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THE LITURGICAL YEAR LITURGICAL YEAR. OVERVIEW PURPOSE OF LITURGICAL CALENDAR PURPOSE OF LITURGICAL CALENDAR Historical perspective Historical perspective.

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Presentation on theme: "THE LITURGICAL YEAR LITURGICAL YEAR. OVERVIEW PURPOSE OF LITURGICAL CALENDAR PURPOSE OF LITURGICAL CALENDAR Historical perspective Historical perspective."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE LITURGICAL YEAR LITURGICAL YEAR

2 OVERVIEW PURPOSE OF LITURGICAL CALENDAR PURPOSE OF LITURGICAL CALENDAR Historical perspective Historical perspective Calendars Calendars Chosen People Chosen People Christian similarities Christian similarities Cycles and Seasons Cycles and Seasons Proper and Common readings Proper and Common readings Finding Easter dates and moveable feasts Finding Easter dates and moveable feasts Octaves, Embers, Feasts Octaves, Embers, Feasts Days of Obligation Days of Obligation

3 OBJECTIVES Describe the term liturgical year and give a purpose. Describe the term liturgical year and give a purpose. Name the liturgical seasons and cycles. Name the liturgical seasons and cycles. Understand other cycles of the liturgical year Understand other cycles of the liturgical year Three year cycle for Sundays Three year cycle for Sundays Two year cycle for weekdays Two year cycle for weekdays Be familiar with how the date for Easter is determined. Be familiar with how the date for Easter is determined. Define ember days and octaves. Define ember days and octaves. Be familiar with hierarchy of feast days and holy days of obligation. Be familiar with hierarchy of feast days and holy days of obligation.

4 LITURGICAL YEAR The celebration throughout the year of the mysteries of the Lords birth, life, death, and Resurrection in such a way that the entire year becomes a year of the Lords grace. Thus the great feasts constitute the basic rhythm of the Christians life of prayer, with its focal point Easter. The celebration throughout the year of the mysteries of the Lords birth, life, death, and Resurrection in such a way that the entire year becomes a year of the Lords grace. Thus the great feasts constitute the basic rhythm of the Christians life of prayer, with its focal point Easter. (ccc glossary)

5 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Civilizations have had ways to mark time for centuries. Civilizations have had ways to mark time for centuries. Often tied to cycle of seasons (ie.end of winter or annual flooding) or moon or sun. Often tied to cycle of seasons (ie.end of winter or annual flooding) or moon or sun. Regular calendars mark seasons, weeks, days, events of significance Regular calendars mark seasons, weeks, days, events of significance The Liturgical Calendar does the same but in the context of Christ and his Paschal Mystery The Liturgical Calendar does the same but in the context of Christ and his Paschal Mystery Cycles (Temporal Seasons) – Advent, Christmas, Easter etc. Cycles (Temporal Seasons) – Advent, Christmas, Easter etc.

6 The Christian Liturgical Calendar The focal point is Easter The focal point is Easter The Feast of Feasts, Solemnity of solemnities, sacrament of sacraments The Feast of Feasts, Solemnity of solemnities, sacrament of sacraments All events surrounding Christ lead to the focal point – the Paschal Mystery. All events surrounding Christ lead to the focal point – the Paschal Mystery. Annunciation, Christmas, Epiphany etc. Annunciation, Christmas, Epiphany etc. Mary is also honored as Mother of God Mary is also honored as Mother of God Linked inseparably to her Son Linked inseparably to her Son

7 PERSPECTIVE Unlike pagan religions which see time as an endless cycle, Christians see time as being linear. It has a beginning and will have an end. Pagan calendar

8 Within Christianity's linear, "big picture sense of time, the passing of hours is experienced as cycles of meditations on holy things Think of a spiral – of a circle of time moving ever forward toward His Coming.

9 THE CHOSEN PEOPLE God, in His Wisdom, provided very tangible and memorable ways for the children of Israel to pass on their faith to their children, to pass on their faith to their children, to ensure the continuation of the Jewish people as a nation, to ensure the continuation of the Jewish people as a nation, to teach them and others His ways. to teach them and others His ways.

