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Balancing the School Calendar: A Timely Investment School board members are elected to be good stewards of the community, state, and federal dollars for.

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Presentation on theme: "Balancing the School Calendar: A Timely Investment School board members are elected to be good stewards of the community, state, and federal dollars for."— Presentation transcript:

1 Balancing the School Calendar: A Timely Investment School board members are elected to be good stewards of the community, state, and federal dollars for education. Education reform has the greatest opportunity to make a difference and become firmly established when education reform (multiple teaching and learning innovations) and school reform (extensive system and structural changes) are considered together to make decisions about financial resources and need. Ted Sizer, founder, Coalition of Essential Schools The best return on investment is efficient, effective, equitable use of resources! Phyllis (Bunker) Frank National Association for Year Round Education WA State Board of Education WSSDA Annual Conference 2013

2 Session Essential Question: Does the traditional school calendar serve all students and contribute to schools becoming high-achieving and equitable places of learning that connect to their communities? Session Outcomes: 1.Understand how a balanced/modernized district calendar schedule supports continuous learning for students; perpetuates a safe/supportive environment; strengthens professional development alignment; increases job satisfaction for faculty; provides consistent school/family/community partnership and full year facility use. 2.Stimulate advocacy for local academic calendar year study as an efficient, effective, and fair investment worthy of consideration.

3 Copyright, Martha Rice/Phyllis Frank, 2002 Discontinuous Schooling Copyright, Martha Rice/Phyllis Frank, 2002 Continuous Learning

4 Structuring learning throughout a 12-month calendar allows for supplementary learning (enrichment, remediation, promotion, and acceleration) to be prioritized and added where it may have the greatest impact on learning. 365 Days per year (Saturdays, Sundays, state & federal holidays) 245 Days in which to schedule learning Achievement gap data: In the current configuration, students in Quartile 1 & 2 need more learning days to make significant assessed gains. United States180 allocated instructional days (current 9 1/2 mo. configuration) Singapore180 South Korea 225 Japan223 Canada190 England 205 days (National 5 week summer break – 2003) International Ave. 193 days Calendar Year vs. Instructional Year Do the math!

5 Balanced Learning Calendar For Maximum Gain/Focus on Student Achievement Link Academic calendar (180 days) Supplementary opportunities to learn (intersession, summer school, before/after school, etc.)

6 Student Demographics - WA State Enrollment October 2012 Student Count1,050,900 May 2013 Student Count1,047,390 Gender (October 2012) Male542, % Female508, % Race / Ethnicity (October 2012) American Incian/Alaskan Native16,3661.6% Asian75,1307.1% Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander9,6650.9% Asian / Pacific Islander84,7958.1% Black / African American48,3254.6% Hispanic / Latino of any race(s)214, % White620, % Two or More Races66,6536.3% Special Programs Free or Reduce-Price Meals (May 2013)482, % Special Education (May 2013)136, % Transitional Bilingual (May 2013)94,1769.0% Migrant (May 2013)18,3181.7% Section 504 (May 2013)23,8892.3% Foster Care (May 2013)1,6840.2% Other Information Unexcused Absence Rate ( )529,3580.5% Adjusted 4-Year Cohort Graduation Rate (Class of 2012) 77.2% Adjusted 5-Year Cohort Graduation Rate (Class of 2011) 78.9% Financial Data ( ) Per Student Amounts Percent Total Revenue$9, % State$6, % Federal$ % Local$2, % Other Sources$881.0% Total Expenditures$9, % Central Administration$6206.0% Building Administration$5746.0% Maintenance & Operations$8068.0% Food Services$3203.0% Transportation Services$3654.0% Teaching$6, % Other$2733.0% Washington State Demographics

7 This session contends that the K-12 traditional school calendar year is siloed in the 19 th century. The traditional school calendar year was never intended to be an instructional calendar year. We will view the rationale to consider a shift to a 21 st century calendar infrastructure (bones of academic opportunity to learn) through the lens of: Summer learning loss research Policy and Procedure of school calendar year development Sample calendars at work Elementary and Secondary advantages Sample results

8 Extra- curricular Family Tutors/Mentors 80% childs waking hours Peer Group Community Why Time Matters: Influences Out Of School Since the Coleman report in 1966, educational researchers have consistently shown that the socioeconomic factors of students at any given school accounts for at least 66% of their overall academic achievement levels.

