High contrast –alternating stripes, bull’s eye or faces Color red or blue Hand-eye coordination – ability to move their hands & fingers precisely in relation to what is seen Reach for objects 3 mo – important milestone Improves rapidly, 1st blurry Within week – focus on objects that are in” away 1 mo. – three feet 6 mos – eyesight reaches the clarity & sharpness of the adult level At 1st, babies see world in 2 dimensions Depth perception – ability to perceive objects that are three-dimensional 2nd mo

13 On a Sheet of Paper .. Draw what would be best for an infant

14 QUESTIONS??? By age 1, infants _____________ their weight.
By age 1, infants increase their length by __________. Describe the body shape of an infant. What is a developmental milestone? What do infants like to look at? Don’t forget about your mobiles on Monday

15 Hearing Develops before birth Full term baby – tell general direction
Newborns respond to tone of voice, not words 7 mos – recognize parents & caregivers by voice Language development begins with hearing words first, then imitating – understanding Premature & infections = hearing problems – language development delay

16 Smell & Taste Surrounded by amniotic fluid before arrival – sense of smell does not develop until after birth Develops quickly 10 days – know mommy by smell Taste – quickly 2 weeks – can taste the difference Learn by using their mouths Put everything in there!! Clean, not sharp, not too small

17 Reading!!!! Little Developing Child Book Page 255 – 257
Complete Questions 1-7 on page 257 Big Developing Child Book Page 232—236 Complete Questions 1-7 page 237

18 Complete Worksheet Quiz in on the table
Both worksheets will go into your notebook After the worksheet we will go over the answers to quiz 8.1 We will go over the answers to quiz 8.3 tomorrow!

19 Handling & Feeding Infants
I can… Explain how to hold and feed a baby Identify an infant’s nutritional needs

20 Handling a Baby Infants need to be moved & held for different reasons
Remember when you hold an infant, you have the chance to strengthen your bond & to help the baby feel secure & happy!!! Require greatest care – neck muscles cannot support their head Must keep your hand/arm under neck & head at all times.

21 Lifting a Newborn Slide one hand under the baby’s buttocks and the other under the shoulders & head. Use your forearm to support the neck & head as you raise your hands together to lift the new born.

22 Holding a newborn in your arm
Hold the baby upright, cradled in the curve of your arm. Your arms supports the baby’s head & neck, and you can easily maintain eye contact w/the baby

23 Holding a newborn against your chest
Hold the baby against your chest , so that the baby faces – or peeks over – your shoulder. Use your hand to support the baby’s neck & hand.

24 Questions Name the 3 patterns of physical development Define:
Hand-eye coordination Depth perception Never __________ a baby. True or false: Brain developments begins at birth True or false: Weight is most influenced by heredity

25 Putting a Newborn Down Continue to support both the neck and head and the body. Bend over, keeping the baby close to your body until the baby’s body is resting on a surface that can support his or her body. Then remove your arms.

26 Gentle Handling Never shake or jiggle
Thousands of babies each year suffer from shaken baby syndrome - caused when someone severely shakes the baby (stop crying) Damage to brain, learning problems, mental retardation, blindness, deafness, death

27 When a baby cries = frustration
Put the baby down in safe place – go to a different room – calm down before returning Ask friend/relative to take care of the baby Take deep breaths – look at the window Call someone and talk about problem until you calm down

28 Feeding a Baby More than physical nourishment Contact w/others
Learn more about the world

29 Feeding Schedules Newborn’s feeding & sleeping schedule unpredictable at first Newborns need to eat as much as they want & as often Feedings are necessary b/c a newborns stomach can hold only small amounts Breast fed babies eat more often 2nd – 3rd month – regular pattern emerges About 12 lbs – babies can sleep thru night

30 Feeding Methods 1st year – breast milk or formula
Not cow’s milk – too hard for them to digest, contains minerals their kidneys cannot process Formula w/cow’s milk acceptable

31 Feeding from the Bottle
Hold the baby close in a semi-upright position Neck & head supported Head well above the stomach Hold bottle at angle Baby can suck comfortably & less air Warm bottle – not necessary Warm it – place in pan of water on stove until lukewarm

32 Feeding Check temperature on wrist – lukewarm
Never heat in the microwave Formula left in bottle – throw it away Bacteria can grow quickly Feeding bottle should be sterilized Never lead a bottle propped up so baby drinks alone Healthy babies usually eat the amount they need

33 Burping the Baby No matter the method, burp the baby as least twice – once during feeding & once when the feeding is over Breast feeding – burp during the switch from one breast to the other Why must you burp the baby? They swallow air along with the liquid Discomfort Don’t be surprise if the baby doesn’t burp

34 Small Group Activity (Group of 2)
You are to prepare a cartoon strip titled “Things to Do When Bottle-Feeding Your Baby” Content of strip How to prepare formula How to hold the baby during feeding How & why to burp the baby Be creative!!

35 Introducing New Foods Around 6 months other foods will be added
Pediatrician will recommend when to introduce “solid” foods Most babies = no rush Choose a time when baby is happy, content and well

36 Introducing New Foods B/c the food the unfamiliar – spit back the first spoonfuls Introduce it later or combine it with a favorite PATIENCE

37 Introducing New Foods Tips
Hold baby in an upright position If baby is used to lukewarm formula – heat solid foods to lukewarm NEVER use the microwave Be prepared for messy feedings Cereal – running, dilute with formula or breast milk – NEVER put in bottle = choke Do not feed baby from the jar. (Bacteria) Put small amount in bowl and refrigerate leftover immediately

38 Read page 273 – Ask the Expert
Answer questions 1 & 2 At your table, decide on ways to prepare homemade baby food. Be prepared to share group findings.

39 Think about.. Your reactions to food (cereals, vegetables, fruits)
Do you think babies would have the same response??? Why or why not? List types of fruits and vegetables that could be mashed and served as one of a baby’s first solid foods

40 Weaning Changing from drinking from the bottle or breast to a drinking from a cup Important sign of the baby’s increasing independence No precise age, 9 months – common Usually baby will show signs Playing or looking around, pushing away, likes to eat from a spoon Do not force – other feeding & behavior problems

41 Self-feeding Sit up steadily (8 – 10 months) baby will show signs
eat with fingers & reach for spoon 1st – fun more baby, but not much eating will take place you – help out – separate spoons, placing food in baby’s mouth PATIENCE & humor Encourage

42 What do you think Mashed bananas Hot dogs Grapes Peanuts
Small cereal pieces Which foods do you think are appropriate for a baby to self feed

43 Read page 275 – Self-Feeding Safely
Answer follow up questions 1 & 2

44 Nutritional Concerns Your responsibility = making sure baby’s nutritional needs are being met Problems = too much food, too little food or the wrong kinds of foods

45 Overfeeding As they gain weight – they may look fat
Most will slim down by age three Bottle fed more likely to be overfed Worried talk to pediatrician Healthy eating habits – established early in life Small nutritious foods – smaller portions MyPlate

46 Inadequate Nutrition Infants = very specific nutritional needs
Enough calories = rapid growth Nutrient rich foods Food that is easy to digest Adequate amounts of liquid

47 What are some causes of inadequate nutrition?

48 Inadequate Nutrition Can cause lasting physical problems
Linked to poor brain development & learning problems Many government & community programs help to eliminate malnutrion WIC – Women, Infants & Children program

49 Do you know the signs Growth = below average
Nervous or irritable behavior Wounds that are slow to heal Hair = thin, dull, lifeless, easy to pull out Swollen eyelids Poor posture Poor coordination Diarrhea

50 Tomorrow You are to research commercial baby food.

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