Four figure grid references Lets find grid square To read a 4 figure grid reference go along to the line number of the first 2 numbers and then go up to the line with the second 2 numbers.
In order to give something a six-figure grid reference, imagine the larger square split into one hundred smaller squares Then add numbers 1 to 10 between the main lines.
To work out the six-figure grid reference, first go along the bottom line and calculate the first three figures So, the six- figure grid reference for the church is Next, work out the last three figures by going up the side of the square.
Try to remember this phrase: Go along the corridor, then up the stairs. Cant remember which lines to use first? c. R. Langley
Step 2 Repeat this process until you reach your destination. Step 3 You should be left with a series of marks along the edge of your paper. You can now place the sheet against the scale bar on your map. The last mark you made will tell you the real distance you need to travel. On the paper's edge One method of measuring distance is to take a sheet of paper and place the corner of a straight edge on your starting point. Now pivot the paper until the edge follows the route that you want to take. Step 1 Every time the route disappears or moves away from the straight edge of your paper, make a small mark on the edge and pivot the paper so the edge is back on course. Measuring distance on a map
Contour Patterns Contour lines are used to show height on a map. The closer the contours are together, the steeper the slope. The further apart they are the gentler the slope. By looking at contour patterns, we are able to work out the landscape MOUNTAIN RANGES A CLIFF OR WATERFALL A FLAT-TOPPED MOUNTAIN
Britains Climate Temperatures are higher in summer than in winter Temperature are warmer in the south and colder further north. In winter, temperatures tend to be warmer in the west and cooler in the east Britains climate is a maritime climate ie it is affected by the sea. The North Atlantic Drift is a warm ocean current, which raises the temperatures in the west, in the winter. Weather & Climate
Different parts of the UK experience slightly different regional climates. Northwest - cool summers, mild winters, heavy rain all year Northeast - cool summers, cool winters, steady rain all year Southeast - warm summers, mild winters, light rain all year, especially summer Southwest - warm summers, mild winters, heavy rain all year, especially winter
WEATHER SYMBOLS Clear sky Sunny Partly cloudy Sunny intervals Clear and Bright Black, low level cloud Drizzle Light rain (day and night Light rain shower Heavy rain Temperature Thundery shower Heavy snow shower Hail
Types of Rainfall Stage 1. Warm wet air is forced to rise over high land. Stage 2. As the air rises it cools and condenses. Clouds form and precipitation occurs. Stage 3. The drier air descends and warms. Stage 4. Any moisture in the air (e.g. cloud) evaporates. Stage 1. An area of warm air meets and area of cold air. Stage 2. The warm air is forced over the cold air Stage 3. Where the air meets the warm air is cooled and water vapour condenses. Stage 4. Clouds form and precipitation occurs Stage 1. The sun heats the ground and warm air rises. Stage 2. As the air rises it cools and condenses to form clouds. Stage 3. Large cumulonimbus clouds are formed. Stage 4. Heavy rain storms occur. These usually include thunder and lightening
MICROCLIMATES - CLIMATE CONDITIONS IN A SMALL AREA which are different to the surrounding area BUILDINGS SURFACE SHELTER ASPECT PHYSICAL FEATURES BUILDINGS Man made surfaces absorb heat (tar, concrete, bricks) Natural surfaces like grass are cooler Buildings, Fences, hedges, trees can all provide shelter from the wind, making the it slightly warmer The direction of an object in relation to the sun Directly facing the sun makes it hotter, in shadow makes it colder Mountains = colder temperatures because of the altitude Water features lower temperatures Absorb heat & Reflect sunlight Provide shelter form the wind Can create shadows which lowers the temp.
Coastal erosion Erosion works in four ways: Hydraulic action - this results from the force of the water hitting the cliffs. Air, trapped in cracks, is compressed under high pressure, which breaks the rocks apart. Corrasion - this is caused by the waves picking up stones and hurling them at the cliffs. Corrosion [solution] - the dissolving of rocks by sea water. (Chalk and limestone) Attrition - any material carried by the waves will become rounder and smaller over time.
Headlands and bays The shape of a coastline is often determined by its geology.(the rocks which make up the coastline) Some coastlines are very dramatic, with tall, vertical cliffs whilst others are straight for miles and miles whilst others are indented with many headlands and bays. When there are different rock-types along the coast, they may vary in their resistance to erosion. Some rock is harder and erodes more slowly forming headlands. Other rock is softer and erodes more easily forming bays.
Groynes Sediment builds up due to Longshore Drift Waves approach beach at an angle Longshore Drift If the wind blows so that waves come in at a sharp angle to the coast, the swash carries the pebbles at an angle up the beach. When the backwash moves by gravity back down the beach, the pebbles end up at a different position. This process is repeated and pebbles gradually shift along the beach, a process called longshore drift.