Presentation on theme: "Balancing the School Calendar: A Timely Investment School board members are elected to be good stewards of the community, state, and federal dollars."— Presentation transcript:
1Balancing the School Calendar: A Timely Investment School board members are elected to be good stewards of the community, state, and federal dollars for education. “Education reform has the greatest opportunity to make a difference and become firmly established when education reform (multiple teaching and learning innovations) and school reform (extensive system and structural changes) are considered together to make decisions about financial resources and need.” Ted Sizer, founder, Coalition of Essential Schools The best return on investment is efficient, effective, equitable use of resources! Phyllis (Bunker) Frank National Association for Year Round Education WA State Board of Education WSSDA Annual Conference 2013We owe it to the education protections of our students in the WA state constitution and the recent Supreme Court McCleary decision for new funding to meet that demand to assure that the expenditures to empower or district and individual school vision, mission, and goals are efficient, effective, and fair. Wondering aloud and initiating district dialogue about a research defensible instructional calendar year is a bold move that to consider opportunity to learn year in, year out, and year round.
2Session Essential Question: Does the traditional school calendar serve all students and contribute to schools becoming high-achieving and equitable places of learning that connect to their communities?Session Outcomes:Understand how a balanced/modernized district calendar schedule supports continuous learning for students; perpetuates a safe/supportive environment; strengthens professional development alignment; increases job satisfaction for faculty; provides consistent school/family/community partnership and full year facility use.Stimulate advocacy for local academic calendar year study as an efficient, effective, and fair investment worthy of consideration.
3Discontinuous Schooling Continuous Learning Copyright, Martha Rice/Phyllis Frank, 2002Discontinuous SchoolingCopyright, Martha Rice/Phyllis Frank, 2002Continuous LearningView the calendar as Infrastructure – NOT traditiona. fundamental feature of schoolb.basic underlying framework of a system or organizationc. Infrstructures undergird and make possible every complex coming together of people –roads, sewers, bridges, etc.When we look at what we’re doing and what needs to be done, there is a clear disconnect between the traditional (agrarian) calendar and what we say in our mission and vision statements about every student being a successful learner. Some students need more and some need less and until we can account for accommodating that learning time, we will have a perpetual disconnect.
4Calendar Year vs. Instructional Year 365 Days per year(Saturdays, Sundays, state & federal holidays)245 Days in which to schedule learningUnited States 180 allocated instructional days (current 9 1/2 mo. configuration)Singapore 180South KoreaJapan 223Canada 190England 205 days (National 5 week summer break – 2003)International Ave daysDo the math!Achievement gap data: In the current configuration, students in Quartile 1 & 2 need more learning days to make significant assessed gains.Now, let’s Do the math!!Using the traditional calendar, research is showing that students in the lowest two quartiles need more time on task in order to make any progress in closing the achievement gap – as many as days. Where does that time come from in our current configuration? Typically we wait until the end of the year and then “punish” the child by requiring summer school. Does it make sense that we wait until the child is so far behind that he or she has given up before we provide any supplementary learning time? I don’t think so.It makes much more sense to have a calendar where supplementary learning opportunities (enrichment, remediation, acceleration, or promotion) can be prioritized and included when it will have the greatest impact.Structuring learning throughout a 12-month calendar allows for supplementary learning (enrichment, remediation, promotion, and acceleration) to be prioritized and added where it may have the greatest impact on learning.
5Balanced Learning Calendar For Maximum Gain/Focus on Student Achievement LinkAcademic calendar (180 days)Supplementary opportunities to learn (intersession, summer school, before/after school, etc.): As a policy maker, you might wonder and want to know what tools your calendar committee uses to plan the school year. For example, when you look at your school calendar and if you have a district-wide summer school program, does that program or any other supplementary learning appear on the calendar. Chances are it is more likely to appear if there is a district wide focus on supplementary learning, rather than a building based program.An accountability imperative may: Link regular academic program with supplementary learning time in ways that provide assistance close to identification of a learning problem, contributes to continuity of learning for all students, and authentically approaches CONTINUOUS LEARNING.