10 THE CHOSEN PEOPLE The feasts and holidays which punctuate the Hebrew year provide opportunities to celebrate communally, to celebrate communally, to hear and proclaim God's Word, to hear and proclaim God's Word, to relive lessons in Jewish history, to relive lessons in Jewish history, to echo messages of hope and consolation through the generations. to echo messages of hope and consolation through the generations.

11 Leviticus 23 lists seven feasts, the main holidays of the Jewish calendar. In addition, there are two other holidays commemorating victories over enemies of the Jews.

12 THE CHOSEN PEOPLE Queen of all feasts, the Sabbath, Queen of all feasts, the Sabbath, culmination and high point of every week in Jewish households. culmination and high point of every week in Jewish households. Each of these holy days has distinctive prayers, songs, foods and activities Each of these holy days has distinctive prayers, songs, foods and activities -a multi-sensory experience -involving all members of the family.

13 TRADITION CONTINUES Judaeo-Christians can recognize this same teaching technique in the parables of Jesus and the Sacraments which He initiated. Judaeo-Christians can recognize this same teaching technique in the parables of Jesus and the Sacraments which He initiated. Bread and wine, water and oil, incense and candles, prayers and songs Bread and wine, water and oil, incense and candles, prayers and songs All rich and integral parts of Catholic liturgy and tradition. All rich and integral parts of Catholic liturgy and tradition.

14 THE CHRISTIAN CALENDAR The Catholic "liturgical year" is made special by celebrations commemorating the lives of Jesus and His mother, the angels, and the legion of Saints who lived their faith.

15 Below are 25 Feasts and times, in chronological order, that demonstrate how the liturgical year is a reliving of the life of Christ: Advent He is coming Nativity He comes Circumcision He follows Old Testament Law Epiphany He reveals Himself as God Holy Family He grows up in a human family Candlemas Simeon's prophecy Septuagesima We are in exile without Christ Ash Wed. Without Christ, we are dust Lent Christ is in the Desert Passion Sun. Jews make plans to kill Jesus 7 Sorrows Mary's suffers at what is to come Palm Sun. He triumphantly enters Jerusalem Spy Wed. Jesus is betrayed by Judas Maundy Thu. He offers the first Holy Mass Good Friday He is put to death and fulfills Old Testament Law Holy Sa. He is in the tomb Easter He is risen Ascension He ascends into Heaven Pentecost He sends the Holy Ghost Trinity Sun. The Most Holy Trinity has been fully revealed fully revealed Assumption Mary is assumed into Heaven & crowned Queen & crowned Queen Christ the King We recognize Christ's Kingship now and forever now and forever All Saints We will triumph as have our heroic Saints heroic Saints All Souls We pray for those who are awaiting their triumph awaiting their triumph Last Sun. in Time Apocalypse. He will come after Pentecost to judge the world.

16 THE LIFE OF CHRIST Every year, aware Catholics "re-live" the Gospel, from Christ's Incarnation and Birth to His Ascension and Heavenly reign. Every year, aware Catholics "re-live" the Gospel, from Christ's Incarnation and Birth to His Ascension and Heavenly reign. In Spring He enters the world by coming to rest in Mary's immaculate womb In Spring He enters the world by coming to rest in Mary's immaculate womb Nine months later, in Winter, He is born, circumcised, and given a Name. Nine months later, in Winter, He is born, circumcised, and given a Name. He is raised in the Holy Family, and meets His cousin, John. He is raised in the Holy Family, and meets His cousin, John. He goes into the Desert and we go with Him during our Lenten Season. He goes into the Desert and we go with Him during our Lenten Season. Then follow His Passion and Agony, which are soon vanquished by His Resurrection, His Ascension, and the Pentecost. Then follow His Passion and Agony, which are soon vanquished by His Resurrection, His Ascension, and the Pentecost. Now He reigns forever, and we await His Second Coming as we prepare to celebrate again His First Coming. Now He reigns forever, and we await His Second Coming as we prepare to celebrate again His First Coming.

