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OBJECTIVES State the major developmental task of the school-aged group according to Erikson. Discuss the physical growth patterns during the school-aged.

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Presentation on theme: "OBJECTIVES State the major developmental task of the school-aged group according to Erikson. Discuss the physical growth patterns during the school-aged."— Presentation transcript:

1 Growth and Development of the School-Aged Child: 6 to 10 Years Chapter 26

2 OBJECTIVES State the major developmental task of the school-aged group according to Erikson. Discuss the physical growth patterns during the school-aged years. Describe dentition in school-aged children. Discuss the psychosocial development of the school-aged child. Explain the cognitive development seen in the school-aged children regarding (a) conservation, (b) decentration, (c) reversibility, and (d) classification. Identify nutritional influences on the school-aged child, including (a) family attitudes, (b) mealtime atmosphere, (c) snacks, and (d) school’s role. List three factors that contribute to obesity in the school-aged child. State two appropriate ways to help an obese child control weight. Discuss recommended health promotion and maintenance for the school-aged child, including: (a) scoliosis screening, (b) vision and hearing screening, (c) dental hygiene, (d) exercise, and (e) sleep. Discuss the need for sex education in the school-aged group and describe the role of the family, school, and others in this education. Describe principles that a family caregiver can use to teach children about substance abuse. Identify common inhalant products that children may use as deliriants. Describe safety education appropriate for the school-aged group. Discuss the effects of the progression in the 6- to 10-year-old child’s concept of biology, including the concepts of (a) birth, (b) death, (c) human body, (d) health, and (e) illness. Identify factors that may influence the school-aged child in the health care facility.

3 Growth and Development of the School-Age Child
Areas of dramatic change between 6 and 10 years First day of school Thinking process Social skills Activities Attitudes Use of language Industry vs. inferiority -if unsuccessful in completing activities during this stage, children develop a feeling of inferiority -success with completing the activities in this stage provides the child with self-confidence

4 Growth and Development of the School-Age Child (cont.)
Health becomes community concern Starting school Physical exam Immunizations Usually healthy time of child’s life Accidents still pose serious hazard

5 Physical Development Weight and height Changes in dentition
Growth is slow and steady Gains about 5 lbs. annually Annual height increase about 2.5” (6 cm) Period ends in the preadolescent growth spurt Changes in dentition Starts to lose deciduous (baby) teeth at about 6 years Eruption of permanent teeth, 6 year molars (directly behind the deciduous molars) These are important: key or pivot teeth-help shape the jaw and affect the alignment of the permanent teeth


7 Physical Development (cont.)
Changes in skeletal growth Spine is straighter Abdomen is flatter Body is generally more slender and long-legged Bone growth in long bones Cartilage is being replaced by bone at the epiphyses (growth centers at the end of long bones and at wrists) Skeletal maturation is more rapid in girls than in boys


9 Question Tell whether the following statement is true or false. Erikson’s developmental task for this age group is industry versus inferiority.

10 Answer True Rationale: Erikson’s developmental task for this age group is industry versus inferiority. Q#1

11 Psychosocial Development
Displays a sense of duty and accomplishment Engages in meaningful projects and sees them through to completion Applies the energies earlier put into play to accomplishing tasks Refines motor, cognitive, and social skills Develops a positive sense of self

12 Psychosocial Development (cont.)
Not all children are ready for this stage due to environmental deprivation, a dysfunctional family, insecure attachment to parents, and immaturity Unrealistic or excessive goals can cause problems later in life When environmental support is adequate child should complete several personality development tasks at this age: Developing coping mechanisms Developing a sense of right and wrong Accomplishing a feeling of self-esteem Displaying ability to care for oneself

13 Psychosocial Development (cont.)
School age thought processes 7 years – Piaget’s concrete operational stage begins Skills of conservation (the ability to recognize that a change in shape does not necessarily mean a change in mass or amount) significant Conservation of numbers, number of cookies does not change when rearranged Conservation of mass, amount of cookie dough is the same whether in ball form or flattened Conservation of weight, a pound is a pound whether plastic or brick Conservation of volume, half a glass of water is the same regardless of shape of the container (11-12 yrs.)