6Student Demographics - WA State EnrollmentOctober 2012 Student Count1,050,900May 2013 Student Count1,047,390Gender (October 2012)Male542,23751.6%Female508,66348.4%Race / Ethnicity (October 2012)American Incian/Alaskan Native16,3661.6%Asian75,1307.1%Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander9,6650.9%Asian / Pacific Islander84,7958.1%Black / African American48,3254.6%Hispanic / Latino of any race(s)214,14420.4%White620,57059.1%Two or More Races66,6536.3%Special ProgramsFree or Reduce-Price Meals (May 2013)482,63446.1%Special Education (May 2013)136,09913.0%Transitional Bilingual (May 2013)94,1769.0%Migrant (May 2013)18,3181.7%Section 504 (May 2013)23,8892.3%Foster Care (May 2013)1,6840.2%Other InformationUnexcused Absence Rate ( )529,3580.5%Adjusted 4-Year Cohort Graduation Rate (Class of 2012)77.2%Adjusted 5-Year Cohort Graduation Rate (Class of 2011)78.9%Washington StateDemographicsFinancial Data ( )Per Student AmountsPercentTotal Revenue$9,816100.0%State$6,52266.0%Federal$93910.0%Local$2,26723.0%Other Sources$881.0%Total Expenditures$9,739Central Administration$6206.0%Building Administration$574Maintenance & Operations$8068.0%Food Services$3203.0%Transportation Services$3654.0%Teaching$6,78170.0%Other$273
7This session contends that the K-12 traditional school calendar year is siloed in the 19th century. The traditional school calendar year was never intended to be an instructional calendar year.We will view the rationale to consider a shift to a 21st century calendar infrastructure (bones of academic opportunity to learn) through the lens of:Summer learning loss researchPolicy and Procedure of school calendar year developmentSample calendars at workElementary and Secondary advantagesSample results
8Measurable, Observable Summer Learning Loss Why Time Matters: Influences Out Of SchoolSince the Coleman report in 1966, educational researchers have consistently shown that the socioeconomic factors of students at any given school accounts for at least 66% of their overall academic achievement levels.Extra-curricular80% child’s waking hoursFamilyPeer GroupCommunityTutors/Mentors
9Time Analysis: District/School Level Measurable, Observable Summer Learning LossTime Analysis: District/School LevelTime inventory/analysis/ - within the day - whole group as blocked scheduling and individual learning (RTI, “double dip”, and student plans as 504 & IEP, looping)Compulsory calendar time and learning analysis –when students are required to attend, parents are required to send, and districts/schools are required to be most prepared to receive ALL students – FTE allocated funding/local levy (180 days in 30 states)Supplementary (complementary) learning time analysis – varies in time from year to year depending on funding; usually optional attendance for students: summer school, before/after school, Saturday school, Intersession opportunities – funded by Title $, local levy, grants, federal programs as Century 21, limited state funding, community based organization offeringsProfessional development time – negotiated, waiver requestsTime and facilities use, service, and maintenanceSchools have generally spent more time analyzing for 1,4,5 with less attention to 2 & 3Check with committee members (session attendees) to determine if any of their schools/districts have committed time and resources to examine Calendar & Learning Analysis; Impact of Supplementary (extended) learning needs analysis and resultsWill now take a look at results from two schools who have:
10Accountability and the School Calendar Year “Accountability testing systems, which measure change from one year to the next, mix learning that occurs in school with learning that occurs during the summer. Thus, schools are held accountable for not only the achievement of their students while in school, but also for the achievement of their students that accrues during the summer; over which they have no control.If summer growth were the same for all students, summer could be ignored when comparing the status and progress of students by race/ethnicity and by income. However, there are large differences in what happens to student achievement during summer vacations, and changes in scores from year to year cannot be attributed entirely to what happens during the school year.”Barton, Paul E. and Richard J Coley, “Parsing the Achievement Gap II,” Education Testing Service April 2009, pp
11The traditional calendar features a long summer vacation of 12 weeks followed by a long period of instruction days, with the first break coming at Thanksgiving. The winter holidays are followed by 55 instruction days before a short spring break. Spring break is followed by 40 work days before the end of the school year = 180 learning days.
12The first summer schools (1870) were called “vacation schools” to assure that immigrant children would retain the English they learned during schooling. The other intent was “to keep the urchins, not in school and not working, off the street.”
