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Prenatal Period to 1 year Chapter 6. What are the two main factors that influence growth and development? A.Stress and Family B.Environment and Stress.

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Presentation on theme: "Prenatal Period to 1 year Chapter 6. What are the two main factors that influence growth and development? A.Stress and Family B.Environment and Stress."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prenatal Period to 1 year Chapter 6

2 What are the two main factors that influence growth and development? A.Stress and Family B.Environment and Stress C.Environment and Heredity D.Heredity and Gender

3 Heredity: Zygote formation Sperm + ovum – Zygote – 23 chromosomes

4 Heredity: Zygote formation Gender – X & Y Chromosomes Ovum – Always X Sperm – X or Y

5 Dominant & Recessive Genes Dominant Capable of expressing traits over other genes Recessive Traits only appear if they exist in pairs

6 Karyotyping: Eye Color B = Brown b = blue MOM DAD Bb BBBBb BBBBb MOM has brown eyes but has recessive blue gene. Bb Dad has brown eyes with no recessive gene. BB All the kids would have brown eyes Punnett Square

7 Karyotyping: Eye Color B = Brown b = blue MOM DAD Bb BBBBb b bb MOM has brown eyes but has recessive blue gene. Bb Dad has brown eyes with a recessive blue gene. Bb ¾ kids would have brown eyes. Punnett Square

8 Karyotyping: Eye Color B = Brown b = blue MOM DAD bb BBb bbb MOM has blue eyes bb Dad has brown eyes with a recessive blue gene. Bb ¾ kids would have brown eyes. Punnett Square

9 Recessive disorders >700 recessive gene diseases – Sickle-cell disease – Tay-Sachs disease – Hemophilia

10 Environment From the moment life begins, the environment begins to exercise its influence on the newly formed entity.

11 For you personally, when does life begin? A.Conception B.Implantation C.When there is a heart beat D.When the fetus is viable if it was born E.When the baby is born

12 Environment: Healthy Pregnancy Rest Exercise

13 What is the best form of exercise for a pregnant women? A.Bicycling B.Walking C.Swimming D.Jogging E.Kick-boxing

14 Teratogens Tobacco – birth weight – Growth restrictions

15 Teratogens Alcohol – *1 st trimester – Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) – Miscarriages – Growth restriction – CNS damage

16 Teratogens Bacteria, viruses – Rubella

17 What is the estimated length of human pregnancy? A.28 weeks B.38 weeks C.40 weeks D.42 weeks E.48 weeks

18 Physical Characteristics

19 Neonate Apgar score – Activity – Pulse – Grimace – Appearance – Respiration

20 What is the highest score a neonate can get on a Apgar score? A.2 B.3 C.10 D.12 E.15

21 Head & Skull Head ¼ of total body length

22 Skull 6 bones Separated by cartilage – Sutures Fontanels – Anterior – Posterior

23 Which fontanel is smaller? A.Anterior B.Posterior

24 When does the posterior fontanel close by? A.2 months B.4 months C.6 months D.8 months E.12 months or more

25 When does the anterior fontanel usually close by? A.6 months B.12 months C.18 months D.2 years E.3 years

26 What is the normal lengths of a full- term neonate? A.12 inches B.18 inches C.20 inches D.24 inches E.36 inches

27 How much does a normal infant grow in the first year? A.½ inch a month B.1 inch a month C.1 ½ inch a month D.2 inch a month E.2 ½ inch a month

28 Normal Physiological Weight Loss. How much weight on average does a neonate loss in the first few days of life? A.5-10 % of birth weight B.15-20% of birth weight C.25 – 30% of birth weight D.There is no such thing as normal physiological weight loss in a neonate

29 Skin Acrocyanosis Pigmentation

30 Mongolian Spot Usually fads by… – Age 4 years 6 month old

31 Lanugo

32 Vernix Cascosa

33 Milia

34 Physiological Jaundice

35 What causes physiological jaundice? A.High RBC count in newborns B.Increased RBC destruction after birth C.High bilirubin levels D.All of the above E.None of the above

36 Genitals Breasts – Swollen Scrotum – Large

37 Pseudomenstruation Blood-tinged vaginal discharge

38 What is the cause of most genital physiological anomalies in newborns? A.High / elevated maternal hormone levels B.High / elevated paternal hormone levels C.High / elevated neonate hormone levels