17 The cycle begins again, like a wheel that's been spinning for two millennia.

18 THE GOAL The Catholic who is aware of this wheel is necessarily aware of Christ The Catholic who also celebrates the Feasts well and practices the traditions of the Church lives intimately with Him.

19 CYCLES AND SEASONS EACH YEAR HAS TWO CYCLES AND currently SIX SEASONS EACH YEAR HAS TWO CYCLES AND currently SIX SEASONS CHRISTMAS CHRISTMAS ADVENT ADVENT CHRISTMASTIDE CHRISTMASTIDE TIME AFTER EPIPHANY TIME AFTER EPIPHANY EASTER EASTER LENT (QUADRAGESMA) LENT (QUADRAGESMA) EASTERTIDE (PASCHALTIDE) EASTERTIDE (PASCHALTIDE) TIME AFTER PENTACOST TIME AFTER PENTACOST Each of the Seasons has an associated mood, Each of the Seasons has an associated mood, its own "feeling in the air," its own "feeling in the air," its own scents and ornaments, associated color (priests' vestments, liturgical art, church decoration) its own scents and ornaments, associated color (priests' vestments, liturgical art, church decoration) On certain Holy Days within a particular season, that Day's color will take precedence over the season's color. On certain Holy Days within a particular season, that Day's color will take precedence over the season's color. SEASONS HAVE CHANGED OVER TIME SEASONS HAVE CHANGED OVER TIME SEPTUGESMIA NO LONGER OFFICIAL SEASON SEPTUGESMIA NO LONGER OFFICIAL SEASON OCCURRED JUST PRIOR TO LENT OCCURRED JUST PRIOR TO LENT NOW PART OF ORDINARY TIME NOW PART OF ORDINARY TIME

20 OTHER CYCLES Liturgical Years - For Sundays and other special days throughout the church year Liturgical Years - For Sundays and other special days throughout the church year Three sets of readings assigned for the day. Three sets of readings assigned for the day. Assigned to Liturgical Years A, B, and C. Assigned to Liturgical Years A, B, and C. Years which are evenly divisible by 3 are assigned year C, such as Liturgical Years start on the first Sunday of Advent of the previous year, so 30 Nov, 2008 started Liturgical Year B. Years which are evenly divisible by 3 are assigned year C, such as Liturgical Years start on the first Sunday of Advent of the previous year, so 30 Nov, 2008 started Liturgical Year B. Liturgical Cycles - For weekdays in ordinary time and other special days throughout the church year Liturgical Cycles - For weekdays in ordinary time and other special days throughout the church year Two sets of readings for the day assigned to Liturgical Cycles I and II. Two sets of readings for the day assigned to Liturgical Cycles I and II. Odd years are assigned cycle I, and even years are assigned cycle II. Odd years are assigned cycle I, and even years are assigned cycle II. Liturgical Cycles start on the first Sunday of Advent of the previous year, so 30 Nov, 2008 began Liturgical Cycle I. Liturgical Cycles start on the first Sunday of Advent of the previous year, so 30 Nov, 2008 began Liturgical Cycle I. Sanctoral and Temporal Cycles: fixed and moveable feast days Sanctoral and Temporal Cycles: fixed and moveable feast days

21 Cycle I: The Christmas Cycle Season 1: Advent Begins the Liturgical year first Sunday of Advent to sundown on 24 December. ( calendar days) first Sunday of Advent to sundown on 24 December. ( calendar days) The word "Advent" comes from the Latin "advenire" or "arrival" The word "Advent" comes from the Latin "advenire" or "arrival" Our awaiting the arrival of Christ's birth at Christ's Mass (Christmas) and His Second Coming. Our awaiting the arrival of Christ's birth at Christ's Mass (Christmas) and His Second Coming. Mood is somber, penitential expectation. Mood is somber, penitential expectation. Its color is violet. Its color is violet.

