2The Situation Stalin took over a country in which: Almost all industry was in a few citiesWorkers were unskilled & uneducatedMany regions were as backward as they were 100 years before
3Industry & the Five-Year Plans S ended L’s NEPCreated 5-Year Plans to modernize (R)Plans created by GOSPLAN (State planning org set up by L in 1921)Set ambitious production targets in vital industries (coal, iron, oil, electricity)Detailed, down to the individual workerStalin and the RailwayGOSPLAN set overall target for an industryEach region was told its targetRegion set target for each mine, factory, etc.Manager of site set target for each foremanForemen set target for shifts, each worker
4First Five-Year Plan (1928-1933) Focused on major industriesTargets not met, but still impressiveCreated industrial foundation for further 5-Year plansWhole cities built in remote areas where resources wereWorkers moved into new cities to workNew steel mills, dams, & hydro-electric power fed industry/energy requirementsNew industries in previously undeveloped regions (Uzbekistan & Kazakhstan)With shock labor we will ensure prompt delivery of the giants of the Five Year PlanWorkers in supply companies, pictured below, have to speed up production in order to finish the large factories above in time.
5Second Five-Year Plan (1933-1937) Built on achievements of 1st 5-YearsHeavy industry still priorityOther industries developedLead, tin, zinc mines in SiberiaTransport & communicationRailways & canalsMoscow underground railway (Impressive)In agriculture production of tractors & other farm machinery increased dramaticallyWe do like Stachanov!Third Five-Year Plan launched in 1938Some factories were to switch consumer goods (radios, refrigerators, cars, etc.)WWII interrupted this planCommunist (R) would never produce large #s of consumer goods
6Were the Five-Year Plans A Success? CriticismsA lot of inefficiencyDuplication of effort & wasteEnormous human cost (you’ll see!)Positives2nd & 3rd 5-Y Plans learned from errors in 1st 5-Y PlanBy 1937 USSR was a modern industrialized stateW/o this industry (G) defeats USSR in WWII
7Were the Five-Year Plans A Success? 191319281940Gas (billion m3)0.020.33.4Fertilizers (million tons)0.07.13.2Plastic (million tons)-10.9Tractors (thousands)1.331.6
8Were the Five-Year Plans A Success? Production inFive-Year Plan 1933Five-Year Plan 1937Electricity (billion Kw hours)Coal (million tons)Oil (million tons)Pig Iron (million tons)Steel (million tons)5.05Actual13.436.2Target17.038.035.4Actual64.3128.0Target68.0152.511.7Actual21.428.5Target19.046.83.3Actual6.214.5Target8.016.04.0Actual5.917.7Target8.317.0
10Propaganda Every increase in production used for propaganda S wanted USSR to be beacon of socialismThere is evidence that he [Stalin] exaggerated Russia’s industrial deficiency in The Tsars had developed a considerable industrial capacity … in a sense the spadework had already been done and is not altogether surprising that Stalin should have achieved such rapid results.Historian S J Lee, The European Dictatorships: , published in 1987
15Under Lenin's banner for the second Five Year Plan! Stalin is holding PRAVDA (The Truth) - main communist newspaper. Hint: did you read one lately? ... 'cause the chief is reading it?