9 Time Analysis: District/School Level Time inventory/analysis/ - within the day - whole group as blocked scheduling and individual learning (RTI, double dip, and student plans as 504 & IEP, looping) Compulsory calendar time and learning analysis –when students are required to attend, parents are required to send, and districts/schools are required to be most prepared to receive ALL students – FTE allocated funding/local levy (180 days in 30 states) Supplementary (complementary) learning time analysis – varies in time from year to year depending on funding; usually optional attendance for students: summer school, before/after school, Saturday school, Intersession opportunities – funded by Title $, local levy, grants, federal programs as Century 21, limited state funding, community based organization offerings Professional development time – negotiated, waiver requests Time and facilities use, service, and maintenance

10 Accountability and the School Calendar Year Accountability testing systems, which measure change from one year to the next, mix learning that occurs in school with learning that occurs during the summer. Thus, schools are held accountable for not only the achievement of their students while in school, but also for the achievement of their students that accrues during the summer; over which they have no control. If summer growth were the same for all students, summer could be ignored when comparing the status and progress of students by race/ethnicity and by income. However, there are large differences in what happens to student achievement during summer vacations, and changes in scores from year to year cannot be attributed entirely to what happens during the school year. Barton, Paul E. and Richard J Coley, Parsing the Achievement Gap II, Education Testing Service April 2009, pp

11 The traditional calendar features a long summer vacation of 12 weeks followed by a long period of instruction days, with the first break coming at Thanksgiving. The winter holidays are followed by 55 instruction days before a short spring break. Spring break is followed by 40 work days before the end of the school year = 180 learning days.

12 The first summer schools (1870) were called vacation schools to assure that immigrant children would retain the English they learned during schooling. The other intent was to keep the urchins, not in school and not working, off the street.

13 Yakima Public Schools Instructional Calendar


15 Summer Learning Loss (sll) – The decline in procedural and factual knowledge all students experience during the summer months when they do not participate in constructive learning activities to practice the skills they need to be successful in school. The degree of summer learning loss varies by grade level, subject and socioeconomic level. Out of School Time (ost) – The awake hours not obligated to formal academic learning (180) days that is filled by family, neighborhoods, non-profit and public institutions in communities across the country. This time period is typically characterized by discretionary opportunity, choice, and flexibility.

16 School Year & Summer Gains for Low and High SES in Reading

17 Learning Trajectory - Reading Low-SES vs. High-SES Students Alexander, Karl L. and Entwisle, Doris R.; Summer Slide in the City A Case for Year Round Schooling. (1998) Johns Hopkins University, as published in the Title I Monitor, August 2000 School-year achievement gains were comparable for upper SES and lower SES children, but not for summer gains. During the summer, upper SES children continue to move ahead, but lower SES children generally do not. By the end of 5 th grade, the difference in verbal achievement between poor and non- poor students is more than two years; in math, it is a year and a half. Vertical Axis = Gains on CAT-V & CAT M Horizontal Axis = Grade by.5 increments

18 Learning Trajectory - Math Low-SES vs. High-SES Students Alexander, Karl L. and Entwisle, Doris R.; Summer Slide in the City A Case for Year Round Schooling. (1998) Johns Hopkins University, as published in the Title I Monitor, August 2000 School-year achievement gains were comparable for upper SES and lower SES children, but not for summer gains. During the summer, upper SES children continue to move ahead, but lower SES children generally do not. By the end of 5 th grade, the difference in verbal achievement between poor and non-poor students is more than two years; in math, it is a year and a half. Vertical Axis = Gains on CAT-V & CAT M Horizontal Axis = Grade by.5 increments

19 S-U-M-M-E-R Spells Learning Loss for Low-SES Students Differential summer learning over the primary grades indeed appears to be the scaffolding that supports disparities in school achievement across socioeconomic lines. During the school year all the social contexts that support childrens academic development contribute to achievements gains – the home, the community and the school. During the summer months, though, only the out-of- school environment is implicated….its summer learning – or its lack – that is responsible for the achievement gap… Anderson and Entwistle, Summer Slide in the City A Case for Year Round Schooling (1998) Johns Hopkins University as published in Title I Monitor, August 2000.