132013-14 Instructional Calendar Yakima Public SchoolsInstructional Calendar
15Summer Learning Loss (sll) – The decline in procedural and factual knowledge all students experience during the summer months when they do not participate in constructive learning activities to practice the skills they need to be successful in school. The degree of summer learning loss varies by grade level, subject and socioeconomic level.Out of School Time (ost) – The awake hours not obligated to formal academic learning (180) days that is filled by family, neighborhoods, non-profit and public institutions in communities across the country. This time period is typically characterized by discretionary opportunity, choice, and flexibility.
16School Year & Summer Gains for Low and High SES in Reading Anderson and Entwisle: 780 randomly selected Baltimore students – longest running study Summer Slide in the City: A Case for Year-Round Schools; compared changes in test scores during the school months to change that occurred in the summer monthsChildren from Baltimore’s poor neighborhoods were learning at the same rate as middle class students during the year but fell further behind during the summerSchools doing better than generally thought…..when students are cut off from school influence, they lose ground……Schools, like hospitals are HELPING INSTITUTIONS…..our job today as a committee is to consider how we can stop the free fall from learning
17Measurable, Observable Summer Learning Loss Learning Trajectory - Reading Low-SES vs. High-SES StudentsSchool-year achievement gains were comparable for upper SES and lower SES children, but not for summer gains.During the summer, upper SES children continue to move ahead, but lower SES children generally do not.By the end of 5th grade, the difference in verbal achievement between poor and non-poor students is more than two years; in math, it is a year and a half.Vertical Axis = Gains on CAT-V & CAT MHorizontal Axis = Grade by .5 incrementsBunkerAlexander, Karl L. and Entwisle, Doris R.; Summer Slide in the City “A Case for Year Round Schooling.” (1998) Johns Hopkins University, as published in the Title I Monitor, August 2000
18Learning Trajectory - Math Low-SES vs. High-SES Students School-year achievement gains were comparable for upper SES and lower SES children, but not for summer gains.During the summer, upper SES children continue to move ahead, but lower SES children generally do not.By the end of 5th grade, the difference in verbal achievement between poor and non-poor students is more than two years; in math, it is a year and a half.Vertical Axis = Gains on CAT-V & CAT MHorizontal Axis = Grade by .5 increments“By the end of 3rd grade, summer learning difference results in low income students being two years behind their middle class peers in verbal development and 1 ½ years behind in math.” Anderson and EntwistleAlexander, Karl L. and Entwisle, Doris R.; Summer Slide in the City “A Case for Year Round Schooling.” (1998) Johns Hopkins University, as published in the Title I Monitor, August 2000
19S-U-M-M-E-R Spells Learning Loss for Low-SES Students Measurable, Observable Summer Learning LossS-U-M-M-E-R Spells Learning Loss for Low-SES Students“Differential summer learning over the primary grades indeed appears to be the scaffolding that supports disparities in school achievement across socioeconomic lines. During the school year all the social contexts that support children’s academic development contribute to achievements gains – the home, the community and the school. During the summer months, though, only the out-of-school environment is implicated….it’s summer learning – or its lack – that is responsible for the achievement gap…”Anderson and Entwistle, Summer Slide in the City “A Case for Year Round Schooling” (1998) Johns Hopkins University as published in Title I Monitor, August 2000.
