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THE LITURGICAL YEAR.

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Presentation on theme: "THE LITURGICAL YEAR."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE LITURGICAL YEAR

2 OVERVIEW PURPOSE OF LITURGICAL CALENDAR Historical perspective
Calendars Chosen People Christian similarities Cycles and Seasons Proper and Common readings Finding Easter dates and moveable feasts Octaves, Embers, Feasts Days of Obligation

3 OBJECTIVES Describe the term “liturgical year” and give a purpose.
Name the liturgical seasons and cycles. Understand other “cycles” of the liturgical year Three year cycle for Sundays Two year cycle for weekdays Be familiar with how the date for Easter is determined. Define “ember days” and “octaves”. Be familiar with hierarchy of feast days and holy days of obligation.

4 LITURGICAL YEAR “The celebration throughout the year of the mysteries of the Lord’s birth, life, death, and Resurrection in such a way that the entire year becomes a “year of the Lord’s grace”. Thus the great feasts constitute the basic rhythm of the Christian’s life of prayer, with its focal point Easter.” (ccc glossary)

5 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
Civilizations have had ways to mark time for centuries. Often tied to cycle of seasons (ie.end of winter or annual flooding) or moon or sun. Regular calendars mark seasons, weeks, days, events of significance The Liturgical Calendar does the same but in the context of Christ and his Paschal Mystery “Cycles” (Temporal Seasons) – Advent, Christmas, Easter etc.

6 The Christian Liturgical Calendar
The focal point is Easter The “Feast of Feasts”, Solemnity of solemnities”, “sacrament of sacraments” All events surrounding Christ lead to the focal point – the Paschal Mystery. Annunciation, Christmas, Epiphany etc. Mary is also honored as Mother of God Linked inseparably to her Son

7 It has a beginning and will have an end.
PERSPECTIVE Unlike pagan religions which see time as an endless cycle, Christians see time as being linear. It has a beginning and will have an end. Pagan calendar

8 Within Christianity's linear, "big picture“ sense of time,
the passing of hours is experienced as cycles of meditations on holy things Think of a spiral – of a circle of time moving ever forward toward His Coming.

9 THE CHOSEN PEOPLE God, in His Wisdom, provided very tangible and memorable ways for the children of Israel to pass on their faith to their children, to ensure the continuation of the Jewish people as a nation, to teach them and others His ways.

10 THE CHOSEN PEOPLE The feasts and holidays which punctuate the Hebrew year provide opportunities to celebrate communally, to hear and proclaim God's Word, to relive lessons in Jewish history, to echo messages of hope and consolation through the generations.

11 Leviticus 23 lists seven feasts,
the main holidays of the Jewish calendar. In addition, there are two other holidays commemorating victories over enemies of the Jews.

12 THE CHOSEN PEOPLE Queen of all feasts, the Sabbath,
culmination and high point of every week in Jewish households. Each of these holy days has distinctive prayers, songs, foods and activities a multi-sensory experience involving all members of the family.

13 TRADITION CONTINUES Judaeo-Christians can recognize this same teaching technique in the parables of Jesus and the Sacraments which He initiated. Bread and wine, water and oil, incense and candles, prayers and songs All rich and integral parts of Catholic liturgy and tradition.

14 THE CHRISTIAN CALENDAR
The Catholic "liturgical year" is made special by celebrations commemorating the lives of Jesus and His mother, the angels, and the legion of Saints who lived their faith.

15 Below are 25 Feasts and times, in chronological order,  that demonstrate how the liturgical year is a reliving of the life of Christ: Holy Sa He is in the tomb Easter He is risen Ascension He ascends into Heaven Pentecost He sends the Holy Ghost Trinity Sun The Most Holy Trinity has been fully revealed Assumption Mary is assumed into Heaven & crowned Queen Christ the King We recognize Christ's Kingship now and forever All Saints We will triumph as have our heroic Saints All Souls We pray for those who are awaiting their triumph Last Sun. in Time Apocalypse. He will come after Pentecost to judge the world. Advent He is coming Nativity He comes Circumcision He follows Old Testament Law Epiphany He reveals Himself as God Holy Family He grows up in a human family Candlemas Simeon's prophecy Septuagesima We are in exile without Christ Ash Wed Without Christ, we are dust Lent Christ is in the Desert Passion Sun. Jews make plans to kill Jesus 7 Sorrows Mary's suffers at what is to come Palm Sun He triumphantly enters Jerusalem Spy Wed Jesus is betrayed by Judas Maundy Thu. He offers the first Holy Mass Good Friday He is put to death and fulfills Old Testament Law

