2OVERVIEW PURPOSE OF LITURGICAL CALENDAR Historical perspective CalendarsChosen PeopleChristian similaritiesCycles and SeasonsProper and Common readingsFinding Easter dates and moveable feastsOctaves, Embers, FeastsDays of Obligation
3OBJECTIVES Describe the term “liturgical year” and give a purpose. Name the liturgical seasons and cycles.Understand other “cycles” of the liturgical yearThree year cycle for SundaysTwo year cycle for weekdaysBe familiar with how the date for Easter is determined.Define “ember days” and “octaves”.Be familiar with hierarchy of feast days and holy days of obligation.
4LITURGICAL YEAR“The celebration throughout the year of the mysteries of the Lord’s birth, life, death, and Resurrection in such a way that the entire year becomes a “year of the Lord’s grace”. Thus the great feasts constitute the basic rhythm of the Christian’s life of prayer, with its focal point Easter.”(ccc glossary)
5HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Civilizations have had ways to mark time for centuries.Often tied to cycle of seasons (ie.end of winter or annual flooding) or moon or sun.Regular calendars mark seasons, weeks, days, events of significanceThe Liturgical Calendar does the same but in the context of Christ and his Paschal Mystery“Cycles” (Temporal Seasons) – Advent, Christmas, Easter etc.
6The Christian Liturgical Calendar The focal point is EasterThe “Feast of Feasts”, Solemnity of solemnities”, “sacrament of sacraments”All events surrounding Christ lead to the focal point – the Paschal Mystery.Annunciation, Christmas, Epiphany etc.Mary is also honored as Mother of GodLinked inseparably to her Son
7It has a beginning and will have an end. PERSPECTIVEUnlike pagan religions which see time as an endless cycle,Christians see time as being linear.It has a beginning and will have an end.Pagan calendar
8Within Christianity's linear, "big picture“ sense of time, the passing of hours is experienced as cycles of meditations on holy thingsThink of a spiral –of a circle of time moving ever forward toward His Coming.
9THE CHOSEN PEOPLEGod, in His Wisdom, provided very tangible and memorable ways for the children of Israelto pass on their faith to their children,to ensure the continuation of the Jewish people as a nation,to teach them and others His ways.
10THE CHOSEN PEOPLEThe feasts and holidays which punctuate the Hebrew year provide opportunitiesto celebrate communally,to hear and proclaim God's Word,to relive lessons in Jewish history,to echo messages of hope and consolation through the generations.
11Leviticus 23 lists seven feasts, the main holidays of the Jewish calendar.In addition, there are two other holidays commemorating victories over enemies of the Jews.
12THE CHOSEN PEOPLE Queen of all feasts, the Sabbath, culmination and high point of every week in Jewish households.Each of these holy days has distinctive prayers, songs, foods and activitiesa multi-sensory experienceinvolving all members of the family.
13TRADITION CONTINUESJudaeo-Christians can recognize this same teaching technique in the parables of Jesus and the Sacraments which He initiated.Bread and wine, water and oil, incense and candles, prayers and songsAll rich and integral parts of Catholic liturgy and tradition.
14THE CHRISTIAN CALENDAR The Catholic"liturgical year"is made special by celebrationscommemorating the lives ofJesus and His mother,the angels,and the legion of Saintswho lived their faith.
