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**Math Remediation , Course Sequence, and the Senior Year**

Mark Wilpolt, M.S. Math Ed. Early Assessment Program CSU Chico

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Research Question With regards to satisfying the CSU Entry Level Math requirement, Is there a significant difference between Chico State freshmen that stopped at Algebra 2 in high school and those that took up to Advanced Math? (Answer: “yes”)

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**Some Secondary Questions**

What percentage of our applicants take a senior year math class, and does it make a difference in preparation? Are students doing better in math (meeting the ELM requirement) because they are moving onward from Algebra 2, or are students moving past Algebra 2 because they are doing better in math? Is “Statistics” as good as “Advanced math”? Are other variables like gender, ethnicity, GPA, geographic origin, factors in college readiness? Is there a course sequence that’s “the best” for college preparation in math?

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**Some Notes On Coursetaking**

33% of U.S. students taking Precalculus or Calculus -up from 10.7% in (Planty 2007) Only 77% of U.S. students in 11th grade math in 2006 – (EdSource 2007) Only 10 states require 4 years of math (2012) California among lowest requirements nationwide: “at least two years…must meet or exceed to rigor of the content standards for Algebra I”(CDE 2010) Poorer students “attend high schools that are much less likely to offer any math above Algebra 2 than schools serving students in the upper quintiles “ (Adelman 2005)

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**27% did not take math in grade 12**

What Are Our Students Taking? nine major course sequences (CSU Chico Fall 2010 freshmen n=1755) 23% did not go past Algebra 2 27% did not take math in grade 12 “Advanced Math”: Trig, Analytic Geometry, Algebra 3, PreCalculus, Trig/PreCalc, Analysis…

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**Nine major course sequences:**

FTF Summary (All freshmen combined): total Math Ready Remedial % Remedial Avg. ELM score % Exempt Alg. 2 in senior year 181 61 120 66.3% 40.4 12.7% Alg.2 then no grade12 math 232 109 123 53.0% 42.5 26.7% Alg.2 then AP Stats 44 28 16 36.4% 47.7% Alg.2 then Stats 84 54 30 35.7% 45.5 41.7% Advanced math in senior year 493 359 134 27.2% 47.8 45.8% Advanced then no grade12 math 234 174 60 25.6% 45 55.6% Advanced then Statistics 43 34 9 20.9% 47.4 51.2% Advanced then AP Stats 143 130 13 9.8% 51.3 79.0% Calculus 277 261 5.8% 53.4 83.8% Alg. 2 then some other class 17 11 6 35.3% 49.1 Advanced then Some Other Class 7 0.0% 74 85.7% 1755 1230 527 30.0% 45.2 49.9%

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**Here’s a powerful picture that counselors, parents, administrators can use **

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Main Question The students whose highest class was Advanced Math placed remedial at less than half the rate of those that stopped at Algebra2.

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**Where % remedial is more than twice as much as “Advanced math”**

Gender Females (32.5%) significantly more remedial than males (26.8%). Even wider gap statewide (42.7% vs. 25.4%). More females stopping at Algebra 2. ..More males moving on to Advanced math …yet stopping at Algebra 2 seems to be an “equal opportunity” condition Where % remedial is more than twice as much as “Advanced math”

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Ethnicity Hispanic: 31.3% remedial not significantly different from overall (30%) or from White (27.3%). Interestingly, almost the same percentages are taking Advanced math Big difference statewide, though (49.4% remedial vs. 35.5% overall ) White % remedial Hispanic Total Freshmen F2010 984 27.3% 412 31.3% Highest math= Alg.2 23.2% 57.9% 26.7% 55% Highest math=Advanced 67.8% 23% 65.3% 24.5% Again, Alg. 2 remedial is more than twice as much as “Advanced math”

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**Is the senior year significant?**

Students in senior year math have around 12.5% lower probability of remediation than those taking the senior year off. But this is not as significant as “going past Algebra2”

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The “Algebra 2 about twice as likely to be remedial as Advanced math” is happening Regardless of Gender, Ethnicity or “whether it’s senior year” Consistent with previous research: Berry, 2003 North Arkansas College Hoyt & Sorensen 2001, Utah Valley State College Fong 2008, Nevada State Colleges American College Testing Inc (ACT), (n=81,574) Ford 2007 (CSU Chico)

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**Are the students moving past Algebra 2 “already” better at math?**

These 26 students stopped math in Grade 10?? We could discourage this Sophomores – No, not significantly better (except *) Here are 88 students with a lower average grade, yet still moved on and were less remedial We need to encourage lower performing students to keep going

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**Are the students moving past Algebra 2 “already” better at math?**

Grade 11 : Yes, the students that move on from Algebra 2 do have a significantly higher grade average than those that do not move on.