16How Was Industrialization Achieved? All extreme programs have costs:The workers paid the priceForeign experts & engineers (R) workers for their toughnessWorkers bombarded w/ propaganda (posters, slogans, radio broadcasts, etc)All had strict targets to meet (fined if missed)Cover of Time magazine Dec 16, 1935Most famous worker: Alexei StakhanovMined 102 tons/coal in one shift (14x avg!)Became ‘Hero of Socialist Labor’Propaganda told workers to be ‘Stakhanovites’From 1930 gov’t drafted women workers1000s of day-care facilities set upBy 1937 women 40% of industrial workersBetween % of new workers were women
17Workers: The Good By late 1930 many workers’ lives better Some had well-paid skilled jobsSome earned bonuses for meeting targetsUnemployment almost nonexistentBy 1940 USSR had more doctors than (E)Education free for allTraining programs in colleges & work placesNothing strikes the visitor to the Soviet Union more forcibly than the lack of fear. No fear of not having enough money at the birth of a child. No fear for doctor’s fees, school fees or university fees. No fear of underwork, no fear of overwork. No fear of wage reduction in a land where none are unemployedDr Hewlett Johnson, Dean of Canterbury Cathedral, visiting USSR in 1939
18Workers: The Bad On other hand, life was harsh under S Factory discipline harsh, punishment severeLateness, absences punished by sackingSacking meant losing apartment/homeInternal passports/Checka prevented free movement of workers within USSRHalf a billion cubic feet of excavation work … 25,000 tons of structural steel … without sufficient labor, without necessary quantities of the most rudimentary materials. Brigades of young enthusiasts arrived in the summer of 1930 and did the groundwork of the railroad and dam … Later groups of peasants came … Many were completely unfamiliar with industrial tools and processes …J Scott, Behind the Urals, 1943
19Workers: The Ugly Prison labor used for Massive projects Dams & canals built by soviet citizens imprisoned for being political opponents, suspected political opponents, kulaks, Jews, workers who had accidents or made mistakes on the job (charged w/ sabotage)Estimated 100,000 died on Belomor Canal
20Industrialization Comes at a Cost Few comforts:Almost no consumer goodsSevere overcrowding in apartmentsFamilies of ten typically had two roomsWages actually fell between 1928 & 1937In 1932 a husband & wife working made what just one worker made in 1928S destroyed ways of lifeIslam prevalent in Central AsiaBetween 1928 & 1932 Islam repressedMuslim leaders imprisonedMosques closedPilgrimages to Mecca forbidden
21Activity‘The Five-Year Plans brought glory to Stalin and misery to his people.’ Is that a fair view of Stalin’s industrialization program?In pairs discuss this question. Make sure you look at all the evidence and information before you make up you mind.Let’s vote (something you couldn’t do in the USSR)True statement!False statement!
22Modernizing Agriculture: Collectivization Fact File:Peasants were to put their lands together to form large joint farms (kolkhoz) but keep small plots for personal useAnimals & tools to be pooled togetherMotor Tractor Stations (MTS), provided by gov’t, made tractors available90% of kolkhoz produce to be sold to state10% kolkhoz produce kept to feed peasants
23Modernizing Agriculture: Collectivization S needed to modernize agricultureBy 1928 USSR 2 million tons short of grain needed to feed workersS needed foreign cash and got it by selling grain abroadNEP system not geared for S’s needsMost peasants either laborers w/o land or rich kulaksFarms too small to afford/make use of tractors, fertilizers, economies of scaleMost peasants were content to grow enough food for themselves, not enough to feed all citizens of USSR1929: Stalin announces collectivization
24Modernizing Agriculture: Collectivization The govt’s hard sell:Offered free seeds & perksPeasants always suspicious of gov’t (what had (R) gov’t ever done to build trust?)Peasants disliked farms being under control of local Communist officialPeasants told to grow cash crops instead of grain to feed themselvesS was telling peasants to abandon the one way of life they and their ancestors had known for over 1000 yearsWhat is the way out [of the food problem]? The way out is to turn the small and scattered peasant farms, gradually but surely, into large farms based on common, co-operative, collective cultivation of the land. There is no other way out.Stalin in a speech in 1927
25Forced Collectivization Kulaks resistedSimply refused to hand over their land & produceSoviet propaganda tried to turn Russians against KulaksRequisition parties took all food>starvation1000s arrested & sent to labor camps where they were worked to deathKulaks retaliated by burning crops & slaughtering all their animals (If we can’t have it, nobody can!): Food production fellMillions starved in Ukraine (best farm land in USSR!)When (G) first reached Ukraine in 1941 they were welcomed as liberating heroes!Despite famine S did not ease off. By 1934 there were no more kulaks. By 1941 almost all farm land was collectivized. S had achieved his aim of collectivization.
