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Math Remediation, Course Sequence, and the Senior Year Mark Wilpolt, M.S. Math Ed. Early Assessment Program CSU Chico

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Research Question With regards to satisfying the CSU Entry Level Math requirement, Is there a significant difference between Chico State freshmen that stopped at Algebra 2 in high school and those that took up to Advanced Math? (Answer: yes)

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Some Secondary Questions What percentage of our applicants take a senior year math class, and does it make a difference in preparation? Are students doing better in math (meeting the ELM requirement) because they are moving onward from Algebra 2, or are students moving past Algebra 2 because they are doing better in math? Is Statistics as good as Advanced math? Are other variables like gender, ethnicity, GPA, geographic origin, factors in college readiness? Is there a course sequence thats the best for college preparation in math?

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Some Notes On Coursetaking 33% of U.S. students taking Precalculus or Calculus - up from 10.7% in 1982 (Planty 2007) Only 77% of U.S. students in 11 th grade math in 2006 – (EdSource 2007) Only 10 states require 4 years of math (2012) California among lowest requirements nationwide: at least two years…must meet or exceed to rigor of the content standards for Algebra I( CDE 2010) Poorer students attend high schools that are much less likely to offer any math above Algebra 2 than schools serving students in the upper quintiles (Adelman 2005)

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What Are Our Students Taking? - nine major course sequences ( CSU Chico Fall 2010 freshmen n=1755) 23% did not go past Algebra 2 Advanced Math: Trig, Analytic Geometry, Algebra 3, PreCalculus, Trig/PreCalc, Analysis… 27% did not take math in grade 12

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FTF 2010 Summary (All freshmen combined): totalMath Ready Remedial % Remedial Avg. ELM score % Exempt Alg. 2 in senior year % % Alg.2 then no grade12 math % % Alg.2 then AP Stats % % Alg.2 then Stats % % Advanced math in senior year % % Advanced then no grade12 math % % Advanced then Statistics % % Advanced then AP Stats % % Calculus % % Alg. 2 then some other class % % Advanced then Some Other Class % % % % Nine major course sequences:

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Heres a powerful picture that counselors, parents, administrators can use

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Main Question The students whose highest class was Advanced Math placed remedial at less than half the rate of those that stopped at Algebra2.

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Gender Females (32.5%) significantly more remedial than males (26.8%). Even wider gap statewide (42.7% vs. 25.4%). More females stopping at Algebra 2...More males moving on to Advanced math …yet stopping at Algebra 2 seems to be an equal opportunity condition Where % remedial is more than twice as much as Advanced math

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Ethnicity Hispanic: 31.3% remedial not significantly different from overall (30%) or from White (27.3%). Interestingly, almost the same percentages are taking Advanced math Big difference statewide, though. (49.4% remedial vs. 35.5% overall ) White% remedial Hispanic% remedial Total Freshmen F % % Highest math= Alg.223.2%57.9%26.7%55% Highest math=Advanced67.8%23%65.3%24.5% Again, Alg. 2 remedial is more than twice as much as Advanced math

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Is the senior year significant? Students in senior year math have around 12.5% lower probability of remediation than those taking the senior year off. But this is not as significant as going past Algebra2

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The Algebra 2 about twice as likely to be remedial as Advanced math is happening Regardless of Gender, Ethnicity or whether its senior year Consistent with previous research: Berry, 2003 North Arkansas College Hoyt & Sorensen 2001, Utah Valley State College Fong 2008, Nevada State Colleges American College Testing Inc (ACT), (n=81,574) Ford 2007 (CSU Chico)

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Are the students moving past Algebra 2 already better at math? Sophomores – No, not significantly better (except *) Here are 88 students with a lower average grade, yet still moved on and were less remedial We need to encourage lower performing students to keep going These 26 students stopped math in Grade 10?? We could discourage this

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Are the students moving past Algebra 2 already better at math? Grade 11 : Yes, the students that move on from Algebra 2 do have a significantly higher grade average than those that do not move on.