20Reading Comprehension CAT Score Gains, Years 1 - 9 Reading Comprehension Test Score Decomposition over the First Nine Years of School by Family SESReading Comprehension CAT Score Gains, Years 1 - 9TotalFamily SESGap High-LowLow SESMid SESHigh SESInitial Test Score, Fall 1st Grade279.81271.99298.4726.48Winter Gain (5 winters)194.97191.30210.19186.11-5.19Summer Gain (4 summers)1.12-1.904.1246.5848.48 *Gain Over Years 6 - 961.6960.9560.7664.343.39Test Score, End Year 9547.55522.33552.40595.4973.16 *(N)(787)(397)(204)(186)Note: Significant t-tests for mean differences between Low SES and High SES groups are shown in Gap column. * < .05 (two-tailed tests)Source: Karl L. Alexander, et al., “Lasting Consequences of the Summer Learning Gap,” American Sociological Review, v72, April 2007Reprinted from: “Parsing the Achievement Gap II,” written by Paul E. Barton and Richard J. Coley for Educational Testing Service, April 2009
21Lasting Consequences of the Summer Learning Gap “Cumulative achievement gains over the first nine years of children’sschooling mainly reflect school-year learning, whereas the high SES-low SES achievement gap at the 9th grade mainly traces to differentialsummer learning over the elementary years.Early out-of-school summer learning differences, in turn, substantially account for achievement-related differences by family SES in:High school track placements (college preparatory or not)High school noncompletion – need for credit retrievalFour-year college attendance.”Alexander, Karl, Doris Entwisle, and Linda Olson, “Lasting Consequences of the Summer Learning Gap,” American Sociological Review, April 2007, pp
22Probability of Persistence in a Two-Year Institution by Highest Math Course Klepfer, Kasey and Jim Hull, High School Rigor and Good Advice: Setting Up Students to Succed,Center for Public Education, National School Boards Association, October 2012, pp
23Probability of Persistence in a Four-Year Institution by Highest Math Course Klepfer, Kasey and Jim Hull, High School Rigor and Good Advice: Setting Up Students to Succed,Center for Public Education, National School Boards Association, October 2012, pp
24Effects of Modified Calendars A significant difference favoring districts that offered intersessions – effect on achievement is cumulative.Noticeably improves achievement with economically disadvantaged or poor-achieving students out-performing traditional calendar counterparts by .20 SD.Suburban and rural modified calendar programs revealed greater effects than urban programs (multi-track effect?).Students, parents, and staffs are overwhelmingly positiveThere are specific actions policymakers can take – such as involving the community planning a program and providing quality intersession activities – that can improve community acceptance.Cooper, Harris, et al, The effects of modified school calendars on student achievement and on school and community attitudes, Review of Educational Research, Washington: Spring 2003, Vol. 73, Iss. 1: p. 14.
25Summer achievement gain/loss Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) – grades 3 through 9559,964 students in reading and 542,057 in math – 24 statesStudy 3/3 compared the scores of each student in the spring with their scores in the fall to see the change at each score level by race/ethnicity and income level:Low-performing students in all groups continue to grow during the summer months, but minority and lower-income students grow lessHigh-performing students tend to lose achievement during the summer months, with minority students losing more than White students.High-performing students in high-poverty schools lose more achievement during the summer than similar students who are enrolled in low-poverty schools.Martha S. McCall, et al., Achievement Gaps: An Examination of Differences in Student Achievement and Growth, Northwest Evaluation Association, November (access full study from NWEA website)
27Change in BMI Across Groups * Average StudentsAverage African- American StudentsAverage Hispanic StudentsAverage Initially Overweight StudentsBMI Units Per MonthSource: “Summertime and Weight Gain”, National Summer Learning Institute, 2010
28Implications for Policy Makers Summer Learning LossImplications for Policy MakersWe can “choose to live with the diminished learning opportunities and decay in skills that accompany the present dominant school calendar” (Cooper et al., 1996, p. 263)We can increase summer school opportunities and direct these efforts in the most beneficial manner.We can examine alternative school calendars and provide a balanced calendar for a more continuous period of instruction.*Rescheduled vacation is placed throughout the year into periods called “intersessions.” Intersessions can be used as vacation and/or instructional time for remediation, enrichment, promotion or acceleration.Summer school is better than no school in the summer, but intersession is better than summer schools instruction typically more focused to what the student has been involved with instructionally in the previous learning blockmore focused than summer school will beintersession also is more readily connected with what the student will be involved with in the succeeding learning block, if communication between staff is operating at the level it should beSummer school will always wrestle with the disconnect that occurs at the end of the traditional year…..traditional schedule teachers hasten to end the year in late spring to move on to long vacation, leave little info about student remedial needs to summer school teacher, who may e new, from another school etc.
29Three strands of Calendar Change: Single-track – 73% - for academic purposes using existing resources – 4-7 week summer breakMultiple-track - 27% for overcrowded facility - 8 week max.Extended year – mandatory for all students (KIPP Academy or MASS 20/20) = seriousfunding requirements - up to 300 hrs/yearor optional for some students (summer school, before/after/Saturday school, Intersession opportunities to learn) + usually includeexpanded day components = serious fundingrequirements
30The balanced calendar reduces the long summer break and simply apportions those days throughout the school year, producing more frequent breaks and thus limiting long periods of instruction days, as well as longer vacations. Both calendars feature 180 days of instruction, with the modified calendar balancing the frequency of in-session days with vacation break days= timely supplemental learning opportunities.