16 THE LIFE OF CHRIST Every year, aware Catholics "re-live" the Gospel, from Christ's Incarnation and Birth to His Ascension and Heavenly reign. In Spring He enters the world by coming to rest in Mary's immaculate womb Nine months later, in Winter, He is born, circumcised, and given a Name. He is raised in the Holy Family, and meets His cousin, John. He goes into the Desert and we go with Him during our Lenten Season. Then follow His Passion and Agony, which are soon vanquished by His Resurrection, His Ascension, and the Pentecost. Now He reigns forever, and we await His Second Coming as we prepare to celebrate again His First Coming.

17 like a wheel that's been spinning for two millennia.
The cycle begins again, like a wheel that's been spinning for two millennia.

18 The Catholic who is aware of this wheel is necessarily aware of Christ
THE GOAL The Catholic who is aware of this wheel is necessarily aware of Christ The Catholic who also celebrates the Feasts well and practices the traditions of the Church lives intimately with Him.

19 CYCLES AND SEASONS EACH YEAR HAS TWO CYCLES AND “currently” SIX SEASONS CHRISTMAS ADVENT CHRISTMASTIDE TIME AFTER EPIPHANY EASTER LENT (QUADRAGESMA) EASTERTIDE (PASCHALTIDE) TIME AFTER PENTACOST Each of the Seasons has an associated mood, its own "feeling in the air," its own scents and ornaments, associated color (priests' vestments, liturgical art, church decoration) On certain Holy Days within a particular season, that Day's color will take precedence over the season's color. SEASONS HAVE CHANGED OVER TIME SEPTUGESMIA NO LONGER OFFICIAL SEASON OCCURRED JUST PRIOR TO LENT NOW PART OF ORDINARY TIME

20 OTHER “CYCLES” Liturgical Years - For Sundays and other special days throughout the church year Three sets of readings assigned for the day. Assigned to Liturgical Years A, B, and C. Years which are evenly divisible by 3 are assigned year C, such as Liturgical Years start on the first Sunday of Advent of the previous year, so 30 Nov, 2008 started Liturgical Year B. Liturgical Cycles - For weekdays in ordinary time and other special days throughout the church year Two sets of readings for the day assigned to Liturgical Cycles I and II. Odd years are assigned cycle I, and even years are assigned cycle II. Liturgical Cycles start on the first Sunday of Advent of the previous year, so 30 Nov, 2008 began Liturgical Cycle I. Sanctoral and Temporal Cycles: fixed and moveable feast days

21 Cycle I: The Christmas Cycle Season 1: Advent
Begins the Liturgical year first Sunday of Advent to sundown on 24 December. ( calendar days) The word "Advent" comes from the Latin "advenire" or "arrival" Our awaiting the arrival of Christ's birth at Christ's Mass (Christmas) and His Second Coming. Mood is somber, penitential expectation. Its color is violet.

22 Cycle I: The Christmas Cycle Season 2: Christmastide
Lasts from sundown on 24 December to 13 January. (19 days). Celebration of Christ's Incarnation, Mood is humble, grateful, joyous celebration. Color is white

23 Cycle I: The Christmas Cycle Season 3: Time After Epiphany
14 January to the vigil of Septuagesima Sunday ( calendar days) the ninth Sunday before Easter (same as 3 Sundays before Ash Wednesday). Focus is Jesus' manifestation of Himself as God during His public ministry. Color is green

24 Cycle 2: The Easter Cycle Season 4: Lent
Ash Wednesday to the Saturday before Easter. (46 calendar days) Lent lasts 40 days + the six Sundays, but Sundays aren't counted as "Lent" because Sundays are always about the Resurrection and are joyous.) Called "Quadragesima," meaning "Forty," Recalls Christ's 40 days in the desert, and the Israelites' wandering in the desert for 40 years. Mood is somber Color is violet.