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**Are the students moving past Algebra 2 “already” better at math?**

From Grade 10, the ones moving past Algebra 2 are not significantly “smarter” on average. In fact, many lower performing 10th graders that did move on ended up better prepared From Grade 11, the ones moving on past Algebra 2 are already higher performing on average. But what would happen if those lower performing juniors were still encouraged to move on? Of 60 seniors that earned below C average in 12th grade Advanced math, only 38.3% placed remedial. Those that didn’t move on from Algebra 2: 53% remedial Advanced math was hard, but it helped

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**Is “Statistics” as good as “Advanced math”?**

Coming from Algebra 2, math readiness significantly improved (though not as much as Advanced math). Stats and AP Stats show about the same result (≈23% improvement from taking nothing after Algebra 2) FTF Summary (All freshmen combined): total % Remedial 95% CI for difference from highest math =Alg.2 p-value Highest Class = Algebra 2 413 243(58.8%) Alg.2 then AP Stats 44 16 (36.4%) 7.24% % 0.0047 Alg.2 then Stats 84 30 (35.7%) 12.01% % 0.0001 Advanced Math in senior year 493 134 (27.2%) 25.26% % <0.0001 Advanced then no grade12 math 234 60 (25.6%) 25.7% % Advanced then Statistics 43 9 (20.9%) 23.11% % Advanced then AP Stats 143 13 (9.8%) 43.77% % Calculus 277 16 (5.8%) 47.31% % Advanced + AP Stats is a potent course sequence (thanks to ELM exemption granted by AP Exam)

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**only 26.7% ended up remedial, even when taking no math in grade 12**

Repeating Algebra 2 Good, if it’s in Grade 11 only 26.7% ended up remedial, even when taking no math in grade 12 They did significantly better than classmates taking Alg2 for first time and then no grade 12 math (55.4% remedial) But 62.8% of those repeating Algebra 2 in grade 12 still ended up remedial. Not significantly better than classmates taking Alg2 for first time in grade 12 (69.6% remedial)

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Results Summary For students stopping at Algebra 2, remediation is twice as likely as for those taking Advanced math - regardless of gender, ethnicity, geographic origin Remediation likelihood decreases for each additional math class past Alg. 2 2. Females need remediation more than males, especially the ones from our local area. 3. Ethnicity seems to make a difference. Hispanics small difference, Hmong big difference

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**4. A Senior year math class is associated with a 12**

4. A Senior year math class is associated with a 12.5% decrease in remediation; but that is not as powerful an indicator as “going past Algebra 2”. 5. Statistics and AP Statistics have about the same association: both associated with reduction in remediation, but not as well as Advanced math 6. The juniors that move onward past Algebra 2 are higher performing students; for sophomores, the evidence is not as strong

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**What Can We Take Away From This?**

Students that are “on schedule” with their college prep mathematics classes (students that are taking Algebra 2 by their junior year) are not “done” preparing for college with that Algebra 2 class. They need to continue on in their senior year. CSU or UC preparedness requires successful completion of Algebra 1 in 9th grade (Alg 2 in 12th grade = not prepared) It’s not about “taking senior year math” – It’s about “how far have we progressed by the senior year”

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**Counselors Can Help with**

Take math past Algebra 2: remediation is twice as likely as those who don’t go beyond Algebra 2. Senior math ALWAYS better than no senior math Even students who do poorly in Advanced math improve their chances greatly (36% vs. 59%) 12 graders in Algebra2: study hard, get tutoring, test prep, ALEKS,… Scared of Calculus? Stats/AP Stats a great option 3-year requirement fulfilled in grade 10? Please don’t stop there! (61% remedial for those that did)

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**Counselors Can Help with**

Keep up the good work increasing Awareness that “getting into college” is not the same as “Getting ready for college”. Keep up the good work increasing Awareness of college placement tests : only 40% of 11th graders knew CSU has placement tests (Conley 2005) Encourage, not discourage challenging courses, especially girls: Students are “discouraged” from taking challenging courses because of low expectations by teachers (Bamburg 1994, Russell 2008, Ali & Jenkins 2002) Please tell our high school students: Advanced Math is not “what the smart kids do”. It’s “what you do to prepare for college”

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**4 year math requirement? - 18 states will have it in 2013**

California state standards say math “expected” up to Algebra 2, but only Algebra 1 required to graduate (and CSU only requires Algebra 2 for admission) Students will respond to raised standards: 8th grade Alg.1 enrollment has increased by 41% in last 9 years (but BoE has just relaxed the 8th grade math policy ..) San Jose 3 year requirement: “did not lead to more dropouts but greater achievement”: A-G enrollment from 30% to 47% in ten years EAP college ready 23% (8% above avg.) Students want it: 80% say “would have worked harder” had their school demanded it (Hart 2005) Requiring 4 years would not “force” Advanced math but “nudge toward”

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**The Good News: Momentum**

Math coursetaking is improving: Algebra 2 or above enrollment (Ca.): 44% of juniors (2007) to 51% (2011) 33% of U.S. students taking Precalc or Calculus (up from 10.7% in 1982) – 20 states require going to at least Algebra 2 CSU Statewide remedial: 35% (2010) 33% (2011) 30% (2012) But It’s the 30% remedial we are worried about. And most of them did not take Advanced math.

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