26Forced Collectivization ‘How are things with you?’ I asked one old man. He looked around anxiously to see that no soldiers were about. ‘We have nothing, absolutely nothing. They have taken everything away.’ It was true. The famine is an organized one. Some of the food that has been taken away from them is being exported to foreign countries. It is literally true that whole villages have been exiled. I saw myself a group of some twenty peasants being marched off under escort. This is so common a sight it no longer arouses even curiosity.Reporter writing for the British newspaper Manchester Guardian, 1933Why do you think the reports of the famine came only from Western journalists?Stalin, ignoring the great cost in human life and misery, claimed that collectivization was a success; for, after the great famines caused at the time … no more famines came to haunt the Russian people. The collective farms, despite their inefficiencies, did grow more food that the tiny, privately owned holdings had done. For example, 30 to 40 million tons of grain were produced every year. Collectivization also meant the introduction of machines into the countryside. Now 2 million previously backward peasants learned how to drive a tractor. New methods of farming were taught by agricultural experts. The countryside was transformed.Historian E Roberts, Stalin, Man of Steel, published in 1989According to Roberts, what advantages did collectivization bring?Do you agree that these advantages outweighed the human cost?Why did Stalin need to change farming in the USSR?Why did the peasants resist?
27Focus Task: Stalin’s economic policies: success or failure? IndustrializationCollectivizationReasons the policy was adoptedMeasures taken toenforce the policySuccesses of the policyFailures of the policyThe human cost of the policyWorking w/ a partner, fill out the table w/ details from your notes.
28Quotes of Stalin’s 5 Year Plan Throughout history Russia has been beaten again and again because she was backward … All have beaten her because of her military, industrial and agricultural backwardness. She was beaten because people have been able to get away with it. If you are backward and weak, then you are in the wrong and may be beaten and enslaved. But if you are powerful, people must beware of you. It is sometimes asked whether it is not possible to slow down industrialization a bit. No, comrades, it is not possible … To slacken would mean falling behind. And those who fall behind get beaten … That is why Lenin said during the October Revolution: ‘Either perish, or overtake and outstrip the advanced capitalist countries.’ We are 50 to 100 years behind the advance countries. Either we make good the difference in ten years or they crush us.Stalin, speaking in 1931What are the results of the Five-Year Plan in four years? We did not have an iron and steel industry. Now we have one. We did not have a machine tool industry. Now we have one. We did not have a modern chemicals industry. Now we have one. We did not have a big industry for producing agricultural machinery. Now we have one.Stalin speaking about the first Five-Year Plan in 1932
29Quotes of Stalin’s 5 Year Plan We got so dirty and we were such young things, small, slender, fragile. But we had our orders to build the metro and we wanted to do it more than anything else. We wore our workers’ overalls with such style. My feet were size four and the boots were elevens. But there was such enthusiasm.Tatyana Fyodorova, interviewed as an old lady in 1990, remembers building the Moscow undergroundAs usual, at five o’clock that first morning call was sounded by the blows of a hammer on a length of rail … the sound penetrated the window panes on which the frost lay two inches thick … [Sukhov] remembered that this morning his fate hung in the balance: they wanted to shift the 104th from the building shops to a new site, the ‘Socialist Way of Life’ settlement. It lay in open country covered with snowdrifts, and before anything else could be done there they would have to dig pits and put up posts and attach barbed wire to them. Wire themselves in, so they couldn’t run away …Alexander Solzhenitsyn, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, published in Solzhenitsyn was probably the most famous dissident in Stalin’s USSR. He spent many years in labor camps. He was exiled in He lived for the next 20 years in the USA but in 1994 returned to Russia after the fall of Communism.
30Quotes of Stalin’s 5 Year Plan We were led down to the communal kitchen in the basement … ‘My’ section consisted of a packing case and two reeking kerosene stoves. On these I was expected to cook, boil up washing and heat water for an occasional bath taken in a basin in the room above … The room was good for Moscow we were assured. At least we would not have to share with another family.Betty Rowland, Caviar for Breakfast. The novelist describes her experiences of Russia in the 1930s.In order to turn peasant society into an industrialized country, countless material and human sacrifices were necessary. The people had to accept this, but it would not be achieved by enthusiasm alone … If a few million people had to perish in the process, history would forgive Comrade Stalin … The great aim demanded great energy that could be drawn from a backward people only by great harshness.Anatoli Rybakov, Children of the Arbat, A Russian writer presents Stalin’s viewpoint on the modernization of Russia