20 Reading Comprehension CAT Score Gains, Years Total Family SES Gap High-Low Low SESMid SESHigh SES Initial Test Score, Fall 1 st Grade Winter Gain (5 winters) Summer Gain (4 summers) * Gain Over Years Test Score, End Year * (N)(787)(397)(204)(186) Reading Comprehension Test Score Decomposition over the First Nine Years of School by Family SES Note: Significant t-tests for mean differences between Low SES and High SES groups are shown in Gap column. * <.05 (two-tailed tests) Reprinted from: Parsing the Achievement Gap II, written by Paul E. Barton and Richard J. Coley for Educational Testing Service, April 2009 Source: Karl L. Alexander, et al., Lasting Consequences of the Summer Learning Gap, American Sociological Review, v72, April 2007

21 Lasting Consequences of the Summer Learning Gap Cumulative achievement gains over the first nine years of childrens schooling mainly reflect school-year learning, whereas the high SES-low SES achievement gap at the 9 th grade mainly traces to differential summer learning over the elementary years. Early out-of-school summer learning differences, in turn, substantially account for achievement-related differences by family SES in: High school track placements (college preparatory or not) High school noncompletion – need for credit retrieval Four-year college attendance. Alexander, Karl, Doris Entwisle, and Linda Olson, Lasting Consequences of the Summer Learning Gap, American Sociological Review, April 2007, pp

22 Probability of Persistence in a Two-Year Institution by Highest Math Course Klepfer, Kasey and Jim Hull, High School Rigor and Good Advice: Setting Up Students to Succed, Center for Public Education, National School Boards Association, October 2012, pp

23 Probability of Persistence in a Four-Year Institution by Highest Math Course Klepfer, Kasey and Jim Hull, High School Rigor and Good Advice: Setting Up Students to Succed, Center for Public Education, National School Boards Association, October 2012, pp

24 Effects of Modified Calendars 1.A significant difference favoring districts that offered intersessions – effect on achievement is cumulative. 2.Noticeably improves achievement with economically disadvantaged or poor-achieving students out-performing traditional calendar counterparts by.20 SD. 3.Suburban and rural modified calendar programs revealed greater effects than urban programs (multi-track effect?). 4.Students, parents, and staffs are overwhelmingly positive 5.There are specific actions policymakers can take – such as involving the community planning a program and providing quality intersession activities – that can improve community acceptance. Cooper, Harris, et al, The effects of modified school calendars on student achievement and on school and community attitudes, Review of Educational Research, Washington: Spring 2003, Vol. 73, Iss. 1: p. 14.

25 Summer achievement gain/loss Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) – grades 3 through 9 559,964 students in reading and 542,057 in math – 24 states Study 3/3 compared the scores of each student in the spring with their scores in the fall to see the change at each score level by race/ethnicity and income level: Low-performing students in all groups continue to grow during the summer months, but minority and lower-income students grow less High-performing students tend to lose achievement during the summer months, with minority students losing more than White students. High-performing students in high-poverty schools lose more achievement during the summer than similar students who are enrolled in low-poverty schools. Martha S. McCall, et al., Achievement Gaps: An Examination of Differences in Student Achievement and Growth, Northwest Evaluation Association, November (access full study from NWEA website)

26 WLPT Results

27 Change in BMI Across Groups * Source: Summertime and Weight Gain, National Summer Learning Institute, 2010 BMI Units Per Month Average Students Average African- American Students Average Hispanic Students Average Initially Overweight Students

28 Summer Learning Loss 1.We can choose to live with the diminished learning opportunities and decay in skills that accompany the present dominant school calendar (Cooper et al., 1996, p. 263) 2.We can increase summer school opportunities and direct these efforts in the most beneficial manner. 3.We can examine alternative school calendars and provide a balanced calendar for a more continuous period of instruction.* Rescheduled vacation is placed throughout the year into periods called intersessions. Intersessions can be used as vacation and/or instructional time for remediation, enrichment, promotion or acceleration. Implications for Policy Makers

29 § Single-track – 73% - for academic purposes using existing resources – 4-7 week summer break § Multiple-track - 27% for overcrowded facility - 8 week max. § Extended year – mandatory for all students (KIPP Academy or MASS 20/20) = serious funding requirements - up to 300 hrs/year or optional for some students (summer school, before/after/Saturday school, Intersession opportunities to learn) + usually include expanded day components = serious funding requirements Three strands of Calendar Change:

30 The balanced calendar reduces the long summer break and simply apportions those days throughout the school year, producing more frequent breaks and thus limiting long periods of instruction days, as well as longer vacations. Both calendars feature 180 days of instruction, with the modified calendar balancing the frequency of in-session days with vacation break days = timely supplemental learning opportunities.