31Traditional 9-Month Calendar CalendarsTraditional 9-Month Calendar45-15 Balanced CalendarWhen it comes to learning, teaching, planning, partnering and play, how much summer is enough?
40WSSDA advocacy – Action on WSSDA Positions School YearThe WSSDA shall initiate and/or support legislation which provides state-funded training and planning time for staff and more academic time for students, in the following manner:Provide for summer school programs;Substantially increase the length of the students’ school year;Assure that staff has planning and in-service time in excess of the students’ calendar year; andProvide financial flexibility and incentives for local districts to operate year-round instruction in any or all of their school buildings. (adopted 1988; Amended 1990, 1992, and 2005)Legislative Committee Recommendation: “DO PASS”
41WSSDA Model Policy No. 2220InstructionSchool CalendarIn order to permit staff, students and parents to make plans for their own work and vacation schedules, the board will adopt a school calendar or calendar or calendars by June 1 of each year. Multiple calendars may be developed where some schools are on modified calendars for the forthcoming school year. Following board action, staff, students, parents and patrons will be advised of the school calendar.Legal References: RCW 28A School year –Beginning—End28A Basic Education Act – Definitions-Program requirements – Programaccessibility –Rules and regulations28A (7) Additional powers of boardAdoption Date:
42School Calendar Procedure Yakima School District Policy and Procedures 2220 Page 1 of 1School CalendarIn order to permit staff, students and parent(s)/guardian(s) to make plans for their own work and vacation schedules, the board shall adopt a school instructional calendar for the forthcoming school year by March 3. Following this action, staff, students, parent(s)/guardian(s), and patrons will be advised of the school calendar.The board directs the superintendent to prepare appropriate procedures to implement this policy.LegalSchool Calendar ProcedureBy March 1, the superintendent or designee will form a committee involving principals and Yakima Education Association (YEA) members for study purposes with a three (3) year projection. The calendar will be reviewed and recommendations will be made to superintendent and board.
44A Tale of Two States Washington Kentucky 1983 – “Nation at Risk” (attend to Content, Expectations & TIME)– GCERF (Gov. Gardner)Commission on Student Learning1993 – Legislature awards ten planning grants for evaluation of modified calendar; nd request for district planning grants proposed but unfunded1994; 2000 – “Prisoners of Time”1996 – Northwest Association for Year-Round Education (NWAYRE) – advocacy and statewide conferences2003 – 8,000 WA students attend school on a modified calendar; posted on SBENWAYRE disbands2013 – 1,200 WA students attend school on a modified calendar –Kentucky1983 – “A Nation at Risk” (attend to Content, Expectations & TIME)1990 – Kentucky EducationReform Act – 1st out of 501994 ; “Prisoners of Time”1994 – Pritchard Committee Stakeholder Study recommended all districts consider calendar modification to support student learning; change should be K-12 district1998 – Kentucky Assoc. of Year-Round Education holds biennial conferences; KOPI leadership2003 – 116/176 K-12 districts use modified calendars-6-8 weeks summer off Extended School Year funds available for Intersession supplemental programming2013 – KYREA absorbed into other Dept. of Ed functions; YRE continues to expand
452012 Brief ( Research Summary ) All young people experience learning losses when they do not engage in educational activities during the summer. (Cooper, 1996; Alexander, Entwisle, and Olson, 2001, 2006)On average, students lose approximately 2.6 months of grade level equivalency in mathematical computation skills, (factual and procedural knowledge) over the summer months. (Cooper, 1996;Alexander and Entwisle, and Olson 2007)Lower-income children and youth experience greater summer learning losses than their higher income peers who show limited growth for the time away from formal education – 1 month growth in reading for high socioeconomic students. (Cooper, 1996; Alexander, Entwisle, and Olson, )Many English Language Learners (ell) and low –income students experience loss of academic language skills and thinking skills in the English language over the summer. (Guardana, 1999)Summer learning loss contributes to the achievement gap in reading performance between lower and higher income children and youth, high-school placement, high school noncompletion, and four year college attendance and completion (Alexander, Entwisle, and Olson 1996, 2007)
