Research question History of topic Literature review Research method Findings Conclusions Bibliography
Does year-round education (YRE) affect student test scores?
Early American public schools were founded on an agrarian calendar which gave a 2-3 month summer break to allow for children to help their family with the harvest (Traditional) With the shift of American culture away from an agrarian society, the need for a long summer break went away, but the traditional calendar remains to this day To try and alleviate large class sizes and other issues, schools around the country began to experiment with YRE With the increased scrutiny on learning outcomes and standardized testing, YRE is a common topic of consideration for nearly all public schools in the nation If YRE can be empirically linked to higher tests scores, public schools will migrate towards it. This shift would cause changes in other areas such as work scheduling and tourism
Rationale: Summer Learning Loss Cooper, H., Nye, B., Charlton, K., Lindsay, J., & Greathouse, S. (1996). The Effects of summer vacation on achievement test scores: a narrative and meta-analytic review. Review of Educational Research, 66(3), 227-268.
Looking further into summer learning loss it was found that low SES, African-American and Hispanic students were more affected than white, Asian, or high SES students Quality of teachers was also identified as a contributing factor in test scores Downey, D. B., von Hippel, P. T., & Broh, B. A. (2004). Are Schools the great equalizer? cognitive inequality during the summer months and the school year. American Sociological Review, 69(5), 613-635
Three studies applied summer learning loss theories and compared test scores: Iowa, Roby (1995) Compared reading and math scores of 6 th graders Used one YRE schools scores and one traditional schools scores [comparison group posttest] YRE mean test scores were higher than traditional control school San Diego, Alcorn (1992) Looked at reading and math scores of 3 rd, 5 th, and 6 th graders Assessed the rate of success for reaching target increases per school for the entire San Diego School District Found that 17 YRE schools outperformed their traditional counterparts North Carolina, McMillen (2001) Compared the reading and math test scores of 3 rd - 8 th graders Compared all of the schools in the state No statistical relationship was found
Multiple linear regression I used the STAR testing data set and the Academic Performance Index (API) from the California Department of Education for 2009 DV: mean scaled score IV: YRE Hypothesis: YRE has an affect on mean scaled scores
VariableDescriptionSource YRE A dummy variable coded 1 if the school participates in year-round education and 0 if it has a traditional schedule. CDE ALT Taken from the Statewide Rank. If it was coded I=Invalid data, B=District or ASAM, C=Special Education School, then it is coded as Alternative API CHAR Public schools that may provide instruction in any of grades K-12 that are created or organized by a group of teachers, parents, community leaders or a community-based organization API EMERPercent teachers with emergency credentialsAPI P_DIPercent of students with disabilitiesAPI P_MIGEDPercent of students in migrant education programsAPI P_GATEPercent of students in Gifted and Talented Education programsAPI MEALSPercentage of students that are eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch ProgramAPI CLASSACS_K3: Average class size (grade K-3). Used in analysis of 3rd grade scoresAPI ACS_46: Average class size (grade 4-6). Used in analysis of 5th grade scores ACS_CORE: Number of core academic courses. Used in analysis of 7th and 11th grade scores
Table 2 Descriptive statistics GradeTest State Avg ScoreYRE Avg ScoreDifference Percent Difference Number of Schools Included Percent of YRE Schools 3rd GradeELA340.72327.86-12.86-3.8%493115 Math387.58373.97-13.61-3.5493115 5th GradeELA356.43345.61-10.82-3.0478615 Math375.24363.22-12.02-3.2478415 Science354.34341.49-12.85-3.6478515 7th GradeELA353.78344.39-9.39-2.716248 Math344.36335.82-8.54-2.516178 Algebra I425.24399.61-25.63-6.05577 11th GradeELA317.8303.75-14.05-4.413786 Algebra I279.35273.04-6.31-2.39306 Geometry275.33264.26-11.07-4.08626 Algebra II291.35279.75-11.6-4.08195 HS Math339.53318.81-20.72-6.17775 U.S. History321.62304.15-17.47-5.413586 Biology335.76314.21-21.55-6.49086 Chemistry324.83310.93-13.9-4.38015 Physics352.93333.87-19.06-5.45795
