Presentation on theme: "The Evolution of American Education. Jamestown (1607) Plymouth (1620) European Settlers."— Presentation transcript:
The Evolution of American Education
Jamestown (1607) Plymouth (1620) European Settlers
Jamestown (1607) Settlers were gentleman and fortune seekers Came to find riches - –gold, spices, furs Didnt know farming, land was owned by the company
Plymouth (1620) Pilgrims came seeking religious freedom Some knowledge of farming –No plows during the first 12 years
Education in Colonial America Apprenticeships Dame Schools Latin Grammar Schools Higher Education
Apprenticeships Massachusetts Bay Colony law If children were not being educated properly, the town leaders would apprentice the child Virginia passed similar law
Old Deluder Satan Act Massachusetts Towns with 50 families had to have a teacher to teach reading and writing
Old Deluder Satan Act Towns with 100 families had to establish a grammar school (college prep)
Latin Grammar Schools For the elite Teachers were ministers or transients Curriculum –Latin, Greek Rote memorization Strict discipline
What is it?
A whipping post. These were outside the school house and students were tied to it to receive whippings.
Dame Schools Reading and writing was often taught in dame schools, especially for females. Dame schools were often conducted in kitchens. Students learned only the rudiments while the homemaker worked.
Dame Schools Women were expected to stick to their knitting and not meddle in such things as are proper for men, whose minds are stronger.
Higher Education Colleges were established to train ministers and government leaders Some proficiency in Latin and Greek was needed for admission Curriculum emphasized classics and the liberal arts No sciences or practical subjects were taught
Our European Heritage Seven Liberal Arts –Trivium Grammar Rhetoric Dialectic
More Liberal Arts Quadrivium Arithmetic Geometry Astronomy Music
Higher Education... Harvard William and Mary Yale Princeton (Presbyterian) Columbia (Episcopal)
Higher Education... Brown (Baptist) Rutgers (Dutch Reformed) Dartmouth (Congregationalists)
Elementary Schools District School - one elementary school in a school district, New England origin, term is now obsolete Common School - a school, elementary or secondary, that was available to all students
Elementary Schools…. Public School - An early term to differentiate between schools, P.S. 84 Primary School - really refers to schools with grades 1, 2 and 3
Elementary Schools... Grammar School - A shortened form of Latin Grammar School, curriculum is limited Elementary School - What we have today
Advanced Schooling Lyceum Private Venture Schools Academy High Schools
Lyceum Generally, an adult education association operated at the community level Had meetings, offered regular courses by lectures, procured books, apparatus and collections
Lyceum Agriculture was often emphasized in the early 1800s By the mid 1800s thousands of Lyceums were in operation in the United States There was even a lyceum association
Private Venture Schools Practical matters were taught by individuals in their own house Subjects included surveying, navigation, accounting, mathematics, etc. –Similar to the dance, karate, computer, etc. schools of today.
The Academy Ben Franklins idea
Franklins Academy Two Divisions –English School –Classical School Latin master had a title, English master none
Franklins Academy Latin master paid twice as much English master had twice as many students
Academies Private Primarily Classical Basically College Preparatory Evolved out of the Latin Grammar School
Academies Sometimes went by other names –Institutes –Seminary
High School Originally was terminal First High School - Boston –Boys only, 12 years or older
High Schools –Entrance examination required –English, mathematics, science, history
High Schools, cont. Massachusetts Law of 1827 –Towns with 500+ families established high schools –United States History, bookkeeping, algebra, geometry, surveying
Massachusetts –Towns with inhabitants also had to teach Latin, Greek, history, rhetoric & logic
Early Agricultural Schools Gardiner Lyceum (Maine) Agricultural Seminary (Conn.) These schools were boarding schools - didnt survive long
Early Ag Schools Boston Asylum and Farm School –the establishment of a farm school in the country, where idle and morally exposed children of the city can be rescued from vice and danger
Growth of Schools
High School Attendance
The Awakening At the dawning of the 20th Century the public was disenchanted with public education –curriculum was still primarily classical –no relevancy to an agrarian society –no practical application –lecture and rote memorization were extensively used
The Media Education is as it was 60 years ago in our boyhood, so it is today in 99 out of 100 schools. Not a grain of progress that will help the country boy to a better understanding of the problem of agriculture. - Hoards Dairyman, 1895
The Media We need to abandon the cut-and-dried formula of a period when a man was educated only when he knew Greek and Latin - Wallaces Farmer, 1908
The Awakening... In 1910 only 8.8% of all 17 year olds were high school graduates USDA, agricultural societies, farm publications and others demanded change in the educational system
The Awakening Many states started teaching agriculture and home economics in the public schools in the early 1900s A state ruling in North Carolina in 1903 required agriculture to be taught in elementary schools
From the teaching of agriculture in schools was started in many states
The Awakening The NC Legislature passed the Farm Life School Act in 1911 Boarding schools were established where agriculture and home economics was taught
Farm Life School Curriculum Agricultural subjects were substituted for Latin All other traditional subjects were taught (literature, etc) School had to have a farm and adequate facilities
Cary Farm Life School Students at Cary lived in this dormitory
Cary Farm Life School This student from Edgecombe County was a boarder.
Cary Farm Life School First year: –general principles of agriculture –farm carpentry –use of tools –construction of things needed on the farm
Second Year Field crops –different soils, fertilizers, cultivation –seed selection & testing Fruit growing –orchard location –setting trees, budding, grafting –pruning & marketing
Second Year Vegetable gardening –construct hotbeds –each student has a garden plot on farm –becomes familiar with the vegetables that should be grown on the farm
Third Year Livestock –different breeds & characteristics –feeding –livestock judging –breeding –dairying –poultry raising
Fourth Year Soils –types –laying of terraces, drainage methods Farm Management –apply business methods to farming Rural Economics –marketing problems
Cary Farm Life School Agricultural subjects on the Report Card
Cary Farm Life School The Poultry Co-Op was operated out of the Cary Farm Life School.
A New Era in Agriculture The passage of the Smith-Hughes Act in 1917 provided federal funds to support the teaching of agriculture across the nation.