39 Cryptorchidism Undescended testicle/s

40 Cryptorchidism risk of – Testicular CA – Infertility

41 Genital Circumcision

42 What STD causes blindness in newborns? A.Syphilis B.HIV C.Gonorrhea D.Chlamydia E.Herpes

43 Face Eye – Erythromycin – Silver nitrate

44 When do baby teeth start to come in? A.2 months B.4 months C.6 months D.8 months E.12 months Deciduous teeth

45 Which teeth normally erupt first? A.Two lower central incisors B.Two upper central incisors C.Two lower lateral incisors D.Two upper lateral incisors

46 By age 12 months the baby will have 6- 8 teeth

47 Abdomen Umbilical cord – Falls off When? 10 days – What should the baby not do / have until the umbilical cord falls off No tub bath

48 Why do you have to burp the neonate? Cardiac sphincter – Under-developed

49 Bowel movement Meconium – Green-black

50 Bowel movement, Stool or Feces Formula Fed Pasty yellow or tan Odor Breastfed Mustard seed color Sweet odor

51 Why is a newborn not given cows milk (whole milk) to drink? A.Cows milk does not have the necessary vitamins and minerals for a newborn human B.Cows milk is too complex for a newborn to metabolize C.Cows milk contains protozoans that are harmful to infants D.What are you talking about – its OK to give a newborn cows milk.

52 Extremities Finger / foot prints

53 Gluteal fold asymmetry Is an indication of… – Congenital hip dysplasia

54 Neurological Characteristics Protective reflexes Blinking Sneezing Swallowing Gag

55 Moro / Startle Reflex Sudden movement Extension & Abduction of extremities http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=PTz-iVI2mf4 http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=PTz-iVI2mf4

56 Tonic Neck Reflex Turn head to one side extend arm and leg on that side http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=XMCw7IKN0xI http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=XMCw7IKN0xI

57 Rooting reflex Stroke cheek enfant turns toward that side and open mouth

58 Sucking Reflex Sucking movement when anything touches their lips

59 Babinski When sole is stroked hyper-extended of the toes

60 Palmar grasp Grasp anything placed in hand

61 Spinal Bifida

62 Vision Newborn – Primitive – Nystagmus

63 Vision An infant's vision isn't as sharp as an adults until children are about 3 years

64 Hearing 6 wks – Recognize mom and turn to respond 1 year – ID sounds and source

65 Vital Signs - Newborn Temp – Initially low Pulse – 120 – 160 / min Resp – 30 – 60 / min

66 Gross motor skills 2 months – Control head 4 months – Sit w/ support 6 months – Roll 8 months – Sits alone 10 months – Creep 11 months – Pulls self up 12 months – walks

67 Fine motor skills Neonate – Grasp reflex 5 months – Purposeful reaching 6 months – Hold bottle 7 months – Hand preference – Pincer grasp 9 – Cup – Spoon 12 months – Scribble – Tower – two blocks

68 Psychosocial Development: What theorist are we going to discuss? A.Freud B.Erikson C.Paiget D.Kohlberg E.Maslow

69 What stage of psychosocial development is a neonate? A.Autonomy vs shame & doubt B.Trust vs mistrust C.Initiative vs guilt D.Industry vs inferiority E.Identity vs role confusion

70 Parent-child relationship AttachmentEngrossment

71 Parent guidance / discipline 0-6 months – Distraction 6-12 months – Direct

72 Moral Development Neonate – No conscience – 100% ID

73 Cognitive development: Whos theory are we going to be applying? A.Freud B.Erikson C.Paiget D.Kohlberg E.Maslow

74 What stage of cognitive development is an infant? A.Preoperational B.Concrete operational C.Sensorimotor D.Formal operational

75 Communication: What name or word to babys say first (usually) A.MaMa B.DaDa

76 Communication Birth – Crying 2 months – Smile 4-6 months – Babbling 8 months – Dada 10 months – Mama 12 months – 4-6 words

77 Nutrition Breastfeeding Colostrum – immunoglobulins Bottle feeding

78 Sleep & Rest Neonate 20 hours/day 1 year 12 hours / day

79 Play Non-symbolic Solitary

80 Safety: Aspiration

81 Shaken Baby Syndrome

82 Burns

83 Drowning Bathtub never alone

84 Falls

85 Poisoning

86 MVA Read facing car seat 12 months


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