46…………research summary continued College persistence is linked to high school rigorous course taking, Advanced Placement/International Baccalaureate courses, periodic communication with an academic advisor. (Center for Education Policy, National School Boards Association, October 22012)Large numbers of students who qualify for federally subsidized meals do not have the same level of access to nutritious meals during the summer as they do during the school year. (Food Research and Action Center,2002)Student body mass index (BMI) increases June – September and decreases September –June. (University of Indiana, 2006)Studies show that out-of-school time is a dangerous time for unsupervised, unoccupied children and unemployed teens. (Carnegie Council, 1994)Parents greatest concern for their children occurs over the lengthy summer break. (Public Agenda, 2004)Students present concerns about summer learning loss and are at a readiness state to consider school calendar change. (Public Agenda, 2004)
47Rigor/Relevance FrameworkTM Knowledge TaxonomyEvaluation 6“Judge the Outcome”CDAssimilationAdaptationSynthesis 5“Putting Together”Students have the competence, that when confronted with perplexing unknowns they are able to use their extensive knowledge base and skills to create unique solutions and take action that further develops their skills and knowledge.Students extend and refine their knowledge so they can use it automatically and routinely to analyze and solve problems and create solutionsAnalysis 4“Taking Apart”Application 3“Making use of Knowledge”ABAcquisitionApplicationComprehension 2“Confirming”Students gather and store bits of knowledge and information and are expected to remember or understand this acquired knowledge.Students use acquired knowledge to solve problems, design solutions, and complete work. The highest level of application is to apply appropriately to new and unpredictable situations.Knowledge 1“Information Gathering”Relevance Makes Rigor Happen!1Knowledge in ???? Discipline2Apply Knowledge in ???? Discipline3Apply Knowledge Across Disciplines4Apply Knowledge to Real World Predictable Situations5Apply Knowledge to Real World Unpredictable SituationsApplication Model
48Measurable, Observable Summer Learning Loss Strategies that Work
49Reflective Policy Questions Understanding the impact of poverty on formal learning and the positive impact of excellent teachers on students, why do we continue to plan the school calendar year resources to disconnect students for up to 12 weeks from their caring, dedicated teachers without formally questioning the wisdom?What would it take to seriously address transforming the 19th Century child labor calendar to a 21st Century learning/thinking education calendar?Should the local school board become the policymaker group that constructively advocates for our district to develop a school calendar year that evidences seamless connections between allocated and supplemental opportunities to learn in a safe, supportive environment.What role can our annual school calendar committee have in exploring options for the traditional school calendar year?
50Measurable, Observable Summer Learning Loss School Improvement Plans (SIPs) WAC (2)(d)(i-iv) shall address, but are not limited to:Characteristics of Successful Schools including safe and supportive learning environments;Educational Equity Factors such as, but not limited to: gender, race, ethnicity, culture, language and physical/mental ability…giving each student what they need and when and how they need it to reach their achievement potential;Use of technology to facilitate instruction;Parent, family, and community involvement and,Evaluation of the traditional September-June calendar, schedules and issues surrounding the use of instructional time (compulsory and supplemental) and the impact on student opportunities to learn.Sample DRAFT language suggestion onlyWashington State Board of Education Guidelines for a School Improvement Planning ProcessResearch and Select Effective Practices:Analyze research regarding the use of academic engaged time (instructional time, school calendar, and supplementary/extended opportunities to learn) to target continuous student achievementPossible sources of Evidence: reduce summer learning loss, re-teaching, and review after school breaks; timely supplementary opportunities to learn; increased student attendance and decreased teacher absence; time for teacher planning, collaboration and reflection thereby enriching job satisfaction
51Single-Track K-12 Modified Calendar Disadvantages (usually dissipate after first year due to planning and recognition of advantages)Advantagesintersession opportunities: remediation, enrichment & accelerationreduced summer learning lossreduced re-teaching and review on return from breakstime for teacher planning and reflectionmore motivation for both teachers and studentsdecreased vandalismfewer disciplinary referralsregular extended preparation time for teachersrelief of both personal and interpersonal tensionsmore conversation and reflection about teaching and learninga change in the organization of instructional unitsmore regular visits with non-custodial parentsincreased parental participationincreased community involvementavailability of childcarethe need for and cost of air-conditioning during summerconflicts with the more common district schedulefacilitating building cleaning and repairchildren want same schedule as friends or relatives the other schoolscomplexity of scheduling family vacations if children are in different schools on more than one scheduleShields and Oberg, Year Round Schooling: Promises and Pitfalls, Scarecrow Press, Lanham, MA, 2000.