31 45-15 Balanced Calendar Traditional 9-Month Calendar When it comes to learning, teaching, planning, partnering and play, how much summer is enough?

32 Intersession

33 60-15/20 Trimester Quarter/Semester Balanced for Learning Calendars



36 Report cards issued October 5, 2005 January 30, 2006 April 3, 2006 June 14, Intersession Dates October 10-28, 2005 January 23-27, 2006 April 10-14, days in June/July

37 Schoolfield – African American TOTAL DPS Stanford 9 – 2001 Minority to DPS Faculty/Staff Absences Schoolfield

38 SOL – Fifth Grade Schoolfield DPS Accelerated Reading - Schoolfield

39 Discipline Referrals Schoolfield Class Bus Special Education Referrals - Schoolfield Referred Placed

40 WSSDA advocacy – Action on WSSDA Positions School Year The WSSDA shall initiate and/or support legislation which provides state-funded training and planning time for staff and more academic time for students, in the following manner: Provide for summer school programs; Substantially increase the length of the students school year; Assure that staff has planning and in-service time in excess of the students calendar year; and Provide financial flexibility and incentives for local districts to operate year-round instruction in any or all of their school buildings. (adopted 1988; Amended 1990, 1992, and 2005) Legislative Committee Recommendation: DO PASS

41 WSSDA Model Policy No Instruction School Calendar In order to permit staff, students and parents to make plans for their own work and vacation schedules, the board will adopt a school calendar or calendar or calendars by June 1 of each year. Multiple calendars may be developed where some schools are on modified calendars for the forthcoming school year. Following board action, staff, students, parents and patrons will be advised of the school calendar. Legal References: RCW 28A School year –BeginningEnd 28A Basic Education Act – Definitions- Program requirements – Program accessibility –Rules and regulations 28A (7) Additional powers of board Adoption Date:

42 Yakima School District Policy and Procedures 2220 Page 1 of 1 School Calendar In order to permit staff, students and parent(s)/guardian(s) to make plans for their own work and vacation schedules, the board shall adopt a school instructional calendar for the forthcoming school year by March 3. Following this action, staff, students, parent(s)/guardian(s), and patrons will be advised of the school calendar. The board directs the superintendent to prepare appropriate procedures to implement this policy. Legal School Calendar Procedure By March 1, the superintendent or designee will form a committee involving principals and Yakima Education Association (YEA) members for study purposes with a three (3) year projection. The calendar will be reviewed and recommendations will be made to superintendent and board.


44 A Tale of Two States Kentucky 1983 – A Nation at Risk (attend to Content, Expectations & TIME) 1990 – Kentucky Education Reform Act – 1 st out of ; Prisoners of Time 1994 – Pritchard Committee Stakeholder Study recommended all districts consider calendar modification to support student learning; change should be K-12 district 1998 – Kentucky Assoc. of Year-Round Education holds biennial conferences; KOPI leadership 2003 – 116/176 K-12 districts use modified calendars-6-8 weeks summer off Extended School Year funds available for Intersession supplemental programming 2013 – KYREA absorbed into other Dept. of Ed functions; YRE continues to expand Washington 1983 – Nation at Risk (attend to Content, Expectations & TIME) – GCERF (Gov. Gardner) Commission on Student Learning 1993 – Legislature awards ten planning grants for evaluation of modified calendar; nd request for district planning grants proposed but unfunded 1994; 2000 – Prisoners of Time 1996 – Northwest Association for Year- Round Education (NWAYRE) – advocacy and statewide conferences 2003 – 8,000 WA students attend school on a modified calendar; posted on SBE NWAYRE disbands 2013 – 1,200 WA students attend school on a modified calendar –