14 Psychosocial Development (cont.)
Each child is product of Personal heredity Environment Cognitive ability Physical health Every child needs love and acceptance Understanding, support and concern when mistakes are made Thrive on praise and recognition

15 Psychosocial Development (cont.)
Factors affecting self-confidence Consistent rules Positive attention Clear expectations

16 Psychosocial Development (cont.)
Development from ages 6 to 7 Still employs magical thinking Can sit still for short periods of time Understands taking turns Enjoys group activities Begins to enjoy participating in real-life activities

17 Psychosocial Development (cont.)
Development from ages 7 to 10 Questions parental standards as the ultimate authority Becomes more impressed by the behavior of peers Is increasingly interested in group activities Moves from preoperational, egocentric thinking to concrete, operational, decentered thought

18 Psychosocial Development (cont.)
Development from ages 7 to 10 Concepts displayed by the 7- to 10-year-old child Decentration Being able to see several aspects of a problem at the same time and to understand the relation of various parts to the whole situation Cause-and-effect relations become clear Magical thinking begins to disappear

19 Psychosocial Development (cont.)
Concepts displayed by the 7- to 10-year-old child (cont.) Reversibility Conservation of continuous quantity The ability to think in either direction Classification The ability to group objects into a hierarchical arrangement Collections

20 Question A school-age child aged 7-10 years moves from preoperational, egocentric thinking to what? a. Concrete, operational, centered thought b. Concrete, operational, decentered thought c. Cognitive, operational, centered thought d. Cognitive, operational, decentered thought

21 Answer b. Concrete, operational, decentered thought Rationale: Important changes occur in a child’s thinking processes at about age 7 when there is movement from preoperational, egocentric thinking to concrete, operational, decentered thought. Q#2

22 Nutrition As coordination improves, the child becomes increasingly active Requires more food to supply necessary energy The nutritional needs of the school-age child should be met by choosing foods from all the food groups Increased appetite and a tendency to go on food “jags” are typical Offer choices Supervise snacking habits Matter-of-fact attitude about food by caregivers Provide a positive mealtime atmosphere

23 Nutrition (cont.) Obesity can be a concern Causes
Genetic, environmental, or sedentary lifestyle factors Interventions Appropriate physical activity (moderately active for 60 minutes every day, or most days) Limiting fat intake (no more than 35% of total calories) Positive caregiver support -avoid nagging -avoid “clean your plate” rule -limit fast food meals

24 Nutrition (cont.) Health teaching at school
Reinforce proper diet Subsidized breakfast and lunch programs Provide well-balanced meals (often children only eat part) Old enough to be partially responsible for packing own lunch Post school lunch menus Q#3

25 Health Promotion and Maintenance
Routine checkups Annual physicals Booster of tetanus–diphtheria vaccine every 10 years throughout life (Appendix J) Visit to the dentist at least twice a year 10-11 years: first exam for scoliosis Vision and hearing screening-before entrance to school and on a periodic basis (annual, biannual)-often conducted by the school nurse

26 Health Promotion and Maintenance (cont.)
Family teaching Proper dental hygiene-particularly 6 yr. molars Exercise and sufficient rest (6 yr. old-12 hrs./night & quiet time after school to recharge; 7-10 yr. old/) Health education Caregivers should teach child about Basic hygiene Sexual functioning Substance abuse Accident prevention School should include same topics in curriculum

27 Health Promotion and Maintenance (cont.)
Health education (cont.) Sex education-time and place for formal education remains controversial Includes Helping children develop positive attitudes about their own bodies Their own sex Their own sexual role to achieve optimum satisfaction in being a boy or a girl

28 Health Promotion and Maintenance (cont.)
Sex education (cont.) At various places in curriculum-often limited to 1 class, usually 5th grade Covers different topics in different school systems-watch films about menstruation and developing bodies; separate classes for boys and girls Caregivers may want to use printed materials Teach about HIV

29 Health Promotion and Maintenance (cont.)
Health education (cont.) Substance abuse education “Just say no” programs Teach unhealthy aspects of tobacco, alcohol and drug use Children may experiment with inhalants May contain deliriants Can cause death

Common Products Inhaled as Deliriants-Box 26-1 Model glue Varnish Rubber cement Shellac Cleaning fluids Hair Spray Kerosene vapors Nail polish remover Gasoline vapors Liquid typing correction fluid Butane lighter fluid Propellant (whipped cream) Paint sprays Aerosol paint cans Paint thinner Solvents

