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Channel Setting Instructions for ResponseCard RF 1. Press and release the "GO" or "CH" button. 2. While the light is flashing red and green, enter the.

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Presentation on theme: "Channel Setting Instructions for ResponseCard RF 1. Press and release the "GO" or "CH" button. 2. While the light is flashing red and green, enter the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Channel Setting Instructions for ResponseCard RF 1. Press and release the "GO" or "CH" button. 2. While the light is flashing red and green, enter the 2 digit channel code (i.e. channel 1 = 01, channel 21 = 21). Channel is After the second digit is entered, Press and release the "GO" or "CH" button. The light should flash green to confirm. 4. Press and release the "1/A" button. The light should flash amber to confirm.

2 Response to PBS NOVA, Triumph of Life: The 4 billion year war movie episode one 52 minutes, 4 billion year war ature=related ature=related episode two arms race eature=related eature=related episode three mating game ture=related Episode six the survivors

3 Populationgroup of individuals of same species, breeding together on a normal basis Biological speciesorganisms of the same type who can breed together under natural conditions and produce healthy, fertile offspring Evolutionchange in the % of individuals with particular variations in traits (alleles) over timeeventually may lead to new species developing Natural selectionconditions allow some individuals in a population with certain variationsto leave more offspring than others; over time, the populations characteristics become more like the survivors. Speciationformation of a new species from a group separated (reproductively isolated) from its original group & affected by different natural selectors for a long time Genetic driftchange in % alleles in a population versus its original population after it is separated (or after its size is decreased)usually refers to adaptation in a small group Adaptationincrease % of fit alleles due to natural selection

4 1 What process is referred to as the 4 billion year war? 1.photosynthesis 2.Cell respiration 3.DNA replication 4.Evolution 5.Predation 20

5 2 Why is evolution referred to as a 4 billion year war? 1.Only individuals who compete successfully for limited resources pass on their genes 2.Animals fight to find mates and to establish their territory 3.Survival requires fighting 4.People have always fought other social groups

6 3 Scientific evidence (radioactive dating) shows that the earth is about: ,000 years old 2.4 –5 million years old 3.45 billion years old billion years old

7 4 For nearly 1 billion years after earth formed, no cells existed on the earth because it was: 1.Too cold 2.Too hot

8 5 The first organisms to form from the molecules in the primordial soup of the earths oceans were: 1.viruses 2.Eubacteria then archaebacteria 3.protists 4.fungi 5.plants 6.animals Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia

9 6 True or False. All other kingdoms are likely to have formed due to mutations in the DNA of the early bacteria. These mutations were harmless to the bacteria that survived, but over many generations as more and more harmless mutations were passed on, new alleles and even new genes formed. These new genes gave the survivors carrying them greater success in competing for limited resources. New genes that formed new kinds of bodies led to development of new kingdoms. 1.True 2.False

10 7 True or False. All mutations are harmful. 1.True 2.False

11 8 True or False. Even the newest species on earth are likely to share many genes in common with bacteria because they are the ancestors of all kingdoms of organisms. 1.True 2.False bacteria

12 A population is a group where are members are the same species and where all normally breed together. A population can adapt to its surroundings differently from another to its surroundings without giving rise to a new species. If the populations are prevented from breeding together –reproductively isolated many generations, then a new species does sometimes arise from some of the different populations. E.g., Genus (Strix) species (occidentalis) & populations that are still members of the same species but differently adapted (caurina versus lucida) versus longer separated snowy owls. Strix nebulosa is a different species in the same genus, adapted to more northern, colder habitats

13 For example, many different species of the genus Strix (e.g., Strix occidentalis & Strix seloputo & Strix ocellata) have arisen as populations of the same species become isolated and adaptby genetic driftto their new environments. Natural selection (survival of the fittest) causes adaptation due to genetic drift increased % of population members having the more fit alleles and genes.

14 Sometimes after long periods of time isolated into different habitats, the separated populations become so different that they need to be classified into a new genus. Bubo scandiacus Genus Bubo species scandiasis Bubo bengalensis Genus Bubo species bengalensis Found in India

15 Eventually, isolated long enough and adapted to different environments and types of competition for resources, all groups of organisms can arise from a common ancestor. Grouping organisms by their evolutionary relationshipsas seen by their similarities in traitsis called taxonomy or classification.

16 Classification or Taxonomygrouping organisms into smaller and smaller categories according to how related they are through evolution and to their trait similarities: Did King Phillip Come Over For Great Spaghetti?

17 Three domains (blue bacteria, purple archaebacteria, yellow eukaryeaall the eukaryotes whose cells have nuclei) six kingdoms Several phyla in each kingdom, etc Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia

18 Which population is the same species as the owl Strix occidentalis caurina? 1.Bobus occidentalis 2.Strix occidentalis lucida 3.Occidentalis strix

19 Which population is the same genus as the owl Strix occidentalis? 1.Strix ocellata 2.Bobus occidentalis 3.Occidentalis strix

20 9 The arising of new alleles or genes in a population OR the loss from the population of certain alleles or genes OR an increase or decrease in the percent of individuals with a particular allele 1.Macroevolution 2.Genetic drift 3.Parasitism 4.Symbiosis 5.Extinction

21 10 When genetic drift results in a population of a species becoming more fit to compete for resources & to survive & reproduce in its environment, the population has ___________. 1.Gone extinct 2.Developed into a new species 3.Destroyed all the other populations in its community 4.Adapted to its environment.