45 2012 Brief ( Research Summary ) All young people experience learning losses when they do not engage in educational activities during the summer. (Cooper, 1996; Alexander, Entwisle, and Olson, 2001, 2006) On average, students lose approximately 2.6 months of grade level equivalency in mathematical computation skills, (factual and procedural knowledge) over the summer months. (Cooper, 1996;Alexander and Entwisle, and Olson 2007) Lower-income children and youth experience greater summer learning losses than their higher income peers who show limited growth for the time away from formal education – 1 month growth in reading for high socioeconomic students. (Cooper, 1996; Alexander, Entwisle, and Olson, ) Many English Language Learners (ell) and low –income students experience loss of academic language skills and thinking skills in the English language over the summer. (Guardana, 1999) Summer learning loss contributes to the achievement gap in reading performance between lower and higher income children and youth, high-school placement, high school noncompletion, and four year college attendance and completion (Alexander, Entwisle, and Olson 1996, 2007)

46 …………research summary continued College persistence is linked to high school rigorous course taking, Advanced Placement/International Baccalaureate courses, periodic communication with an academic advisor. (Center for Education Policy, National School Boards Association, October 22012) Large numbers of students who qualify for federally subsidized meals do not have the same level of access to nutritious meals during the summer as they do during the school year. (Food Research and Action Center,2002) Student body mass index (BMI) increases June – September and decreases September –June. (University of Indiana, 2006) Studies show that out-of-school time is a dangerous time for unsupervised, unoccupied children and unemployed teens. (Carnegie Council, 1994) Parents greatest concern for their children occurs over the lengthy summer break. (Public Agenda, 2004) Students present concerns about summer learning loss and are at a readiness state to consider school calendar change. (Public Agenda, 2004)

47 Rigor/Relevance Framework TM Knowledge Taxonomy Relevance Makes Rigor Happen! Application Model Evaluation 6 Judge the Outcome Synthesis 5 Putting Together Analysis 4 Taking Apart Application 3 Making use of Knowledge Comprehension 2 Confirming Knowledge 1 Information Gathering 1 Knowledge in ???? Discipline 2 Apply Knowledge in ???? Discipline 3 Apply Knowledge Across Disciplines 4 Apply Knowledge to Real World Predictable Situations 5 Apply Knowledge to Real World Unpredictable Situations Assimilation Students extend and refine their knowledge so they can use it automatically and routinely to analyze and solve problems and create solutions Acquisition Students gather and store bits of knowledge and information and are expected to remember or understand this acquired knowledge. Application Students use acquired knowledge to solve problems, design solutions, and complete work. The highest level of application is to apply appropriately to new and unpredictable situations. Adaptation Students have the competence, that when confronted with perplexing unknowns they are able to use their extensive knowledge base and skills to create unique solutions and take action that further develops their skills and knowledge.

48 Strategies that Work

49 Reflective Policy Questions Understanding the impact of poverty on formal learning and the positive impact of excellent teachers on students, why do we continue to plan the school calendar year resources to disconnect students for up to 12 weeks from their caring, dedicated teachers without formally questioning the wisdom? What would it take to seriously address transforming the 19th Century child labor calendar to a 21st Century learning/thinking education calendar? Should the local school board become the policymaker group that constructively advocates for our district to develop a school calendar year that evidences seamless connections between allocated and supplemental opportunities to learn in a safe, supportive environment. What role can our annual school calendar committee have in exploring options for the traditional school calendar year?

50 School Improvement Plans (SIPs) WAC (2)(d)(i-iv) shall address, but are not limited to: Characteristics of Successful Schools including safe and supportive learning environments; Educational Equity Factors such as, but not limited to: gender, race, ethnicity, culture, language and physical/mental ability…giving each student what they need and when and how they need it to reach their achievement potential; Use of technology to facilitate instruction; Parent, family, and community involvement and, Evaluation of the traditional September-June calendar, schedules and issues surrounding the use of instructional time (compulsory and supplemental) and the impact on student opportunities to learn. Sample DRAFT language suggestion only

51 Single-Track K-12 Modified Calendar availability of childcare the need for and cost of air- conditioning during summer conflicts with the more common district schedule facilitating building cleaning and repair children want same schedule as friends or relatives the other schools complexity of scheduling family vacations if children are in different schools on more than one schedule intersession opportunities: remediation, enrichment & acceleration reduced summer learning loss reduced re-teaching and review on return from breaks time for teacher planning and reflection more motivation for both teachers and students decreased vandalism fewer disciplinary referrals regular extended preparation time for teachers relief of both personal and interpersonal tensions more conversation and reflection about teaching and learning a change in the organization of instructional units more regular visits with non-custodial parents increased parental participation increased community involvement AdvantagesDisadvantages (usually dissipate after first year due to planning and recognition of advantages) Shields and Oberg, Year Round Schooling: Promises and Pitfalls, Scarecrow Press, Lanham, MA, 2000.