31 Health Promotion and Maintenance (cont.)
Substance abuse education Family caregivers should Teach family’s values Teach difference between right and wrong Set and enforce rules of acceptable behavior Learn facts about drugs and alcohol Actively listen to the children in the family Q#4

32 Health Promotion and Maintenance (cont.)
Accident prevention-remains leading cause of death Children must learn safety rules and practice them until they are routine Children should know Their full name Caregivers’ names Home address Telephone number How to call 911

33 Health Promotion and Maintenance (cont.)
Safety topics for school-age group-page 598 Traffic signals and safe pedestrian practices Safety belt use for car passengers Bicycle safety Skateboard and skating safety Swimming safety Danger of projectile toys Danger of all terrain vehicles Use of life jacket when boating

34 Question Health promotion and maintenance is important in this age group. What is one topic that is important for the caregiver to teach the child? a. Positive body image b. How to use the stove c. How to call the health care provider d. Basic hygiene

35 Answer d. Basic hygiene Rationale: Caregivers have a responsibility to teach the child about basic hygiene, sexual functioning, substance abuse, and accident prevention.

36 The School-Age Child in the Health Care Facility
More accepting of experience than younger children These children have changing concepts of Birth Death The human body Health and illness

37 The School-Age Child in the Health Care Facility
CONCEPT 6-8 YEARS 8-10 YEARS IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING Birth See babies as a result of 3 factors: social and sexual intercourse and biological fusion Begin to put 3 components together; sperm and egg come together –not sure why Cultural & educational factors play a part in development of where babies come from Tend to see baby as emerging from female only; from outside force- created whole Fewer discrepancies in knowledge based on sex differences Nurse should assess child’s idea about birth; can they understand where babies come from and how before teaching Boys know less than girls about baby information Explain roles of both parents, but the idea of sperm and egg union may not be understood until 8 or 9 years old

38 The School-Age Child in the Health Care Facility
CONCEPT 6-8 YEARS 8-10 YEARS IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING Death May be viewed as reversible Considered irreversible Change from vague view of death as reversible and caused by external forces to awareness of irreversibility and bodily causes Animism (attribution of life) may be seen in some children; death is viewed as result of outside force Ideas about what happens after death unclear; related to concreteness of thinking and socio-religious upbringing Fears about death more 8; adults should alert to this Experiences with death facilitate concept development Explanations about death, the fact their thoughts will not cause a death, they will not die (if illness is not fatal) are needed

39 The School-Age Child in the Health Care Facility
CONCEPT 6-8 YEARS 8-10 YEARS IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING Human Body Know body holds everything inside Can understand physiology Cultural factors may play a part in ability and willingness to discuss bodily functions Use outside world to explain Use general principles to explain body functions Educational programs can be very effective because of natural interest Aware of major organs Interested in invisible functions of the body Assess knowledge of body by using diagrams before teaching Interested in visible functions of body

40 The School-Age Child in the Health Care Facility
CONCEPT 6-8 YEARS 8-10 YEARS IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING Health See heath as doing desired activities See health as doing desired activities Need assistance in seeing cause and effect List concrete practices as components of health Understand cause and effect Capitalize on positiveness of concept; health lets you do what you really want to do Many do not see sickness as related to health; may not consider cause and effect Believe it is possible to be part healthy and part not at the same time; can reverse from health to sickness and back to health Young children who are sick may feel they will never get well again

41 The School-Age Child in the Health Care Facility
CONCEPT 6-8 YEARS 8-10 YEARS IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING Illness Sick children may see illness as punishment; evidence suggests that healthy children do not see illness as punishment Same as 6-8 years of age; can identify illness states, report bodily discomfort, recognize that illness is caused by specific factors Social factors play a part in illness concept Highly anxious children more likely to view illness as disruptive Recognize that some see illness as punishment Sickness is a diffuse state; rely on others to tell them when they are ill Encourage self-care and self-help behavior, especially in older children

42 The School-Age Child in the Health Care Facility (cont.)
Anxious about looking different than others their age May be uncomfortable with nurse of the opposite sex Inform families and children of rules as part of admission process

43 Nursing Care for the School-Age Child in a Health Care Facility
Explain all procedures to children and their families Show equipment and material to be used Outline realistic expectations of procedures and treatments Answer children’s questions truthfully Give children an opportunity to verbalize anxieties Respect desire for privacy

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