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Are the students moving past Algebra 2 already better at math? From Grade 10, the ones moving past Algebra 2 are not significantly smarter on average. In fact, many lower performing 10 th graders that did move on ended up better prepared From Grade 11, the ones moving on past Algebra 2 are already higher performing on average. But what would happen if those lower performing juniors were still encouraged to move on? Of 60 seniors that earned below C average in 12 th grade Advanced math, only 38.3% placed remedial. Those that didnt move on from Algebra 2: 53% remedial Advanced math was hard, but it helped

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FTF 2010 Summary (All freshmen combined):total% Remedial 95% CI for difference from highest math =Alg.2 p-value Highest Class = Algebra (58.8%) Alg.2 then AP Stats4416 (36.4%) 7.24% % Alg.2 then Stats8430 (35.7%) 12.01% % Advanced Math in senior year (27.2%) 25.26% %< Advanced then no grade12 math23460 (25.6%) 25.7% %< Advanced then Statistics439 (20.9%) 23.11% %< Advanced then AP Stats14313 (9.8%) 43.77% %< Calculus27716 (5.8%) 47.31% %< Is Statistics as good as Advanced math? Coming from Algebra 2, math readiness significantly improved (though not as much as Advanced math). Stats and AP Stats show about the same result (23% improvement from taking nothing after Algebra 2) Advanced + AP Stats is a potent course sequence (thanks to ELM exemption granted by AP Exam)

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Repeating Algebra 2 Good, if its in Grade 11 only 26.7% ended up remedial, even when taking no math in grade 12 They did significantly better than classmates taking Alg2 for first time and then no grade 12 math (55.4% remedial) But 62.8% of those repeating Algebra 2 in grade 12 still ended up remedial. Not significantly better than classmates taking Alg2 for first time in grade 12 (69.6% remedial)

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Results Summary 1.For students stopping at Algebra 2, remediation is twice as likely as for those taking Advanced math - regardless of gender, ethnicity, geographic origin. Remediation likelihood decreases for each additional math class past Alg Females need remediation more than males, especially the ones from our local area. 3. Ethnicity seems to make a difference. Hispanics small difference, Hmong big difference

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4. A Senior year math class is associated with a 12.5% decrease in remediation; but that is not as powerful an indicator as going past Algebra Statistics and AP Statistics have about the same association: both associated with reduction in remediation, but not as well as Advanced math 6. The juniors that move onward past Algebra 2 are higher performing students; for sophomores, the evidence is not as strong

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What Can We Take Away From This? Students that are on schedule with their college prep mathematics classes (students that are taking Algebra 2 by their junior year) are not done preparing for college with that Algebra 2 class. They need to continue on in their senior year. CSU or UC preparedness requires successful completion of Algebra 1 in 9 th grade (Alg 2 in 12 th grade = not prepared) Its not about taking senior year math – Its about how far have we progressed by the senior year

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Counselors Can Help with Take math past Algebra 2: remediation is twice as likely as those who dont go beyond Algebra 2. Senior math ALWAYS better than no senior math Even students who do poorly in Advanced math improve their chances greatly (36% vs. 59%) 12 graders in Algebra2: study hard, get tutoring, test prep, ALEKS,… Scared of Calculus? Stats/AP Stats a great option 3-year requirement fulfilled in grade 10? Please dont stop there! (61% remedial for those that did)

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Keep up the good work increasing Awareness that getting into college is not the same as Getting ready for college. Keep up the good work increasing Awareness of college placement tests : only 40% of 11 th graders knew CSU has placement tests (Conley 2005) Encourage, not discourage challenging courses, especially girls: Students are discouraged from taking challenging courses because of low expectations by teachers (Bamburg 1994, Russell 2008, Ali & Jenkins 2002) Please tell our high school students: Advanced Math is not what the smart kids do. Its what you do to prepare for college Counselors Can Help with

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4 year math requirement? - 18 states will have it in 2013 California state standards say math expected up to Algebra 2, but only Algebra 1 required to graduate (and CSU only requires Algebra 2 for admission) Students will respond to raised standards: 8 th grade Alg.1 enrollment has increased by 41% in last 9 years (but BoE has just relaxed the 8 th grade math policy..) San Jose 3 year requirement: did not lead to more dropouts but greater achievement: A-G enrollment from 30% to 47% in ten years EAP college ready 23% (8% above avg.) Students want it: 80% say would have worked harder had their school demanded it (Hart 2005) Requiring 4 years would not force Advanced math but nudge toward

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The Good News: Momentum Math coursetaking is improving: Algebra 2 or above enrollment (Ca.): 44% of juniors (2007) to 51% (2011) 33% of U.S. students taking Precalc or Calculus (up from 10.7% in 1982) – 20 states require going to at least Algebra 2 CSU Statewide remedial: 35% (2010) 33% (2011) 30% (2012) But Its the 30% remedial we are worried about. And most of them did not take Advanced math.

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