52 Modified Calendar for SECONDARY Schools Extra work is made for secretaries and support personnel to track students courses and statistics Students may have to participate in sports during intersession Students may take unfair advantage of opportunities for remediation (by slacking off during the regular term) Teachers choosing to teach regularly at intersession may experience burnout Increased chances for remediation and acceleration Increased numbers in advanced courses Increased positive attitude toward self & coursework Decrease in dropout rate Increased graduation course completion Increase graduation rate Flexibility for students Facilitates student jobs Benefits of participating in sports (and other extracurricular activities) during intersession Increased opportunities for teacher employment Students can accelerate graduation Professional development opportunities for teachers (visiting other programs) Better college preparation opportunities (students may take more classes) Additional AdvantagesDisadvantages

53 Teacher Job Satisfaction and Year-Round Education Benefits to teachers: For new and newer teachers, the two-three week break at the end of every quarter or nine weeks allows time to regroup, reflect, and evaluate personal progress toward mastery of teaching. Teachers, especially those with less than three years experience, feel that the breaks throughout the year provide a more balanced approach to their emotional needs, which contributed to a decrease in teacher absenteeism. Breaks give teachers valuable curriculum planning time and contribute to classroom innovation. Many teachers who teach intersession find the experience rewarding: opportunity to earn extra income, teach different students, teach a different grade level, use a variety of instructional methods, and teach a different subject or topic. Other teachers used the intersession breaks to relax, enjoy off season travel and rejuvenate away from school. More teacher stability in terms of turnover. Increased teacher retention in the profession, particularly the first three years and beyond. Part-time teaching opportunities during intersession are an advantage for teachers on maternity or family leave: stay in teaching loop and keep skills fresh. Reduced teacher absence; recapture substitute dollars Haser, Shelly Gismondi and Nasser, Ilham, Year-round Education: Change and choice for Schools and Teachers, Scarecrow Education, 2005.

54 K-12 Districts Calendar Balanced Year Socorro School District, Socorro, Texas 1990 Hawaii Public Schools – state calendar 2006 Indianapolis Independent Schools – 2010 Nashville Metropolitan Public Schools – 2012 Oklahoma City Public Schools Pending Chicago Public Schools-under discussion 2012 Ashville, North Carolina Bozeman, Montana plus numerous individual schools Google Alert - Year Round Schools

55 QUESTION: I am searching for information on the effects and demands which year-round schools place on the yearly budget compared to the costs of the traditional school calendar. Have you any information I might use to compare and contrast these costs? Single track year round education simply reorganizes instructional days. Teacher and administrator contracts remain nearly the same as before. The number of days students are in school will be the same (180 in 30 states). So costs should be the same or nearly the same, as those in a traditional school. The schedule has been modified, but the work day/time have not increased. So the single biggest item in any budget, personnel costs, should remain the same as also with utilities, transportation and food costs. National Association for Year-round Education, (NAYRE) Frequently Asked Questions About Year-Round Education, 2000.

56 Based on my experience as superintendent of a district with both year-round and traditional calendars, I can attest to the fact that the cost to maintain the one elementary school on a year-round calendar was no more than that of schools (similarly situated) operating on a traditional calendar when comparing: student learning labor and nonlabor costs transportation expenditures food services utilization of building space school attendance The year-round school excelled in all of the areas reviewed Douglas Roby, Experiencing School Year-round: An Administrators Perspective, Balancing the School Calendar, edited by Carolyn Kneese and Charles Ballinger, Rowan & Littlefield Education, 2009, pp

57 Intersessions Intersession literally means between learning sessions. This concept is part of the year-round education philosophy and may be utilized as another learning opportunity, the same as summer school. Once you have the year-round education calendar in place, the next step is to work on Intersessions. When you start approaching one of your calendar change goals i.e. to provide the opportunity for continuous learning Funding Intersession funding varies with the financial situation and philosophy of the district or state. The following is a short and certainly not exhaustive list of possible methods of funding, depending on the type of program being offered. Kemp, Byron, The ABCs of Year-Round Education, published by National Association for Year-Round Education, 1995.