25 Cycle 2: The Easter Cycle "Passiontide” (subset of Lent)
Begins Passion Sunday and ends Holy Saturday (the last two weeks of Lent). Crosses and images in churches are covered with violet cloth. Crosses unveiled after Good Friday Mass Images unveiled just before Saturday vigil Mass

26 The second week of Passiontide is called
"Holy Week." The last three days of Holy Week -- i.e., Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and Holy Saturday – are called the Sacred Triduum.

27 Cycle 2: The Easter Cycle Season 5: Paschaltide (Eastertide)
From Easter Vigil to the day before Trinity Sunday (the Sunday after Pentecost (56 calendar days, not counting Easter Vigil) Contains the two greatest Feasts of the Church - -- Easter Sunday and Pentecost. Mood is joyous and victorious. Color is white or gold.

28 Cycle 2: The Easter Cycle Season 6: Time After Pentecost
From Trinity Sunday to the day before Advent Sunday. Focus is the Holy Spirit in the Millennium, the Church Age we now live in, and Christ's Reign as King of Kings the time between the Age of the Apostles and the Age to Come. Color is green.

29 "Overlaid" on this grid of Seasons are two sets of dates:
PROPER - COMMON "Overlaid" on this grid of Seasons are two sets of dates: The Proper of Saints (also called the “Sanctoral cycle”) Feast Days which are not movable they fall on the same date each year. Proper of Seasons (also called the “Temporal cycle”) Sundays and other Feasts of the year, whose dates of celebration depend on the dates of Easter Sunday and Advent Sunday and are, therefore, movable they change each year Proper (own) refers to the readings used for a certain liturgy assigned to a certain saint or feast. Common refers to the readings normally assigned that particular day assuming there is no designated proper.

30 DETERMINING DATES FOR PROPER OF SEASONS
Mark the Season of Easter Determine the date of Easter First Sunday after the first full moon on or after March 21(even if the full moon on or after March 21 falls on a Sunday, go to the Sunday after). The Vigil of this Feast marks the beginning of Eastertide

31 DETERMINING EASTER Full Moon dates 2009 Month, Date, Day Jan 11 Sun,
Feb 9 Mon, Mar 11 Wed, Apr 9 Thu,

32 DETERMINING OTHER SEASONS
Mark the Season of Advent: Christmas (always December 25), count back 4 Sundays to mark Advent Sunday (if Christmas is a Sunday, don't count it; count back 4 entire Sundays so that there are 4 Sundays in Advent). This date marks the beginning of Advent. Mark the Season of Christmas: The Vigil of December 25 is the beginning of Christmastide

33 OCTAVES Octaves are 8-day periods of observance, beginning with the Feast day itself. Not all Feasts have "Octaves"; only the most important ones do. Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost. The octave before Christmas Eve is "The Golden Nights."

34 EMBER DAYS The Ember Days are special days (specifically, the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday) set aside by the Church for prayer, fasting, and almsgiving. They occur at the beginning of each season of the year. Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after Third Sunday of Advent (Gaudete Sunday) = Advent Embertide Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after First Sunday of Lent = Lenten Embertide After Pentecost Sunday = Whit Embertide After the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (14 September).

35 FEASTS Feasts fall into one of a few categories, in descending order of precedence: 1st Class 2nd Class 3rd Class Commemoration When two Feasts of the same rank fall on the same day, they are ranked further by whether they relate to (in descending order of preference): Our Lord Our Lady the Holy Angels St. John the Baptist, St. Joseph, St. Peter, St. Paul, the other Apostles Martyrs Other Saints

36 HOLY DAYS OF OBLIGATION
In addition to each Sunday, Mass attendance is required for Holy Days of Obligation. These Holy Days differ from country to country: Mary Mother of God – 1 Jan 2010 Ascension – 13 May (16 May) 2010 Assumption – 15 Aug 2010 All Saints – 1 Nov 2010 Immaculate Conception – 8 Dec 2009/10 Christmas – 25 Dec 2009/10

37 CONCLUSION THERE IS LOGIC, AND REASON, AND BEAUTY IN THE LITURGICAL CALENDAR. IT BRINGS US CLOSER TO GOD Let Jesus be part of your everyday life lived.


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