52Modified Calendar for SECONDARY Schools DisadvantagesAdditional AdvantagesExtra work is made for secretaries and support personnel to track students’ courses and statisticsStudents may have to participate in sports during intersessionStudents may take “unfair” advantage of opportunities for remediation (by slacking off during the regular term)Teachers choosing to teach regularly at intersession may experience burnoutIncreased chances for remediation and accelerationIncreased numbers in advanced coursesIncreased positive attitude toward self & courseworkDecrease in dropout rateIncreased graduation course completionIncrease graduation rateFlexibility for studentsFacilitates student jobsBenefits of participating in sports (and other extracurricular activities) during intersessionIncreased opportunities for teacher employmentStudents can accelerate graduationProfessional development opportunities for teachers (visiting other programs)Better college preparation opportunities (students may take more classes)
53Teacher Job Satisfaction and Year-Round Education Benefits to teachers:For new and newer teachers, the two-three week break at the end of every quarter or nine weeks allows time to regroup, reflect, and evaluate personal progress toward mastery of teaching.Teachers, especially those with less than three years experience, feel that the breaks throughout the year provide a more balanced approach to their emotional needs, which contributed to a decrease in teacher absenteeism.Breaks give teachers valuable curriculum planning time and contribute to classroom innovation.Many teachers who teach intersession find the experience rewarding: opportunity to earn extra income, teach different students, teach a different grade level, use a variety of instructional methods, and teach a different subject or topic. Other teachers used the intersession breaks to relax, enjoy off season travel and rejuvenate away from school.More teacher stability in terms of turnover.Increased teacher retention in the profession, particularly the first three years and beyond.Part-time teaching opportunities during intersession are an advantage for teachers on maternity or family leave: stay in teaching loop and keep skills fresh.Reduced teacher absence; recapture substitute dollarsHaser, Shelly Gismondi and Nasser, Ilham, Year-round Education: Change and choice for Schools and Teachers, Scarecrow Education, 2005.
54K-12 Districts Calendar Balanced Year Socorro School District, Socorro, Texas 1990Hawaii Public Schools – state calendar 2006Indianapolis Independent Schools – 2010Nashville Metropolitan Public Schools – 2012Oklahoma City Public SchoolsPendingChicago Public Schools-under discussion 2012Ashville, North CarolinaBozeman, Montanaplus numerous individual schoolsGoogle Alert - Year Round Schools
55QUESTION: I am searching for information on the effects and demands which year-round schools place on the yearly budget compared to the costs of the traditional school calendar. Have you any information I might use to compare and contrast these costs?Single track year round education simply reorganizes instructional days. Teacher and administrator contracts remain nearly the same as before. The number of days students are in school will be the same (180 in 30 states). So costs should be the same or nearly the same, as those in a traditional school.The schedule has been modified, but the work day/time have not increased. So the single biggest item in any budget, personnel costs, should remain the same as also with utilities, transportation and food costs.National Association for Year-round Education, (NAYRE) Frequently Asked Questions About Year-Round Education, 2000.
56Based on my experience as superintendent of a district with both year-round and traditional calendars, I can attest to the fact that the cost to maintain the one elementary school on a year-round calendar was no more than that of schools (similarly situated) operating on a traditional calendar when comparing: student learning labor and nonlabor costs transportation expenditures food services utilization of building space school attendance The year-round school excelled in all of the areas reviewed Douglas Roby, “Experiencing School Year-round: An Administrators Perspective,” Balancing the School Calendar, edited by Carolyn Kneese and Charles Ballinger, Rowan & Littlefield Education, 2009, pp
57Intersessions Funding Intersession literally means “between learning sessions. This concept is part of the year-round education philosophy and may be utilized as another learning opportunity, the same as summer school. Once you have the year-round education calendar in place, the next step is to work on Intersessions.When you start approaching one of your calendar change goals i.e. to provide the opportunity for continuous learningFundingIntersession funding varies with the financial situation and philosophy of the district or state. The following is a short and certainly not exhaustive list of possible methods of funding, depending on the type of program being offered.Kemp, Byron, The ABCs of Year-Round Education, published by National Association for Year-Round Education, 1995.