22 Cycle I: The Christmas Cycle Season 2: Christmastide Lasts from sundown on 24 December to 13 January. (19 days). Lasts from sundown on 24 December to 13 January. (19 days). Celebration of Christ's Incarnation, Celebration of Christ's Incarnation, Mood is humble, grateful, joyous celebration. Mood is humble, grateful, joyous celebration. Color is white Color is white

23 Cycle I: The Christmas Cycle Season 3: Time After Epiphany 14 January to the vigil of Septuagesima Sunday ( calendar days) 14 January to the vigil of Septuagesima Sunday ( calendar days) the ninth Sunday before Easter (same as 3 Sundays before Ash Wednesday).the ninth Sunday before Easter (same as 3 Sundays before Ash Wednesday). Focus is Jesus' manifestation of Himself as God during His public ministry. Focus is Jesus' manifestation of Himself as God during His public ministry. Color is green Color is green

24 Cycle 2: The Easter Cycle Season 4: Lent Ash Wednesday to the Saturday before Easter. (46 calendar days) Ash Wednesday to the Saturday before Easter. (46 calendar days) Lent lasts 40 days + the six Sundays, but Sundays aren't counted as "Lent" because Sundays are always about the Resurrection and are joyous.) Lent lasts 40 days + the six Sundays, but Sundays aren't counted as "Lent" because Sundays are always about the Resurrection and are joyous.) Called "Quadragesima," meaning "Forty," Called "Quadragesima," meaning "Forty," Recalls Christ's 40 days in the desert, and the Israelites' wandering in the desert for 40 years. Recalls Christ's 40 days in the desert, and the Israelites' wandering in the desert for 40 years. Mood is somber Mood is somber Color is violet. Color is violet.

25 Cycle 2: The Easter Cycle "Passiontide (subset of Lent) Begins Passion Sunday and ends Holy Saturday (the last two weeks of Lent). Begins Passion Sunday and ends Holy Saturday (the last two weeks of Lent). Crosses and images in churches are covered with violet cloth. Crosses and images in churches are covered with violet cloth. Crosses unveiled after Good Friday Mass Images unveiled just before Saturday vigil Mass

26 The last three days of Holy Week -- i.e., Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and Holy Saturday – are called the Sacred Triduum. The second week of Passiontide is called "Holy Week."

27 Cycle 2: The Easter Cycle Season 5: Paschaltide (Eastertide) From Easter Vigil to the day before Trinity Sunday (the Sunday after Pentecost (56 calendar days, not counting Easter Vigil) From Easter Vigil to the day before Trinity Sunday (the Sunday after Pentecost (56 calendar days, not counting Easter Vigil) Contains the two greatest Feasts of the Church - -- Easter Sunday and Pentecost. Contains the two greatest Feasts of the Church - -- Easter Sunday and Pentecost. Mood is joyous and victorious. Mood is joyous and victorious. Color is white or gold. Color is white or gold.

28 Cycle 2: The Easter Cycle Season 6: Time After Pentecost From Trinity Sunday to the day before Advent Sunday.From Trinity Sunday to the day before Advent Sunday. Focus is the Holy Spirit in the Millennium, Focus is the Holy Spirit in the Millennium, the Church Age we now live in, and Christ's Reign as King of Kingsthe Church Age we now live in, and Christ's Reign as King of Kings the time between the Age of the Apostles and the Age to Come. the time between the Age of the Apostles and the Age to Come. Color is green. Color is green.

29 PROPER - COMMON The Proper of Saints (also called the Sanctoral cycle) Feast Days which are not movable Feast Days which are not movable they fall on the same date each year. they fall on the same date each year. Proper of Seasons (also called the Temporal cycle) Sundays and other Feasts of the year, whose dates of celebration depend on the dates of Easter Sunday and Advent Sunday Sundays and other Feasts of the year, whose dates of celebration depend on the dates of Easter Sunday and Advent Sunday and are, therefore, movable and are, therefore, movable they change each year they change each year Proper (own) refers to the readings used for a certain liturgy assigned to a certain saint or feast. Common refers to the readings normally assigned that particular day assuming there is no designated proper. "Overlaid" on this grid of Seasons are two sets of dates:

30 DETERMINING DATES FOR PROPER OF SEASONS Mark the Season of Easter Mark the Season of Easter Determine the date of Easter Determine the date of Easter First Sunday after the first full moon on or after March 21 (even if the full moon on or after March 21 falls on a Sunday, go to the Sunday after). First Sunday after the first full moon on or after March 21 (even if the full moon on or after March 21 falls on a Sunday, go to the Sunday after). The Vigil of this Feast marks the beginning of Eastertide The Vigil of this Feast marks the beginning of Eastertide

31 DETERMINING EASTER Full Moon dates 2009 Month, Date, Day Full Moon dates 2009 Month, Date, Day Jan 11 Sun, Jan 11 Sun, Feb 9 Mon, Feb 9 Mon, Mar 11 Wed, Mar 11 Wed, Apr 9 Thu, Apr 9 Thu,

32 DETERMINING OTHER SEASONS Mark the Season of Advent: Christmas (always December 25), count back 4 Sundays to mark Advent Sunday (if Christmas is a Sunday, don't count it; count back 4 entire Sundays so that there are 4 Sundays in Advent). This date marks the beginning of Advent. Mark the Season of Christmas: The Vigil of December 25 is the beginning of Christmastide

33 OCTAVES Octaves are 8-day periods of observance, beginning with the Feast day itself. Octaves are 8-day periods of observance, beginning with the Feast day itself. Not all Feasts have "Octaves"; only the most important ones do. Not all Feasts have "Octaves"; only the most important ones do. Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost. Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost. The octave before Christmas Eve is "The Golden Nights." The octave before Christmas Eve is "The Golden Nights."

34 EMBER DAYS The Ember Days are special days (specifically, the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday) set aside by the Church for prayer, fasting, and almsgiving. The Ember Days are special days (specifically, the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday) set aside by the Church for prayer, fasting, and almsgiving. They occur at the beginning of each season of the year. They occur at the beginning of each season of the year. Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after Third Sunday of Advent (Gaudete Sunday) = Advent Embertide Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after Third Sunday of Advent (Gaudete Sunday) = Advent Embertide Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after First Sunday of Lent = Lenten Embertide Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after First Sunday of Lent = Lenten Embertide After Pentecost Sunday = Whit Embertide After Pentecost Sunday = Whit Embertide After the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (14 September). After the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (14 September).

35 FEASTS Feasts fall into one of a few categories, in descending order of precedence: Feasts fall into one of a few categories, in descending order of precedence: 1st Class 1st Class 2nd Class 2nd Class 3rd Class 3rd Class Commemoration Commemoration When two Feasts of the same rank fall on the same day, they are ranked further by whether they relate to When two Feasts of the same rank fall on the same day, they are ranked further by whether they relate to (in descending order of preference): (in descending order of preference): Our Lord Our Lord Our Lady Our Lady the Holy Angels the Holy Angels St. John the Baptist, St. Joseph, St. Peter, St. Paul, the other Apostles St. John the Baptist, St. Joseph, St. Peter, St. Paul, the other Apostles Martyrs Martyrs Other Saints Other Saints

36 HOLY DAYS OF OBLIGATION In addition to each Sunday, Mass attendance is required for Holy Days of Obligation. In addition to each Sunday, Mass attendance is required for Holy Days of Obligation. These Holy Days differ from country to country: These Holy Days differ from country to country: Mary Mother of God – 1 Jan 2010 Mary Mother of God – 1 Jan 2010 Ascension – 13 May (16 May) 2010 Ascension – 13 May (16 May) 2010 Assumption – 15 Aug 2010 Assumption – 15 Aug 2010 All Saints – 1 Nov 2010 All Saints – 1 Nov 2010 Immaculate Conception – 8 Dec 2009/10 Immaculate Conception – 8 Dec 2009/10 Christmas – 25 Dec 2009/10 Christmas – 25 Dec 2009/10

37 CONCLUSION THERE IS LOGIC, AND REASON, AND BEAUTY IN THE LITURGICAL CALENDAR. THERE IS LOGIC, AND REASON, AND BEAUTY IN THE LITURGICAL CALENDAR. IT BRINGS US CLOSER TO GOD IT BRINGS US CLOSER TO GOD Let Jesus be part of your everyday life lived. Let Jesus be part of your everyday life lived.


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