22 11 The requirement for competition for resources within a population, such that those bearing new alleles or genes giving them better ability to compete for limiting resources, is called ______. 1.Natural selection 2.Survival of the fittest 3.Continental drift 4.Both a and b 5.A, b, and c

23 12 All of the species on earth today arose from ancestors who lived: 1.In the air 2.On the land 3.In the oceans 4.Underground

24 13 According to this phylogenetic tree and according to the sequence of events shown in the movie, the kingdom that arose after bacteria was: 1.animals 2.fungi 3.plants 4.protists 5.eubacteria

25 13 According to this phylogenetic tree, the newest kingdom on earth is the: Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia 1.animals 2.fungi 3.plants 4.protists 5.Eubacteria 6.archaebacteria

26 14 In the movie, ______ were the first animals thought to occupy landafter photosynthetic organisms produced enough oxygen for ozone O 3 to form. 1.Flightless insects 2.Flying insects 3.Ancestors of insects, the horseshoe crabs 4.Amphibians 5.Reptiles 6.Birds 7.Mammals

27 15 The horseshoe crabs who had more fit traits left more offspring than other members of their population, so over time the fit alleles increased. That is, 1.A new species better adapted to life in the ocean arose 2.Natural selection increased the number of fit crabs, laying eggs on land, compared to the number still laying eggs in the ocean. 3.Genetic drift resulted in new species who could survive on land 4.Land dwelling arthropods evolved from horseshoe crab descendents 5.All of the above

28 16 Does the order that phyla of animals evolved in the movie match the order that evolutionary biologists and taxonomists report? 1.yes

29 17. According to the phylogenetic tree, also called a cladogram, for which animal phyla would the oldest fossils be newer than the oldest amphibian fossils, but older than the oldest bird fossils? 1.Mollusks like clams 3.Reptiles like snakes & dinosaurs 4.mammals 5.Arthropods like insects

30 18. According to the movie, 65 million years ago, what event resulted in natural selection that favored survival of mammal species over dinosaur specieswhich underwent a mass extinction?.Formation of supercontinent Pangea? 2.Formation of O 2 by early autotrophs 3.Impact of giant Asteroid causing dark,cold climate

31 19. Which fossil formed 1 st (which is oldest)? 1.Top layer 2.Second from top 3.Third from top 4.Bottom layer

32 Evolution OGT Questions Set responder to Go 41 Go Keep a record of what questions you answered correctly and incorrectly to use in studying.

33 1. Scientists have hypothesized for years that Earths continents once formed a single landmass that broke apart and became the continents as we know them today. The model below shows the landmasses (Gondwanaland) as they started to break apart to form South America, Africa, Antarctica, India, and Australia. What evidence best supports the model proposed above? A. Igneous rocks have been found on all the continents. B. Similar fossils have been found in parts of Africa and South America. C. Australia has marsupial species that are not found on other continents. D. Indications of sea level changes have been recorded on all the continents. index

34 2. The following diagram is found in an evolutionary biology textbook. This branching tree diagram is most likely used to represent the theory that suggests A. new species arise throughout time following rounds of mass extinction. B. all species share a common ancestor and that change occurs through time. C. speciation occurs very quickly with long periods of no change in between. D. all species originated during

35 Question 3 index Use the information and tables to answer

36 3. Kettlewells results indicated that black moths in industrialized areas Info index 1.had greater genetic variation than light moths. 2.could out-compete light moths for food and habitat. 3.had a higher survival rate than light moths in the same area. 4.could change their phenotype when environmental conditions changed.

37 Use the information to answer questions 4-6 Butterflies The monarch is a bright orange butterfly with black stripes. It acquires toxins from the milkweed plants it eats as a caterpillar. Adult monarchs retain these chemicals. Experiments have shown that blue jays that eat poisonous monarchs become sick within 15 to 30 minutes. The viceroy is also an orange, black-striped butterfly, which is difficult to distinguish from a monarch. Viceroy larvae consume primarily non- toxic poplar or willow tree leaves. Scientists have long suggested that viceroys have avoided predation by mimicking the monarchs coloration pattern. New evidence indicates that this may not be the case. Descriptions of two sets of experiments with monarchs and viceroys are given below. Experiment 1 (1958): Blue jays that were raised in captivity were offered viceroys. The hungry jays devoured the viceroys. The same jays were offered monarchs. After eating one or two monarchs, the blue jays refused to eat monarchs or viceroys. All butterflies wings were intact when given to the birds. Experiment 2 (1991): Researchers fed the wingless abdomens of monarch, viceroy, queen, and non-toxic control butterflies to red-winged blackbirds and monitored the percentage of each type eaten. While 98% of control butterflies and 70% of queen butterflies were eaten, only 40% of viceroys and 40% of monarchs were eaten. index

38 4. The diagram shows a partial classification scheme for monarch and viceroy butterflies. Based on this diagram, monarchs and viceroys belong to the same index 1.genus. 3.species. 4.subfamilies.

39 5. What statement regarding the similarities between monarchs and viceroys best agrees with Charles Darwins theory of natural selection at the time of its publication in 1859? 1.Monarch butterflies are an older species than viceroy butterflies. 2.Similarities between monarch and viceroy butterflies result from their diets. 3.Viceroy butterflies avoid predation due to their resemblance to monarch butterflies. 4.Variations in DNA sequences are responsible for the similarity between monarch and viceroy butterflies.

40 6. A scientist studying a large population of a particular species of bird concludes that monarch butterflies are toxic to that bird species. However, upon studying a second, smaller population of the same bird species, he discovers that the second population is able to eat monarchs without becoming sick. How could the scientist best explain his findings? 1.The larger bird population has a small gene pool. 2.Monarchs are only toxic if eaten in large quantities. 3.Genetic drift has occurred in the smaller population. 4.Natural selection has increased populations of non-toxic butterflies. index

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