58 funding (cont.) Funded as traditional summer schools Categorical program funding Title I, Title III etc. Lottery grants User pays Teacher-training grants for teachers in training Fundraising Community or city grants Special need grants Bilingual/ELL funding Recreation and community based organization funding Corporate sponsorship or donations Industrial funding College or university funding

59 Fiscal Considerations and Year Round Schooling – Chapter 10 Year-Round Schooling Promises & Pitfalls Carolyn M. Shields & Steven Lynn Oberg, 2000 Although most studies suggest that YRS are more expensive to operate than traditional-calendar schools (TCS)……..regarding Operating Costs there is little difference between that of a single-track year-round school and a traditional- calendar school unless the calendar change has been accompanied by additional voluntary programs or building modifications. Transitional Costs – not recurring – preparing for and planning the implementation of YRS – investigating appropriateness of the change, hiring consultants, printing brochures, engaging in public hearings and consultations…….pre-service training and planning time for administrators and, to a lesser extent, the teachers – although they do need to be on board with the plan! Air conditioning can be a significant costs with the continuing expense of operating to be included in the calculation of operating costs. Special funding and incentive revenues: planning grants, pupil bonus Incidental differences: incidental differences related to some unanticipated savings that accrue – see Schoolfield Elementary, Danville, VA examples

60 Student Critical Thinking Skills Workforce Skills Life Skills

61 Critical Thinking and Analytical Skills Most Important to Postsecondary Students in the 21 st Century Results of a survey conducted by the research division of the Atlantic Media Company of 115 respondants who were asked the question: Which of the following are the most important skills postsecondary students in the 21 st century should learn? (Select up to 3), published June 2011.

62 Lifelong-Learner Competencies Plan and conduct research Gather, organize, and analyze data, evaluate processes and products; and draw conclusions. Think analytically, critically, and creatively to pursue new ideas, and acquire new knowledge and make decisions. Understand and apply principles of logic and reasoning; develop, evaluate, and defend arguments Seek, recognize and understand systems, patterns, themes, and interactions. Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve new and increasingly complex problems. (continue)

63 Lifelong-Learner Competencies (cont.) Acquire and use precise language to clearly communicate ideas, knowledge, and processes Explore and express ideas and opinions using multiple media the arts, and technology. Demonstrate ethical behavior and respect for diversity though daily actions and decision making. Participate fully in civic life, and act on democratic ideals within the context of community and global interdependence. Understand and follow a physically active lifestyle that promotes good health and wellness. Apply habits of mind and metacognitive strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate ones own work.

64 4 Seasons of Learning In this 21 st Century, there is every reason to craft school calendar infrastructure for four seasons of learning.

65 Preferred Future – Begin with the End in Mind Step-by-Step – a List of What it Will Take to Get There Current Calendar Reality Traditional School Calendar + / - Summer School, Before/After/Saturday School Preferred Future Calendar balanced for learning for ALL Reduce summer learning loss, inequity, inefficiency Provide timely intersession learning support

66 Summary In a performance-based learning environment, personalized to student need, it is imperative to link the regular academic program with supplementary learning time in ways that: Provide timely assistance close to the identification of a learning concern Contribute to continuity of learning for all students Open downtime for reflection, play and innovation for learners & teachers Maintain consistent parent/school/community partnerships Utilize our public education facilities and equipment full-time Thereby, increasing our chances of becoming the learner fair and focused community of our vision and mission statements. HELPFUL WEBCITE:

67 Video

68 K-12 Districts Calendar Balanced Year Socorro School District, Socorro, Texas 1990 Hawaii Public Schools – state calendar 2006 Indianapolis Independent Schools – 2010 Nashville Metropolitan Public Schools – 2012 Oklahoma City Public Schools Pending Chicago Public Schools-under discussion 2012 Ashville, North Carolina Bozeman, Montana plus numerous individual schools Google Alert - Year Round Schools

69 National Association for Year Round Education

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