15Below are 25 Feasts and times, in chronological order, that demonstrate how the liturgical year is a reliving of the life of Christ:Holy Sa He is in the tombEaster He is risenAscension He ascends into HeavenPentecost He sends the Holy GhostTrinity Sun The Most Holy Trinity has beenfully revealedAssumption Mary is assumed into Heaven& crowned QueenChrist the King We recognize Christ's Kingshipnow and foreverAll Saints We will triumph as have ourheroic SaintsAll Souls We pray for those who areawaiting their triumphLast Sun. in Time Apocalypse. He will comeafter Pentecost to judge the world.Advent He is comingNativity He comesCircumcision He follows Old Testament LawEpiphany He reveals Himself as GodHoly Family He grows up in a human familyCandlemas Simeon's prophecySeptuagesima We are in exile without ChristAsh Wed Without Christ, we are dustLent Christ is in the DesertPassion Sun. Jews make plans to kill Jesus7 Sorrows Mary's suffers at what is to comePalm Sun He triumphantly enters JerusalemSpy Wed Jesus is betrayed by JudasMaundy Thu. He offers the first Holy MassGood Friday He is put to death and fulfills Old Testament Law
16THE LIFE OF CHRISTEvery year, aware Catholics "re-live" the Gospel, from Christ's Incarnation and Birth to His Ascension and Heavenly reign.In Spring He enters the world by coming to rest in Mary's immaculate wombNine months later, in Winter, He is born, circumcised, and given a Name.He is raised in the Holy Family, and meets His cousin, John.He goes into the Desert and we go with Him during our Lenten Season.Then follow His Passion and Agony, which are soon vanquished by His Resurrection, His Ascension, and the Pentecost.Now He reigns forever, and we await His Second Coming as we prepare to celebrate again His First Coming.
17like a wheel that's been spinning for two millennia. The cycle begins again,like a wheel that's been spinning for two millennia.
18The Catholic who is aware of this wheel is necessarily aware of Christ THE GOALThe Catholic who is aware of this wheel is necessarily aware of ChristThe Catholic who also celebrates the Feasts well and practices the traditions of the Church lives intimately with Him.
19CYCLES AND SEASONSEACH YEAR HAS TWO CYCLES AND “currently” SIX SEASONSCHRISTMASADVENTCHRISTMASTIDETIME AFTER EPIPHANYEASTERLENT (QUADRAGESMA)EASTERTIDE (PASCHALTIDE)TIME AFTER PENTACOSTEach of the Seasons has an associated mood,its own "feeling in the air,"its own scents and ornaments, associated color (priests' vestments, liturgical art, church decoration)On certain Holy Days within a particular season, that Day's color will take precedence over the season's color.SEASONS HAVE CHANGED OVER TIMESEPTUGESMIA NO LONGER OFFICIAL SEASONOCCURRED JUST PRIOR TO LENTNOW PART OF ORDINARY TIME
20OTHER “CYCLES”Liturgical Years - For Sundays and other special days throughout the church yearThree sets of readings assigned for the day.Assigned to Liturgical Years A, B, and C.Years which are evenly divisible by 3 are assigned year C, such as Liturgical Years start on the first Sunday of Advent of the previous year, so 30 Nov, 2008 started Liturgical Year B.Liturgical Cycles - For weekdays in ordinary time and other special days throughout the church yearTwo sets of readings for the day assigned to Liturgical Cycles I and II.Odd years are assigned cycle I, and even years are assigned cycle II.Liturgical Cycles start on the first Sunday of Advent of the previous year, so 30 Nov, 2008 began Liturgical Cycle I.Sanctoral and Temporal Cycles: fixed and moveable feast days
21Cycle I: The Christmas Cycle Season 1: Advent Begins the Liturgical yearfirst Sunday of Advent to sundown on 24 December. ( calendar days)The word "Advent" comes from the Latin "advenire" or "arrival"Our awaiting the arrival of Christ's birth at Christ's Mass (Christmas) and His Second Coming.Mood is somber, penitential expectation.Its color is violet.
22Cycle I: The Christmas Cycle Season 2: Christmastide Lasts from sundown on 24 December to 13 January. (19 days).Celebration of Christ's Incarnation,Mood is humble, grateful, joyous celebration.Color is white
23Cycle I: The Christmas Cycle Season 3: Time After Epiphany 14 January to the vigil of Septuagesima Sunday ( calendar days)the ninth Sunday before Easter (same as 3 Sundays before Ash Wednesday).Focus is Jesus' manifestation of Himself as God during His public ministry.Color is green
24Cycle 2: The Easter Cycle Season 4: Lent Ash Wednesday to the Saturday before Easter. (46 calendar days)Lent lasts 40 days + the six Sundays, but Sundays aren't counted as "Lent" because Sundays are always about the Resurrection and are joyous.)Called "Quadragesima," meaning "Forty,"Recalls Christ's 40 days in the desert, and the Israelites' wandering in the desert for 40 years.Mood is somberColor is violet.