58funding (cont.) Funded as traditional summer schools Categorical program funding Title I, Title III etc.Lottery grantsUser paysTeacher-training grants for teachers in trainingFundraisingCommunity or city grantsSpecial need grantsBilingual/ELL fundingRecreation and community based organization fundingCorporate sponsorship or donationsIndustrial fundingCollege or university funding
59Fiscal Considerations and Year Round Schooling – Chapter 10 Year-Round Schooling Promises & Pitfalls Carolyn M. Shields & Steven Lynn Oberg, 2000Although most studies suggest that YRS are more expensive to operate than traditional-calendar schools (TCS)……..regarding Operating Costs there is little difference between that of a single-track year-round school and a traditional-calendar school unless the calendar change has been accompanied by additional voluntary programs or building modifications.Transitional Costs – not recurring – preparing for and planning the implementation of YRS – investigating appropriateness of the change, hiring consultants, printing brochures, engaging in public hearings and consultations…….pre-service training and planning time for administrators and, to a lesser extent, the teachers – although they do need to be “on board” with the plan! Air conditioning can be a significant costs with the continuing expense of operating to be included in the calculation of operating costs.Special funding and incentive revenues: planning grants, pupil bonusIncidental differences: incidental differences related to some unanticipated savings that accrue – see Schoolfield Elementary, Danville, VA examples
61Critical Thinking and Analytical Skills Most Important to Postsecondary Students in the 21st Century Results of a survey conducted by the research division of the Atlantic Media Company of 115 respondants who were asked the question: “Which of the following are the most important skills postsecondary students in the 21st century should learn? (Select up to 3)”, published June 2011.
62Lifelong-Learner Competencies Plan and conduct researchGather, organize, and analyze data, evaluate processes and products; and draw conclusions.Think analytically, critically, and creatively to pursue new ideas, and acquire new knowledge and make decisions.Understand and apply principles of logic and reasoning; develop, evaluate, and defend argumentsSeek, recognize and understand systems, patterns, themes, and interactions.Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve new and increasingly complex problems.(continue)
63Lifelong-Learner Competencies (cont.) Acquire and use precise language to clearly communicate ideas, knowledge, and processesExplore and express ideas and opinions using multiple media the arts, and technology.Demonstrate ethical behavior and respect for diversity though daily actions and decision making.Participate fully in civic life, and act on democratic ideals within the context of community and global interdependence.Understand and follow a physically active lifestyle that promotes good health and wellness.Apply habits of mind and metacognitive strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate one’s own work.
64In this 21st Century, there is every reason to craft school calendar infrastructure for four seasons of learning.4 Seasons of Learning
65Current Calendar Reality “Preferred Future” – Begin with the End in MindStep-by-Step – a List of What it Will Take to Get ThereCurrent Calendar RealityTraditional School Calendar+ / -Summer School, Before/After/Saturday SchoolPreferred FutureCalendar balanced for learning for ALLReduce summer learning loss, inequity, inefficiencyProvide timely intersession learning support
66HELPFUL WEBCITE: www.nayre.com SummaryIn a performance-based learning environment, personalized to student need, it is imperative to link the regular academic program with supplementary learning time in ways that:Provide timely assistance close to the identification of a learning concernContribute to continuity of learning for all studentsOpen “downtime” for reflection, play and innovation for learners & teachersMaintain consistent parent/school/community partnershipsUtilize our public education facilities and equipment full-timeThereby, increasing our chances of becoming the learner fair and focused community of our vision and mission statements.HELPFUL WEBCITE:
67“Time, the missing element in the school reform debate, is potentially an overlooked solution to standards achievement. Time, used wisely and well, can be the academic equalizer. In this age of mandatory yearly progress, there is every reason to assure students, parents, and all stakeholders that the precious resource of time is being used in the most judicious manner in designing the school year and day to benefit the learning opportunities for ALL children.”Prisoners of Time, 1994,2000Thus, providing authentic yearly progress.Video
68K-12 Districts Calendar Balanced Year Socorro School District, Socorro, Texas 1990Hawaii Public Schools – state calendar 2006Indianapolis Independent Schools – 2010Nashville Metropolitan Public Schools – 2012Oklahoma City Public SchoolsPendingChicago Public Schools-under discussion 2012Ashville, North CarolinaBozeman, Montanaplus numerous individual schoolsGoogle Alert - Year Round Schools