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Assessment Tools You Can Use

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Presentation on theme: "Assessment Tools You Can Use"— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment Tools You Can Use
A Practical Guide (Dr. Moses Mutuku)

2 What Should I Assess? Behaviors Skills Activities

3 Why Should I Assess? To know where the child is developmentally
To determine if child is acquiring skills and at what rate To determine if child is lagging in any area To make a referral To plan curriculum

4 Six Methods of Assessment
Developmental checklists Parent interviews Self-portraits Scribbling, drawing, writing samples Audio or video tapes Anecdotal records

5 Developmental Milestones
Four Basic Areas Physical Growth/Motor Development Social/Personal Development Emotional Development/Feelings Cognitive/Language Development

6 1. Developmental Checklists
Helps gauge progress in developmental milestones Complete 3 times a year Use work samples, audio tapes, anecdotal records Quick and easy to use Objective Acts as a guide to plan activities

7 Developmental Checklists (cont)
0 – 12 months 12 – 24 months 24 – 36 months 3-year-olds 4-year-olds 5-year-olds 6- to 8-year-olds

8 Developmental Checklists
“Six Simple Ways to Assess Young Children” Sue Y. Gober Del Thomson Learning ISBN

9 2. Parent Interviews Invaluable tool Parent is expert on their child
Talk without child, plan Regularly scheduled to alleviate stress Always begin positively Focus on strengths and then areas to be accomplished Only substantiated concerns shared

10 3. Self-Portraits Children begin around age 3
Child needs to be able to hold writing utensil Accept any effort Sometimes younger children draw more details than older children Demonstrates body awareness Demonstrates fine motor ability Reflects child’s thinking and knowledge of their world

11 4. Scribbling, Drawing, Writing Samples
Children love to see their work on paper Provide other opportunities for work to be temporary for purposes of practice Collect one sample a month Provide ample materials Use positive feedback versus “praise”: “Wow! You made all the letters in your name; last time you weren’t able to make an ‘M’!”

12 5. Audio or Video Tapes Record child’s talking (language development)
Encourages children to talk Record child retelling a story (cognitive development) Record child talking to another child (social development) Provides speech data Provides language data Provides information on child’s thought processes

13 6. Anecdotal Records Work well alone or with other assessment methods
Short notes describing significant developmental event in major domains: social (how child gets along with others), emotional (how child feels and copes with stress), cognitive (including language), physical (including gross and fine motor) Regularly, all children, all domains

14 Screening for ADHD 18-point screening tool Four choices: Inattention
Never Sometimes Often Always Inattention Hyperactivity Impulsivity

15 Symptoms of Inattention
Does not pay close attention to details, makes mistakes in schoolwork or other activities Difficulty sustaining attention in tasks Does not follow through on instructions and does not finish work Difficulty organizing tasks Avoids or dislikes tasks with sustained mental effort (homework) Loses things necessary for tasks (toys, books) Easily distracted by outside stimuli Forgetful in daily activities

16 Symptoms of Hyperactivity
Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat Leaves seat in classroom or other situations Runs about or climbs too much in situations where inappropriate Difficulty playing quietly Is “on the go” or acts as if “driven by a motor” Talks too much

17 Symptoms of Impulsivity
Blurts out answers before questions are completed Difficulty waiting turn Interrupts to intrudes on others

18 ADHD Degrees, on a continuum Present in all environments
Medication NEVER under age 6 If teacher requests testing, how many other children have they referred? Putting on the Brakes Instruction first Therapy second Medication LAST If it doesn’t work in a week, it’s not likely ADHD

19 Learning Disability Checklist for Behaviors
Often hyperactive Rarely completes tasks in allotted time Often acts out in class and doesn’t follow routines and rules Can be moody and impulsive Disorganized Rarely thinks before acting Does not get along well with peers Decision making skills are weak Late or absent Easily frustrated

20 Learning Disability Checklist for Social Skills
Difficulty establishing friends or younger friends Rarely accepted by peers Argues with peers Doesn’t accept responsibility well Avoids peer contact or often ridiculed or involved with ridiculing Demands instant gratification Seeks attention Doesn’t follow rules or routines Prone to tantrums

21 Learning Disability Characteristics
Doesn’t make connections in similar learning concepts (may know that = 8; doesn’t know = 8) Difficulty comparing, classifying, sorting to one specific criteria Difficulty with time concepts, before, after, tomorrow, last week Creativity and imagination limited Slow to respond Comments are off track Difficulty thinking in logical and sequential manner Difficulty with number concepts Requires lots of clarification

22 Learning Disabilities Visual Deficits
Letter reversals: b for d, p for q Letter and/or number inversions: M for w, p for b Finds reasons not to read (tired) Complains that eyes hurt Doesn’t copy correctly Re-reads or skips lines Loses spot where reading Makes sequencing errors: say on for no, saw for was Erase often Not enough space between words and letters run into each other Letters hard to determine Difficulty cutting, gluing, holding pencils properly

23 Learning Disabilities Memory Deficits
Often doesn’t remember what was seen, heard, or shown Difficulty remembering sequences in directions or instructions Often forgets pronunciation of frequently-used words, spelling weak Sight vocabulary weak, reading slow to develop Difficulty memorizing Often appears forgetful Expressive and receptive language is weak Rarely uses appropriate nouns, refers to “that thing” or “you know” Often repeats same errors

24 Learning Disability Websites
Enter “learning disability screening children”

25 Screening for Autism Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, April 2001 23 items 6 critical questions NOT designed to be scored by person taking it Contact child’s physician

26 Autism Critical Questions
Is child interested in other children? Does child use index finger to point, to ask for things? Does child imitate you (make face)? Does child bring things to show you? Does child respond to their name when you call them? If you point across the room, do they look at what you are pointing to?

27 Autistic-like Behaviors
Repetitive, meaningless object manipulation (turn wheels, drop toy repetitively), inappropriate object play Sensitivity to touch (overly, under) Sensitivity to sound (overly, under) Sensitivity to movement (overly, under) Sensitivity to sight (overly, under) Sensitivity to smells (overly, under)

28 Screening for Depression
Young children, 1 in 3 temporary Girls and boys equal until puberty History significant, individual and familial Do not ignore

29 Symptoms of Depression
Bored Irritable, angry, hostile Difficulty with relationships Frequent absences, poor performance at school Frequent vague, nonspecific physical complaints (headache, stomachache, tired) Lack of interest in playing with friends Talks about running away from home Outbursts of shouting, complaining, unexplained irritability, or crying Sleep disorders (too much, too little) Activity (too much, too little) Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt Death or suicide talk (TIME TO REFER!!!)

30 Other Screening Tools Denver Developmental Screening-II
ESI (Early Screening Inventory, Meisels & Wiske) Ages and Stages (assessment) Brigance

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