Table 3.3 Beta results from multiple regression (high school English and math) 11th Grade ELAAlgebra IGeometryAlgebra IIHS Math YRE-.002-.058-.061*-.050-.037 ALT-.489***-.237***-.244***-.145***-.067* CHAR.016-.068*-.032-.161***-.133*** EMER-.043**-.053-.068*-.067*-.051 P_DI-.083***-.073*-.118***-.147-.104*** P_MIGED.008.059.014.022-.003 P_GATE.249***.009.022.071*.167*** MEALS-.329***-.271***-.411***-.300***-.465*** CLASS.061***.055.069*.114***.105*** Adj R 2.738.199.326.219.383 F431.113 ***26.650 ***47.266 ***26.499 ***54.477 *** * =.05 significance, ** =.01 significance, *** =.001 significance
Table 3.4 Beta results from multiple regression (high school history and science) 11th Grade US HistoryBiologyChemistryPhysics YRE-.015-.054*-.033-.026 ALT-.465***-.330***-.147***-.086* CHAR-.030-.073**-.121***-.105** EMER-.035*-.009-.066*-.057 P_DI-.061***-.077***-.116***-.146*** P_MIGED.010-.021.044.028 P_GATE.248***.152***.110***.033 MEALS-.303***-.407***-.507***-.475*** CLASS.110***.102***.040.142*** Adj R 2.705.537.384.356 F361.555 ***117.957 ***56.443 ***36.453 *** * =.05 significance, ** =.01 significance, *** =.001 significance
7 out of 17 tests found YRE to be significant All betas for YRE were negative In general, the impacts of YRE decrease as grade level increases
YRE seems to produce low test scores Controlling for factors that typically indicate a failing school, YRE still underperformed YRE is most impactful at lower grades where YRE is more prevalent The findings here run contrary to the theory of summer learning loss
Alcorn, R. D. (1992). Test scores: can year-round school raise them? Thrust for Educational Leadership, 21(6), 12-15. Alexander, K. L., Entwisle, D. R., & Steffel Olson, L. (2007). Lasting consequences of the summer learning gap. American Sociological Review, 72(2), 167-180. California Department of Education (2010, July 21). 2007-08 Year-round education directory. Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/fa/yr/direct07.asp California Department of Education (2010, September 16). Year-round education program guide. Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/fa/yr/guide.asp California Department of Education. (2010, January 14). Research file list - STAR 2009 test results. Retrieved from http://star.cde.ca.gov/star2009/ResearchFileList.asp?ps=true&lstTestYear=2009&lstTestType=C&lstCounty=&lstDistrict=&lstSch ool=&lstGroup=1&lstSubGroup=1 Cooper, H., Nye, B., Charlton, K., Lindsay, J., & Greathouse, S. (1996). The Effects of summer vacation on achievement test scores: a narrative and meta-analytic review. Review of Educational Research, 66(3), 227-268. Cooper, H., Valentine, J. C., Charlton, K., & Melson, A. (2003). The Effects of modified school calendars on student achievement and on school and community attitudes. Review of Educational Research, 73(1), 1-52. Davies, B. & Kerry, T. (1999). Improving student learning through calendar change. School Leadership & Management, 19(3), 359-371. Downey, D. B., von Hippel, P. T., & Broh, B. A. (2004). Are Schools the great equalizer? cognitive inequality during the summer months and the school year. American Sociological Review, 69(5), 613-635. Education Data Partnership. (2010). School reports. Retrieved from http://www.ed- data.k12.ca.us/Navigation/fsTwoPanel.asp?bottom=%2Fprofile.asp%3Flevel%3D07%26reportNumber%3D16 Gandara, P., & Fish, J. (1994). Year-round schooling as an avenue to major structural reform. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 16(1), 67-85. Granderson, L. (2011, May 10). We need year-round school to compete globally. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2011/OPINION/05/10/granderson.yearround.school/index.html Glines, D. (1995). Year-round education: History, philosophy, future. National Association for Year-Round Education: San Diego, CA McMillen, B. J. (2001). A Statewide evaluation of academic achievement in year-round schools. The Journal of Educational Research, 95(2), 67-74. Roby, D. E. (1995). Comparison of a year-round school and a traditional school: reading and mathematics achievement. ERS Spectrum, 13(1), 7-10. Wothen, B. R. & Zsiray, S. W. (1994). What twenty years of educational studies reveal about year-round education. Retrieved from The University of North Carolina, North Carolina Educational Policy Research Center: http://eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED373413.pdf