A whipping post. These were outside the school house and students were tied to it to receive whippings.
Dame Schools Reading and writing was often taught in dame schools, especially for females. Dame schools were often conducted in kitchens. Students learned only the rudiments while the homemaker worked.
Dame Schools Women were expected to stick to their knitting and not meddle in such things as are proper for men, whose minds are stronger.
Higher Education Colleges were established to train ministers and government leaders Some proficiency in Latin and Greek was needed for admission Curriculum emphasized classics and the liberal arts No sciences or practical subjects were taught
Our European Heritage Seven Liberal Arts –Trivium Grammar Rhetoric Dialectic
More Liberal Arts Quadrivium Arithmetic Geometry Astronomy Music
Higher Education... Harvard - 1638 William and Mary - 1693 Yale - 1701 Princeton - 1746 (Presbyterian) Columbia - 1754 (Episcopal)
Elementary Schools District School - one elementary school in a school district, New England origin, term is now obsolete Common School - a school, elementary or secondary, that was available to all students
Elementary Schools…. Public School - An early term to differentiate between schools, P.S. 84 Primary School - really refers to schools with grades 1, 2 and 3
Elementary Schools... Grammar School - A shortened form of Latin Grammar School, curriculum is limited Elementary School - What we have today
Advanced Schooling Lyceum Private Venture Schools Academy High Schools
Lyceum Generally, an adult education association operated at the community level Had meetings, offered regular courses by lectures, procured books, apparatus and collections
Lyceum Agriculture was often emphasized in the early 1800s By the mid 1800s thousands of Lyceums were in operation in the United States There was even a lyceum association
Private Venture Schools Practical matters were taught by individuals in their own house Subjects included surveying, navigation, accounting, mathematics, etc. –Similar to the dance, karate, computer, etc. schools of today.
The Awakening At the dawning of the 20th Century the public was disenchanted with public education –curriculum was still primarily classical –no relevancy to an agrarian society –no practical application –lecture and rote memorization were extensively used
The Media Education is as it was 60 years ago in our boyhood, so it is today in 99 out of 100 schools. Not a grain of progress that will help the country boy to a better understanding of the problem of agriculture. - Hoards Dairyman, 1895
The Media We need to abandon the cut-and-dried formula of a period when a man was educated only when he knew Greek and Latin - Wallaces Farmer, 1908
The Awakening... In 1910 only 8.8% of all 17 year olds were high school graduates USDA, agricultural societies, farm publications and others demanded change in the educational system
The Awakening Many states started teaching agriculture and home economics in the public schools in the early 1900s A state ruling in North Carolina in 1903 required agriculture to be taught in elementary schools
From 1910-1917 the teaching of agriculture in schools was started in many states
The Awakening The NC Legislature passed the Farm Life School Act in 1911 Boarding schools were established where agriculture and home economics was taught
Farm Life School Curriculum Agricultural subjects were substituted for Latin All other traditional subjects were taught (literature, etc) School had to have a farm and adequate facilities
Cary Farm Life School Students at Cary lived in this dormitory
Cary Farm Life School This student from Edgecombe County was a boarder.
Cary Farm Life School First year: –general principles of agriculture –farm carpentry –use of tools –construction of things needed on the farm