25Cycle 2: The Easter Cycle "Passiontide” (subset of Lent) Begins Passion Sunday and ends Holy Saturday (the last two weeks of Lent).Crosses and images in churches are covered with violet cloth.Crosses unveiled after Good Friday MassImages unveiled just before Saturday vigil Mass
26The second week of Passiontide is called "Holy Week."The last three days of Holy Week-- i.e., Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and Holy Saturday –are called the Sacred Triduum.
27Cycle 2: The Easter Cycle Season 5: Paschaltide (Eastertide) From Easter Vigil to the day before Trinity Sunday (the Sunday after Pentecost (56 calendar days, not counting Easter Vigil)Contains the two greatest Feasts of the Church - -- Easter Sunday and Pentecost.Mood is joyous and victorious.Color is white or gold.
28Cycle 2: The Easter Cycle Season 6: Time After Pentecost From Trinity Sunday to the day before Advent Sunday.Focus is the Holy Spirit in the Millennium,the Church Age we now live in, and Christ's Reign as King of Kingsthe time between the Age of the Apostles and the Age to Come.Color is green.
29"Overlaid" on this grid of Seasons are two sets of dates: PROPER - COMMON"Overlaid" on this grid of Seasons are two sets of dates:The Proper of Saints(also called the “Sanctoral cycle”)Feast Days which are not movablethey fall on the same date each year.Proper of Seasons(also called the “Temporal cycle”)Sundays and other Feasts of the year, whose dates of celebration depend on the dates of Easter Sunday and Advent Sundayand are, therefore, movablethey change each yearProper (own) refers to the readings used for a certain liturgy assigned to a certain saint or feast.Common refers to the readings normally assigned that particular day assuming there is no designated proper.
30DETERMINING DATES FOR PROPER OF SEASONS Mark the Season of EasterDetermine the date of EasterFirst Sunday after the first full moon on or after March 21(even if the full moon on or after March 21 falls on a Sunday, go to the Sunday after).The Vigil of this Feast marks the beginning of Eastertide
31DETERMINING EASTER Full Moon dates 2009 Month, Date, Day Jan 11 Sun, Feb 9 Mon,Mar 11 Wed,Apr 9 Thu,
32DETERMINING OTHER SEASONS Mark the Season of Advent: Christmas (always December 25), count back 4 Sundays to mark Advent Sunday(if Christmas is a Sunday, don't count it; count back 4 entire Sundays so that there are 4 Sundays in Advent).This date marks the beginning of Advent.Mark the Season of Christmas: The Vigil of December 25 is the beginning of Christmastide
33OCTAVESOctaves are 8-day periods of observance, beginning with the Feast day itself.Not all Feasts have "Octaves"; only the most important ones do.Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost.The octave before Christmas Eve is "The Golden Nights."
34EMBER DAYSThe Ember Days are special days (specifically, the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday) set aside by the Church for prayer, fasting, and almsgiving.They occur at the beginning of each season of the year.Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after Third Sunday of Advent (Gaudete Sunday) = Advent EmbertideWednesday, Friday, and Saturday after First Sunday of Lent = Lenten EmbertideAfter Pentecost Sunday = Whit EmbertideAfter the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (14 September).
35FEASTSFeasts fall into one of a few categories, in descending order of precedence:1st Class2nd Class3rd ClassCommemorationWhen two Feasts of the same rank fall on the same day, they are ranked further by whether they relate to(in descending order of preference):Our LordOur Ladythe Holy AngelsSt. John the Baptist, St. Joseph, St. Peter, St. Paul, the other ApostlesMartyrsOther Saints
36HOLY DAYS OF OBLIGATION In addition to each Sunday, Mass attendance is required for Holy Days of Obligation.These Holy Days differ from country to country:Mary Mother of God – 1 Jan 2010Ascension – 13 May (16 May) 2010Assumption – 15 Aug 2010All Saints – 1 Nov 2010Immaculate Conception – 8 Dec 2009/10Christmas – 25 Dec 2009/10
37CONCLUSIONTHERE IS LOGIC, AND REASON, AND BEAUTY IN THE LITURGICAL CALENDAR.IT BRINGS US CLOSER TO GODLet Jesus be part of your everyday life lived.