5 Four figure grid references Let’s find grid square 21 31 To read a 4 figure grid reference go along to the line number of the first 2 numbers and then go up to the line with the second 2 numbers.
6 Then add numbers 1 to 10 between the main lines. In order to give something a six-figure grid reference, imagine the larger square split into one hundred smaller squares.Then add numbers 1 to 10 between the main lines.26257778
7 So, the six-figure grid reference for the church is ..... To work out the six-figure grid reference, first go along the bottom line and calculate the first three figures.Next, work out the last three figures by going up the side of the square.2698So, the six-figure grid reference for the church is .....7654253377325321251234567897778773
8 Can’t remember which lines to use first? Try to remember this phrase: ‘Go along the corridor,then up the stairs’.c. R. Langley
9 Measuring distance on a map On the paper's edgeOne method of measuring distance is to take a sheet of paper and placethe corner of a straight edge on your starting point. Now pivot the paper untilthe edge follows the route that you want to take.Step 1Every time the route disappears ormoves away from the straight edge ofyour paper, make a small mark on theedge and pivot the paper so the edgeis back on course.Step 2Repeat this process until you reachyour destination.Step 3You should be left with a series ofmarks along the edge of your paper.You can now place the sheet againstthe scale bar on your map.The last mark you made will tell youthe real distance you need to travel.
10 Contour Patterns MOUNTAIN RANGES A CLIFF OR WATERFALL Contour lines are used to show height on a map. The closer the contours are together, the steeper the slope. The further apart they are the gentler the slope. By looking at contour patterns, we are able to work out the landscapeA FLAT-TOPPED MOUNTAIN
11 Britain’s Climate Weather & Climate Temperatures are higher in summer than in winterTemperature are warmer in the south and colder further north.In winter, temperatures tend to be warmer in the west and cooler in the eastBritain’s climate is a maritime climate ie it is affected by the sea.The North Atlantic Drift is a warm ocean current, which raises the temperatures in the west, in the winter.
12 Different parts of the UK experience slightly different regional climates. Northwest - cool summers, mild winters, heavy rain all yearNortheast - cool summers, cool winters, steady rain all yearSoutheast - warm summers, mild winters, light rain all year, especially summerSouthwest - warm summers, mild winters, heavy rain all year, especially winter
14 Types of Rainfall Stage 1. Warm wet air is forced to rise over high land.Stage 2.As the air rises it cools andcondenses. Clouds form andprecipitation occurs.Stage 3.The drier air descends andwarms.Stage 4.Any moisture in the air (e.g.cloud) evaporates.Stage 1. An area of warm air meets and area of cold air.Stage 2. The warm air is forced over the cold airStage 3. Where the air meets the warm air is cooled and water vapour condenses.Stage 4. Clouds form and precipitation occursStage 1.The sun heats the ground andwarm air rises.Stage 2.As the air rises it cools andcondenses to form clouds.Stage 3.Large cumulonimbusclouds are formed.Stage 4.Heavy rain storms occur. Theseusually include thunder andlightening
15 BUILDINGS SURFACE PHYSICAL FEATURES SHELTER ASPECT Absorb heat & Reflect sunlightProvide shelter form the windCan create shadows which lowers the temp.Man made surfaces absorb heat (tar, concrete, bricks)Natural surfaces like grass are coolerMICROCLIMATES -CLIMATE CONDITIONS IN A SMALL AREA which are different to the surrounding areaPHYSICAL FEATURESSHELTERBuildings, Fences, hedges, trees can all provide shelter from the wind, making the it slightly warmerMountains = colder temperatures because of the altitudeWater features lower temperaturesASPECTThe direction of an object in relation to the sunDirectly facing the sun makes it hotter, in shadow makes it colder
16 Coastal erosion Erosion works in four ways: Hydraulic action - this results from the force of the water hitting the cliffs. Air, trapped in cracks, is compressed under high pressure, which breaks the rocks apart.Corrasion - this is caused by the waves picking up stones and hurling them at the cliffs.Corrosion [solution] - the dissolving of rocks by sea water. (Chalk and limestone)Attrition - any material carried by the waves will become rounder and smaller over time.
17 Headlands and baysThe shape of a coastline is often determined by its geology.(the rocks which make up the coastline)Some coastlines are very dramatic, with tall, vertical cliffs whilst others are straight for miles and miles whilst others are indented with many headlands and bays.When there are different rock-types along the coast, they may vary in their resistance to erosion. Some rock is harder and erodes more slowly forming headlands. Other rock is softer and erodes more easily forming bays .
20 Longshore Drift Sediment builds up Groynes due to Longshore Drift If the wind blows so that waves come in at a sharp angle to the coast, the swash carries the pebbles at an angle up the beach. When the backwash moves by gravity back down the beach, the pebbles end up at a different position. This process is repeated and pebbles gradually shift along the beach, a process called longshore drift.Waves approach beachat an angle